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First posted on December 4th 2004, last revised on October 27th 2009

History of the Territory of the Modern Province of Sichuan

The territory of modern Sichuan (including Chongqing) may be divided in three sections : Western Sichuan (historically part of Kham), the northwestern Red Basin (center Chengdu) and the southeastern Red Basin (center Chongqing). Parts of Kham only relatively recently were included in Sichuan, and for the larger part of its history were part of Tibet.
At the time of the early Chinese civilizations (Xia Dynasty 1989-1558 BC, Shang Dynasty (1556-1046) the territory of Sichuan lay outside their sphere. During the Zhou Dynasty (1046-221), the Sinification of Sichuan began. During the Spring and Autumn Period (770-403) the Red Basin was divided in the entities of the Shu (W) and Ba (E). By c.300, Shu and Ba were conquered by Qin (-206), which was followed by Western Han (206 BC - 8 AD), Xin 8-22 and Eastern Han (25-220). From 222-263, the Red Basin formed the political entity of Shu Han, was conquered in 263 by Cao Wei, which in 265 fell to Western Jin (265-304). During the period of the Sixteen Barbarian States 318-420, the Red Basin saw frequent political change : independence (entity of Cheng Han 304-347) was followed by the conquest by Eastern Jin until the Red Basin was wrested away from the latter by Former Qin, only to be retaken by Eastern Jin. During the Southern and Northern Dynasties, the Red Basin belonged to the former from 420 until 550, when it was conquered by the latter (-581). The Sui Dynasty (581-618) reunited China; it was followed by Tang (618-907), Former Shu (907-925), Later Tang (925-934), Later Shu (934-965), Northern Song (965-1127) and Southern Song (1127-1253), when the Red Basin was conquered by Yuan (1253-1368). The subsequent Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 established Sichuan as a province, a status it retained under the Qing Dynasty 1644-1911. From 1911 to 1949 Sichuan belonged to the Republic of China. From 1928 to 1937 under the Nanjing administration, from 1937 to 1945 the seat of the Republican government (Chongqing). Since 1949 to the People's Republic of China.

History of the Sichuan as a Chinese Province

Sichuan refers to Sichuan without Kham.
Under the Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD) Sichuan formed the Yi province. Under Western Jin Shandong was divided in the Yi (central S.) and Han (eastern S.) provinces. Under the Sui Dynasty, Sichuan made up Liangzhou province. Under Tang, Sichuan was divided in Jiannan (SW) and Shannan (NE) provinces. Under Northern Song, Sichuan was divided in Chengdufu, Kuizhou and Zizhou, under Southern Song in Chengdufu, Kuizhou, Lizhou (east and west) and Tongchuanfu. Under Yuan it formed the Chengdu province. Under the Ming Dynasty, the (modern) province of Sichuan (without Kham) was established. In 1955, Tibetan territory (Kham, Xikang Province, Garze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture) was annexed into Sichuan. In 1997, Chongqing Municipality was split off.

Timeline : Sichuan

Students' Papes : Park, HyoSong : Premodern Chinese Food. Chinese Culinary History before the Republic of China (2008)

