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First posted on December 10th 2004, last revised on October 28th 2009

History of the Territory of the Modern Province of Gansu

The territory of modern Gansu did not belong to the Xia Dynasty (1989-1558), Shang Dynasty (1556-1046 BC) and Zhou Dynasty (1046-221 BC). Qin (221-206) was the first Chinese state to expand along the Silk Road; during Qin construction of the Great Wall of China was begun, continued under Western Han (221 BC - 8 AD), Xin 8-22 AD and Eastern Han 25-220. Then Gansu was under Cao Wei 220-265, under Western Jin 265-317. Former Liang 314-376, Former Qin 376-384, Later Liang 386-403, then split between Western Liang 400-421, Northern Liang 398-439 and Southern Liang 397-414. From 284 to 670, southern parts of Gansu belonged to Tuyuhun. From c.420 to 581, northern Gansu was under the Northern Dynasties until Sui (581-618) again reunited China. Sui was followed by Tang (618-846), then under Gansu (state) 848-1036 then Western Xia 1038-1227, followed by Yuan (1234-1368), Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911), the Republic of China (1911-1949). Since 1949 Gansu forms part of the People's Republic of China.

History of the Gansu as a Chinese Province

Under the Han Dynasty, the territory of Gansu was under the Liang province, under Western Jin nothern Gansu under Liang, southern Gansu under Qin province. Under Sui, Gansu was under Yong. Under Tang, Gansu wasa part of Long province. Under Yuan, Gansu formed a province by that name 1266-1368. From 1368 to 1667 Shaanxi and Gansu formed one province, called Gansu by some sources, Shaanxi by another. In 1667 Gansu and Shaanxi were separated; from 1667 to 1670 Gansu was called Gongchang. In the late 19th century, Xinjiang, Ningxia Uyghur were regarded part of Gansu.

Timeline : Gansu

Country Profiles from Wikipedia; from China Provinces Project
Links, General Category : Gansu, from Wikipedia
Links, on History Category : History of Gansu, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionary Encyclopedia of China, from Jongo Knows
Historical Maps Modern Northwest China Political, from Albert Herrmann, History and Commercial Atlas of China (1935), posted by huhai.net
Map : Turkic Languages, from Titus
Map : Languages of China, from Titus
Mongolische Karten, from Staatsbibliothek Berlin
Timelines click here
History of the Administrative Divisions of China, Capitals of Subnational Entities of China, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History from Gansu Provincial Government; from Wikipedia
List of Current and Former Capitals of Subnational Entities of China, from Wikipedia; scroll down for Gansu
Encyclopedia Entries Article Kan-Suh, Lan-Chow-Fu, from EB 1911
Article Kansu, Lantschau, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German; posted by Retro Bibliothek
Article Kansu, Kantschou, Kumbum, Kuntschang, Lantschou, Sining, from Meyers Grosses Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, in German, posted by Zeno
Entry Chinese Islamic Republic, from Footnotes to History by James L. Erwin
Ethnography Article Hui, from Wikipedia
The Hui : China's most Loyal Muslims, from CPA Media
20 Years' Study on Northwest National History in the Ming Dynasty, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
Article Rong People, from Wikipedia
Articles Baima, Baoan, Deang, Dongxiang, Tibetan, from Ethnic China
History of Religion Article Islam in China, from Wikipedia
Today's Muslim Population of China, from The Unreached Peoples Prayer Profiles; concise, fact-oriented description
Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lanzhou, Diocese of Pingliang, Diocese of Qinzhou, from GCatholic
Richard G. Wang, Four Steles at the Monastery of Sublime Mystery (Xuanmiao guan) : A Study of Daoism and Society on the Ming Frontier, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.13 pt.2 2000
Bingling monastery, (near) Liujiaxia, Mati monastic cluster, (towards) Lanzhou, Mogao Caves monastery, (towards) Dunhuang, Qianfodong monastery, (near) Matisi, from Monastic Asia
White Cloud Temple (Lanzhou, Gansu), Golden Heaven Temple (Lanzhou, Gansu) , Jade Spring Temple (Tianshui, Gansu) , Mt. Kongtong Daoist Temple (Pingliang, Gansu), West Cloud Temple (Dunhuang, Gansu), Longevity Temple (Linxia, Gansu), from General Presentation of Daoism
History of Regions Prefectures of China, from www.statoids.com
History of Cities History of Lanzhou, from Muztagh; from Columbia Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia
G.R. Abbey, Treaty Ports & Extraterritoriality in 1920es China.
Structures, Institutions History, from Northwest Normal University
Nuclear Reactors in the PR China, by Mao Yongze et al.
History, from Gansu Agricultural University
China's Three Major Space Launch Bases, from China View
History of Gansu Provincial Museum, from China Culture
History of Hong Ya Shan Reservoir, from Gansu Daily
History of Lanzhou Jiaotong University
Structurae : Gansu Province
Specific Topics National Uprising, from Tibetan Government in Exile; on annexation of Amdo/Qinghai territory into Gansu 1953
The Famine of 1959-1961 in China, from SACU
The Avoidance System in the Imperial Examination during the Early Qing Period, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
Bibliography Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), keywords Kansu, Gansu (site in German, most titles listed in English; hundreds of entries; publications mostly since 1970)

Lists of Statesmen Provinces and administrative divisions of China, from World Statesmen
China Administrative Divisions, from rulers.org
Population Figures China, historical population statistics by province, from Population Statistics, posted at Univ. Utrecht
Gansu, from UNESCAP Chinadata
City Populations : China - Gansu, from City Population
PRC, Abortions and Live Births by Region, Historical Data, from Johnston's Archive
Gansu, from Database of the Basic Conditions of Family Planning Programme at CIPRC (Text on Demography, 1999)
Document Collections The History of Gansu Province, from World History Archives
Search USC Digital Library for Gansu, Kansu
Archives China Archives Information on the Web, scroll down for Gansu
China Museums, scroll down for Gansu
Coins Search Coin Archives for Kansu
Kansu Coins 1851-1928, from Numismaticon
Others Historic Postcards from Gansu, Lanzhou, from Historical Chinese Postcard Project, 1896-1920
Stephen F. Teiser, The Local and the Canonical: Pictures of the Wheel of Rebirth in Gansu and Sichuan, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.17 pt.1 2004

General Accounts C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), posted on Internet Archive (includes data of 1913); Kansu pp.5-8
Th.J. Cochrane, Survey of the missionary occupation of China (1913), posted on Internet Archive, on Kansu pp.219-226
Special Topics Islam in China, pp.225-231 in : G.S.P. Freeman-Grenville, Historical Atlas of Islam, NY : Continuum (1991) 2003
James S. Olson, An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China, Westport CT : Greenwood 1998 [G]
L.M.J. Schram, The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan Frontier (1954-1961), posted on Internet Archive, also posted by Digital Himalaya
E. Teichman, Travels of a Consular officer in North West China; with original maps of Shensi and Kansu (1921), posted on Internet Archive
M. Cable, The challenge of Central Asia [microform] : a brief survey of Tibet and its borderlands, Mongolia, north-west Kansu, Chinese Turkistan .. (1929), posted on Internet Archive
M. Broomhall, The Chinese empire: a general & missionary survey .. (1907), posted on Internet Archive, on Kansu pp.189-197
W.E. Geil, Eighteen Capitals of China (1911), posted on Internet Archive, Lanchow pp.312-320
N.G. Gee, The educational directory for China; an account of the various schools and colleges connected with Protestant missions (1905), posted on Internet Archive Kansuh pp.46,

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