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Literature on the History of East Africa
Eritrea Somalia
First posted on July 2nd 2002; last revised on November 16th 2013







History of Ethiopia : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE
Da'amat . Aksum . 1137-1270 . 1270-1500 . 1500-1667 . 1667-1815 . 1815-1896 . 1896-1935 . 1935-1941 . 1941-1944 . 1944-1974 . 1974-1991 . Since 1991


Da'amat
In Northwestern Ethiopia, centered around the capital city of Yeha, the Kingdom od Da'amat (Daamatt) thrived from the 5th to the 1st century B.C.
In Da'amat, a script similar to the Himyaritic script of Southern Arabia was used. The population of Da'amat was polytheistic. Da'amat was connected by trade with the Arabian peninsula. The kingdom declined when other trading towns emerged, causing much of Da'amat's trade to bypass the kingdom.

Aksum
Although legend has it that the Kingdom of Aksum (Axum) traces it's origins from the Sabaean Kingdom in Yemen, it is believed that it emerged locally.
It emerged as a Kingdom based on trade in the 2nd century A.D.; Adalis on the Red Sea was an important port city. Under King Ezana, ca. 325, Christianity was introduced, by Frumentius of Tyre. Aksumite christianity is of the monophysite branch, similar to that of the Coptic church in Egypt. Christianity became the dominant religion; the city of Aksum became seat of a Metropolitan (equivalent of an archbishop). There were also Jewish and Buddhist communities. In church ritual, the use of the national language, Ge'ez, was introduced instead of Greek. Coins with christian symbols (crosses) were minted since c. 330 A.D., the Aksumite Coins being the first in the world to regularly display such symbols.
The Kingdom of Aksum expanded by the means of conquest, as Ezana's Inscription of ca. 325 indicates. An Aksumite invasion lead to the collapse of the Kingdom of Meroe (in Sudan). Aksum also established a foothold in southern Arabia, which they lost to the Persians in the later 6th century.
The rapid expansion of Islam had a negative impact on the trading connections of Aksum, which remained christian. In the 10th century, Gudit (Judith), a female Felasha (Ethiopian Jewish) warrior, deposed the king, ending the Solomonian Dynasty, and ruled for ca. 40 years, until she was overthrown in ca. 1030.

Zagwe Dynasty
Felasha (Ethiopian Jewish) warrior Queen Gudit had taken power in Aksum in the late 10th century. Around 1030 she herself was purged from power, and eventually - in 1137 - succeeded by the christian Zagwe Dynasty.
The new dynasty moved the capital to Adafa, (near modern Lalibela), then to Roha (now called Lalibela). The most eminent Zagwe rulers were Yemrahana Krestos (ca. 1189), Lalibela and Na'Akweto La'Ab.
As the succeeding Neosolomonian Dynasty regarded the Zagwe Dynasty as usurpers, our sources on them are often biased. The Zagwe dynasty period is one of those lesser documented in Ethiopian history.
Ca. 1270, an Amharic prince, Yekuno Amlak, succeeded in purging the last Zagwe king and establishing the Neo-Solomonic Dynasty.

Abyssinia, c.1270-1500
Ca. 1270, an Amharic prince, Yekuno Amlak, succeeded in purging the last Zagwe king and establishing the Neo-Solomonian Dynasty. He, and his descendants claim to be direct offsprings of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. The dynasty was explicitly christian and claimed the Ark of the Covenant as their most valued possession. Abyssinia's political center now lay in the Amhara region.
Emperor Amda Siyon (1314-1344) destroyed the Sultanate of Shoa on the east. After expanding for some time, Abyssinia lost territory to the Sultanate of Awdal (which had succeeded Shoa) in the 15th century.
In the 15th century, the Kebra Negast was codified, a law codex largely based on Coptic law.