Country Profiles from Wikipedia
Links, General Category : Sichuan, from Wikipedia
Sichuan Info, from Sichuan Provincial People's Government
Links, on History Category : History of Sichuan, from Wikipedia
Seminar Reports, Article Abstracts, from Center for Bashu Cultural Studies, Suchuan Normal University
Organizations Center for Bashu Cultural Studies, Sichuan Normal University
Historical Dictionary Encyclopedia of China, from Jongo Knows
Historical Maps The Chinese Republic with Tibet, Mongolia, Racial etc., from Albert Herrmann, History and Commercial Atlas of China (1935), posted by huhai.net
Map : Languages of China, from Titus
Timelines click here
History of the Administrative Divisions of China, Capitals of Subnational Entities of China, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History from 4panda.com; from Wikipedia
List of Current and Former Capitals of Subnational Entities of China, from Wikipedia; scroll down for Sichuan
Historical Geographical Characteristics, from Sichuan Provincial People's Government
Encyclopedia Entries Article Ch'ungk'ing, from EB 1911
Article Setschuan, Tschingtu, Tschungking, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek
Articles Sz'tschwan, Tschöngtu, Tschungking, from Meyers Grosses Konversationslexikon 1902-1905, in German, posted by Zeno
Politics Concentration Camps Today : Szechwan, from ATTAC
Economic History Ancient Tea-Horse Road, from TuoCha Tea
Yuan Fuquan, The "Ancient Tea and Horse Caravan Road", the "Silk Road of Southwest China", in : Silk Road Newsletter 2004
China's Ancient Tea-Horse-Road in Historical Perspective, from CPA Media
Alfred W. McCoy, Opium History 1850-1940 (Sichuan Opium)
A Study of Land Tax Imposition in Local Prefectures and Counties in Sichuan of Ming Dynasty, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
The Southwestern Silk Road in the Jin Dynasties, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
Long History, Immortal Monument, from Luzhou Liquor Industry
Museum, from Sichuan Quanxing Distillery
The Ancient Salt Industry of the Sichuan Basin in Comparative Perspective, Workshop Tübingen 2006
Historically Lucrative Sichuan Brocade, from Women of China
Ethnography The Placename of Immigration in Sichuan and Huguang People Migrate into Sichuan, summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
to the "Women's Country , summary of Chinese language article posted on Shvoong
Ethnic Minorities Development Plan. Central Sichuan Roads Development Project in the PRC, Sichuan Provincial Communications Dept. 2005
Sichuan, from CPIRC
Ethnic Composition and Distribution in 2007, from Sichuan Provincial People's Government
Articles Bai, Baima, Gelao, Moso, Pumi, Qiang, Sani, Tibetan, Tujia, Yi, from Ethnic China
Chung Yoon Ngan, The Arrival of the Hakkas in Sichuan
History of Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : China, posted by Kirken i Norge
Metropolitan Archdiocese of Chongqing, Diocese of Chengdu, Diocese of Jiading, Diocese of Kangding, Apostolic Prefecture of Lizhou, Diocese of Ningyuan, Diocese of Shunqing, Diocese of Suifu, Diocese of Wanxian, from GCatholic
List of Buddhist Temples : China : Sichuan, from Wikipedia
Baoguang Si monastery, (in) Chengdu, Baoding Shan monastery, (towards) Longgang, Chongqing, Kwanyin monastery, (near) Longgang, Chongqing, Luohan Si monastery, (in) Chongqing, from Monastic Asia
Huangcheng Mosque, Sichuan, from China Culture
Daoist Temples in Sichuan : Black Sheep Temple, Daoist Temple of the Venerable Sovereign's Cave, Eternal Dao Temple on Mt. Qingcheng (Dujiangyan, Sichuan), Temple of Accumulated Blessings (Dujiangyan, Sichuan), Temple of the Highest Clarity (Dujiangyan, Sichuan), Mt. Heming Daoist Temple (Dayi County, Sichuan), Cloud Platform Temple (Santai County, Sichuan), from General Presentation of Daoism
History of Regions Prefectures of China, from www.statoids.com
Article Kham, Garze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Xikang, Chongqing Municipality, from Wikipedia
History of Cities Article Chongqing, from Wikipedia; from Paul Noll; from Oriental Travel; from Johomaps
Article Chengdu, from Wikipedia; from Asia Travelling; from wcities
Songpan, from Chengdu Discovery
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Sichuan Province
Article Sichuan University, Sichuan Agricultural University, Sichuan Normal University, Sichuan Fine Arts Institute, from Wikipedia
Article Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport, from Wikipedia
Bibliography Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), keywords Szechwan, Sichuan (site in German, most titles listed in English; hundreds of entries; publications mostly since 1970)
Seminar Reports, Article Abstracts, from Center for Bashu Cultural Studies, Suchuan Normal University
Others Charles A. Peterson, Corruption Unmasked: Yuan Chen's Investigations in Szechwan, in Asia Major vol.18 pt.1 1973
Service, John S., editor Golden Inches: The China Memoir of Grace Service. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1989.
Anita Chan and Jonathan Unger, Voices from the Protest Movement in Chongqing : Class Accents and Class Tensions 1991
Ancient Culture in Sichuan, from 4panda (on ancient Shu)
Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World : Sichuan Basin Evergreen Broadleaf Forests, Qilian Mountains Conifer Forests, Qilian Mountains Subalpine Meadows, SEAA Web
Treasures from a Lost Civilization : Ancient Chinese Art from Sichuan, exhibition Seattle Art Museum 2001

