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First posted on December 17th 2004, last revised on May 11th 2010






The Ryukyu Kingdom was established in the early 15th century. It was tributary both to Ming (later Qing) China, and to the Daimyo of Satsuma. Following the Japanese invasion of 1609, the position of Ryukyu Kingdom as a vassall to both China and Japan was cemented. This situation lasted on until the annexation of Ryukyu by Japan in 1879,

Spelling alternatives : Ryukyu Islands, Lequios, Liquios, Lieou-Kieou, Loo Choo, Luchu

Timeline : Ryukyu Islands

Timeline History of East Asia (more general)
Historical Dictionary East Asia (general)
Biographies : East Asia (general)








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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles from Wikipedia
Ryukyu Islands, from Click Okinawa
Links General
on History Ryukyuan and Okinawan History Links; A Basic Guide to Resources on Okinawan and Ryukyuan History, by David Frost
Organizations Japan Policy Research Institute
Timelines from Okinawa Prefecture
Accounts of History General A Brief History of the Uchinanchu, from OPN-LA
History, from Virtual Okinawa; Okinawa History, from Asia Travelling, from Ryukyu Cultural Archive
Articles Ryukyu Kingdom, History of the Ryukyu Islands, from Wikipedia
Specific Periods Okinawa, the American Years, 1945-1972, by N.E. Sarantakes
Historiography K. Taira, The Battle of Okinawa in Japanese History Books JPRI 1998
J. Yonetani, Peace Wars: The Politics of Presenting the Past in Contemporary Okinawa , JPRI 2000
Historiography
Military
Economy & Finances Hamashita Takeshi, Ryukyu Networks in Maritime Asia, in : Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia 2003
T.R. Howell, Foreclosing A Japanese Hong Kong: Okinawa, 1967-1972 JPRI 2000
Ethnography S. Rabson, Assimilation Policy in Okinawa: Promotion, Resistance, and "Reconstruction" , JPRI 1996
K. Amemiya, Reinventing Population Problems in Okinawa: Emigration as a Tool of American Occupation, JPRI 2002
Religion
Local History History of Naha, from Wikipedia
Institutions Shuri Castle: Centerpiece of Ryukyu Kingdom History, from Japan Update
Article University of the Ryukyus, from Wikipedia
Culture Ryukyu Cultural Archives
Biographies

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Japan, scroll down for Ryukyus; from Rulers (B. Schemmel), on Japan; scroll down for Ryukyus
Population Figures Population by administrative divisions, Japan, from Population Statistics, scroll down for Okinawa prefecture
Documents Historical Newspapers History of Okinawa, from World History Archives
Image Databanks Category : Ryukyu, from Wikimedia Commons
Ryukyu Images, from National Archives of Japan Digital Gallery
Archival Deposits Search ARCHIEVEN.NL
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
Search National Archives (UK)
Note on Ryukyu archive deposits, from Okinawa, the American Years 1945-1972
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties Lew Chew Compact, 1854, posted by George C. Baxley; also pp.692-693 in Treaties and other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1976, GB
Document Collections Archive, from Contemporary Okinawa Website; documents in English posted online (John Michael Purves)
Historical Maps
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Lequios, p.857 in vol.19 of D. Diderot, Encyclopedie, ou, Dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts et des metiers, 1778, in French, GB
Article : Lequios, p.186 in vol.21 of Encyclopedie Methodique , in French, GB
Article : Lieou-Kieou, pp.33-35 in vol.10 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1797, GB
Article : Lieou-Kieou, pp.198-200 in vol.13 of Encyclopaedia Perthensis, 1816, GB
Article : Loo-Choo, or Lieou-Kieou, or Lew-Chew, p.75 in vol.8 of Encyclopaedia Americana, 1831, GB
Okinawa, Liukiu, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Article Luchu Archipelago, from EB 1911
Article
Religious
Economic Article Riu Kiu, from Cyclopedia of Political Economy, Political Science and Political History of the United States (J.J. Lalor 1899)
Geographical Article : Loochoo Islands, p.421 in J. Morse, A New Universal Gazetteer : or Geographical Dictionary, 1823, GB
Archipelago of Loo Choo, pp.61-65 in C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1829, GB
Article : Loo-Choo, p.98 in vol.4 of G.N. Wright, A New and Comprehensive Gazetteer, 1837, GB
Article : Loo-Koo, p.456 in R. Brookes, The London General Gazetteer; or, Compendious Geographical Dictionary, 1838, GB
Historical
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues B. Hall, Voyage to Corea, and the island of Loo-Choo, 1820, GB
B. Hall, Voyage to Loo-Choo, and other places in the eastern seas in the year 1816, 1826, GB
P. Parker, Journal of an expedition from Sincapore to Japan: with a visit to Loo-Choo , 1838, GB
Institutions Archives UNESCO Archives Portal : State and Regional Archives, Asia-Pacific Japan, lists Okinawa Prefectural Archive
Musea
Monuments
Libraries Libraries in Japan, from LibDex (University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa Int'l University)
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of the Lu Chu Kingdom, from FOTW
Coins Ryukyu Islands Coin 1862, from Chinese Coinage Website posted by Vladimir Belyaev
Japanese Coins - Ryukyu Islands, from Chinese Coin Images psted by John Ferguson

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database for Deli
Search RHS Bibliography for Deli
UK National Archive Online Library
Online Libraries Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
Online Journals Guides Electronic Journals Online
General Accounts George H. Kerr, Okinawa, The History of an Island People, Tokyo : Tuttle (1958) 2000, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 952.29 K41o
Yearbook Entries Article : Ryukyu Islands, in : Americana Annual 1947 p.625 (on events of 1946) [G]