Abyssinia, 1500-1667
Early in the 16th century, Abyssinia had lost much territory to the expanding Sultanate of Awdal; it's entire existence seemed threatened. Portuguese hopes of finding the legendary kingdom of Prester John, a christian king and possible ally in wars against Islam, were disappointed. A Portuguese expedition headed by Christopher da Gama came to Abyssinia's aid. Portuguese weapons made the difference; Awdal was defeated, it's Sultan Imam Ahmad Gran fell in battle.
Portugal sent missionaries, attempting to have the Ethiopian church to adapt Catholicism. An Ethiopian Catholic church emerged, a minority community. Ethiopian politics was overshadowed by the issue of Orthodoxy versus Catholicism. Under Emperor Fasalidas (1632-1667), the Catholic missionaries were ordered to leave the country.
The country's capital was located at Gondar. Abyssinia was weakened by frequent civil wars, as well as by incursions of the Oromo, a Somali people.

Abyssinia, 1667-1815
During the later 17th and 18th century, the Abyssinian Kingdom with it's capital at Gondar continued to see many struggles for succession to the throne, intrigues as well as Oromo incursions.
In 1769, the Kingdom disintegrated into the principalities of Tigre, Amhara and Shoa (also spelled Shewa, not to be confused with the Muslim Sultanate of the same name). Scot James Bruce travelled the country in 1769-1772 in his attempt to find the source of the Nile.
The partition of Abyssinia into the rivalling principalities of Tigre, Amhara and Shoa continued. Outlying regions of Abyssinia were under control of the OROMO, most of whom meanwhile had turned to Islam.
In 1853-1855, Kassa Hailu, prince of Tigre, defeated the Oromo. He submitted Amhara and Shoa, thus reuniting Abyssinia, and was crowned Emperor Tewodros II. in 1855. In the 1860es a conflict with Britain arose; Tewodros ordered the Britons in Ethiopia to be taken hostage. When British Indian forces stormed his capital, he committed suicide (1868). The kingdom, again partitioned under Tewosros' sons, faced an Egyptian invasion in 1875, which was defeated. In the 1880es, a new threat emerged in the form of the Italians, which established themselves in Eritrea (1882-1890) and in the Mahdists, who began invading Abyssinia in 1887. France, seeking to gain influence in Abyssinia, founded the city of Djibouti in 1888, planned as the end of a railway line connecting it with Addis Abeba, and eventually with Dakar (a plan which was never realized). The French offered the Abyssinians to supply them with weapons, an offer to which the latter willingly responded. Britain, to match French influence at the court in Gondar, encouraged the Ethiopians to claim Harar and the Ogaden.
In 1896 Italy, interpreting a treaty obtained from Abyssinia giving them sovereignty over the country, invaded. They were defeated by the Abyssinians (and their French weapons) in the Battle of Adua. Abyssinian independence was secured for another 4 decades.
It should be noted that Abyssinia was one of only two African countries, which managed to avoid being taken by a colonial power during the Scramble for Africa.


Abyssinia 1896-1935
The Battle of Adowa 1896 had secured Abyssinia's independence. Italy had to lick it's wounds, France was satisfied in having found Ethiopia a grateful customer of French products (arms), Britain focussed on Mahdist Sudan, a missing link in its Cape to Cairo line, and then was preoccupied by the Fashoda Crisis of 1898.
Yet, Ethiopia now was a landlocked country. Strained relations to Italy made the country dependent on France (the capital Addis Ababa was connected to the Djibouti railroad in 1917). In 1906 France, Britain and Italy signed an agreement, in which they recognized the independence and territorial integrity of Abyssinia.
Emperor Menelik II. (1889-1913) introduced a number of reforms, one of them to move the capital to Addia Ababa in the 1890es. Abyssinia expanded to the south and east. Menelik II. tried to keep in good relations with both the French and the British, aware that they both did not desire to colonize his country.
During World War I plenty of German agents were active in Ethiopia. Emperor Lij Yasu gave in to their temptations; he dreamt of establishing a Great African Mussulman Empire, especially of affirming his rule over Ethiopia and the adjacent colony of Eritrea, as well as the adjacent British and French regions. The favours he showed to the Muslims, however, caused a reaction. At a great assembly held in Addis Abeba on Sept. 27th 1916 he was declared deposed, and ZAWDITU, a daughter of Menelik was proclaimed head of state and heir to the throne. A brief war followed, in which Negus Michael suffered a defeat and was taken prisoner at Chembebit (Oct. 27th 1916); LiJ Yasu was defeated at Dessie (Aug. 1917). Zawditu was crowned in February 1917. (Bertarelli 1929 p.566)
Lij Yasu was only 17 years of age when he became ras in 1913, some accounts state that he had converted to Islam; he entered into communication with Sayyid Muhammad, the "Mad Mullah" that caused the British in British Somaliland to be so much troubled. The Abyssinian church functioned prominently in the coup which ousted Lij Yasu in 1916.
The Ras Tafari, the main architect of the deposure of Lij Yasu, was named heir-apparent and regent in August 1917. He created a centralized bureaucracy in 1919, established a system of law courts in 1921, was crowned Emperor in 1930 taking the name Haile Selassie, had a constitution promulgated in 1931 which limited the power of parliament - the Emperor claimed a veto right over parliament's decisions - and declared the country's inhabitants equal before the law. The Ras Tafari strengthened education and the police force and saw that remnants of feudalism were abolished, such as feudal taxation. Slavery was also abolished, hospitals established; the country's first newspapers were published under Ras Tafari's administration.
In 1923, Abyssinia was admitted to the League of Nations; the same year Haile Selassie travelled to Europe, visiting Rome, Paris and London.. Abyssinia signed treaties with Britain (1930), Italy (1928, 1930), France (1930) which were more even-sided than the treaties signed by African dignitaries in the 1880es; Ethiopia had been accepted by international diplomacy as a partner.