Lists of Statesmen Provinces and administrative divisions of China, from World Statesmen
China Administrative Divisions, from rulers.org
Population Figures China, historical population statistics by province, from Population Statistics, posted at Univ. Utrecht
Sichuan, from UNESCAP Chinadata
City Populations : China - Sichuan, from City Population
PRC, Abortions and Live Births by Region, Historical Data, from Johnston's Archive
Sichuan, from Database of the Basic Conditions of Family Planning Programme at CIPRC (Text on Demography, 1999)
Consular Reports Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, China, Chungking, Nov. 16 1918, IA
Document Collections The History of Sichuan, from World History Archives
Search USC Digital Library for Szechwan, Sichuan
Archives China Archives Information on the Web, scroll down for Sichuan
China Museums, scroll down for Sichuan
Zigong Salt History Museum, from Travel China Guide
Coins Search Coin Archives for Szechuan
Yunnan and Szechwan Coins, from Numismaticon
Others Historic Postcards from Sichuan, Chengdu, from Historical Chinese Postcard Project, 1896-1920
Stephen F. Teiser, The Local and the Canonical: Pictures of the Wheel of Rebirth in Gansu and Sichuan, in : Asia Major 3rd series vol.17 pt.1 2004

General Accounts History of Szechwan, pp.202-203 in : Article China, from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Macropaedia, 15th edition, Vol.16, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h
James S. Olson, An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China, Westport CT : Greenwood 1998 [G]
E.W. Wallace, The Heart of Sz-Chuan (1903), posted on Internet Archive
O/L/ Kilborn, Our West China mission : being a somewhat extensive summary by the missionaries on the field of work during the first twenty-five years of the Canadian Methodist mission in the province of Szechwan, Western China (1920), posted on Internet Archive
A. Anor, Dawn over Chungking (1941), posted on Internet Archive
C.D. Bruce, The Provinces of China, together with a history of the first year of H.I.M. Hsuan Tung, and an account of the government of China (1910), posted on Internet Archive (includes data of 1913); Szechwan pp.41-50
Edwin John Dingle, Across China on Foot: Life in the Interior and the Reform Movement (1911), posted on Internet Archive on Chung-King, Szechwan
Th.J. Cochrane, Survey of the missionary occupation of China (1913), posted on Internet Archive, on Szechwan pp.182-205
M. Broomhall, The Chinese empire: a general & missionary survey .. (1907), posted on Internet Archive, on Szechwan pp.224-237
Our West China Mission; being a somewhat extensive summary by the missionaries on the field of the work during the first twenty-five years of the Canadian Methodist Mission in the Province of Szechwan, Western China (c.1920), posted on Internet Archive
W.E. Geil, Eighteen Capitals of China (1911), posted on Internet Archive, Chengtu pp.285-311
N.G. Gee, The educational directory for China; an account of the various schools and colleges connected with Protestant missions (1905), posted on Internet Archive Szechuen pp.42, 53-54, 74-75, 87, 108,

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