Part of Italian East Africa, 1935-1941
In 1935, Italian troops invaded Abyssinia. The League of Nations called on it's members to economically boycott Italy, and many responded, especially France, Italy's most important trading partner. Yet this did not affect the military situation. The Ethiopians put up tough resistance, but were defeated, among others by poison gas used by the Italians. Addis Ababa fell in 1936; Negus Haile Selassie fled to London into exile.
Ethiopia's Ogaden province was merged with the colony of Somalia. Etiopia was to form a province, next to Eritrea and Somalia, of the new colony of Italian East Africa.
In 1940, Mussolini's Italy declared war on France and Britain.

British Administration, 1941-1944
After initial Italian successes - they occupied British Somaliland in 1940 - a British/South African corps took entire Italian East Africa in 1941; Ethiopia found itself under a short British military administration.
Negus Haile Selassie returned, to find out that the British wanted to use the situation for their advantage. Only after tough negotiations were the treaties of 1942 and 1944 signed. Ethiopia retained full independence. Yet the Ogaden remained, for the time being, under British military occupation.

Empire of Ethiopia, 1944-1974
In the Anglo-Ethiopian treaty of 1944, Ethiopia had regained it's full independence. Ethiopia and Liberia, at that time, were the only two independent states with black governments on the entire African continent.
Emperor Haile Selassie was concerned about Ethiopia lacking access to the sea and campaigned for the acquisition of Eritrea. Ethiopia joined the UNITED NATIONS and disoatched a contingent of troops to Korea, when the Korean War broke out.
With international sentiment turning more and more against colonialism, Selassie's Ethiopia was the exception standing out, an African nation perfectly able to rule itself, with a century-old tradition. In 1948/54 the British returned the Ogaden to Ethiopia, despite it's ethnically Somali, Muslim population. In 1952, the United Nations opted to establish a Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Ethiopia never stuck to the autonomy granted to the Eritreans; instruments of Eritrean politics were quickly eliminated (political parties dissolved in 1955, the Eritrean parliament in 1962), Muslims eliminated from public offices. Similarily, Muslim Ogaden was given a christian Amharic administration.
Resistance organizations both in Eritrea and the Ogaden emerged in the 1960es; Somalia openly interfered in the Ogaden region. With most African colonies released into independence, Ethiopia invited the new governments to a conference in Addis Ababa, where the Organization of African Unity (OAU) was founded. Among it's principles was the inviolability of state borders, a principle which favoured the Ethiopian control of both Eritrea and Ogaden.
Meanwhile, Ethiopia's relations with Britain, it's wartime major ally, were strained, and Ethiopia turned to the United States (which looked for military bases in Eritrea) as well as to other countries for financial aid. Ostensibly pro west, it accepted help from Yugoslavia and China as well.
Haile Selassie reformed the church, severing it's ties to the Patriarch of Alexandria. From 1956 on, he himself claimed the right to appoint the Abun, the Metropolit of the Ethiopian Church. In 1955 he signed a new constitution (not debated in the country's parliament) which effected centralization and a strengthening of royal powers. A coup in 1960 failed.
By the late 1960es, now socialist Somalia received considerable financial and military assistance from the Soviet Block, as did, to a lesser extent, the Eritrean EPLF; the Ethiopians lost control of wide sections of the disputed areas. Haile Selassie turned to the United States; the conflict over the Ogaden was integrated into the Cold War.
In 1974 a military coup forced Haile Selassie into exile. At that time, there was widespread dissatisfaction with his rule. Democratic institutions - parliament, the constitution - had been ineffective, hardly having any influence on Ethiopia's political and economic reality. So something new had to emerge.

The Derg, 1974-1991
In 1973 thousands died of famine in some parts of the country. As a consequence of the Oil Crisis and the closure of the Suez Canal, prices, especially for fuel, suddenly increased, causing civil unrest. A group of army officers used the opportunity and seized power in a coup d'etat; some time later Lt. Mengistu Haile Mariam gained control of the military junta called DERG, and he turned Ethiopia into a socialist state. Most of Ethiopia's industries were nationalized, a one-party-state established, agriculture collectivized. The military government continued a centralist policy and continued to fight the Eritrean separatists.
Meanwhile, in the province of Tigray another group of politically discontented took up weapons against the Addis Ababa regime (1976), adding to an already complex situation.
In 1977 factional fights broke out within the Derg, and Mengistu prevailed after a year of 'Red Terror'. The USSR, realizing that Ethiopia was more populous than Somalia and Eritrea, made a turnabout in it's African policy, providing Ethiopia with financial and military support (1977) while dropping Somalia and Eritrea like hot potatoes. The newly trained and equipped Ethiopian army quickly regained ground in Eritrea and the Ogaden, while it took time for their opponents to look for new arms supplies and military advisors. In 1981 it came close to crushing the Eritrean EPLF.
In time it turned out that the Mengistu regime was as oppressive as Haile Selassie. In Ogaden and Eritrea the guerillas regained control of most of the countryside, the better equipped Ethiopian army holding on to key positions such as major cities, supplying them by armed convoys and through the air.
In 1984/85 the country again was struck by a severe famine, thousands dying every week. The crises was all the more severe, as Ethiopia's agriculture was inefficiently administrated and the population growth unchecked. International aid came in. In 1985 the government pursued a policy of villagization, concentrating the population in larger settlements.
The Mengistu regime, harshly criticized for it's human rights abuses, depended heavily of foreign (Soviet bloc) aid. With the disintegration of the Soviet block in 1989, this aid quickly dried up. Ethiopia's government fell apart; a coalition of freedom fighters took over. Eritrea now virtually was independent, the major obstacle to it's international recognition now being the OAU charter.

Since 1991
Over time, the new regime in Addis Abeba regained control. In 1998 a conflict with Eritrea over border regions arose; it escalated into full war in 2000, the Ethiopian army occupying much more than just the contested stretches of land. Ethiopia again faces severe drought, the difference to 1974 being that the country's population has doubled in the meantime. Unchecked population growth is a real problem to deal with, as is AIDS.


Historical Atlas, Ethiopia Page
List of Wars : Ethiopia

Students' Paper : Sung Ji Yun, History of Nutrition in East Africa (2012)
Students' Papers : Kim, Ji Yang, National Historiography of Ethiopia (2010)






WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
Article : Ethiopia, from Wikipedia
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Ethiopia
Country Profile : Ethiopia, from ISS; from IRIN (UN)
Historic J. dos Santos, Ethiopia Oriental (1622), 1891, in Portuguese, IA
G. Peacock, Hand-book of Abyssinia, 1867, GB
J.C. Hotten, Abyssinia and Its People, Or, Life in the Land of Prester John (1868), IA
P. Combe, L'Abyssinie en 1896, le pays, les habitants, la lutte italo-abyssine 1896, in French, Gallica
A. Wylde, Modern Abyssinia, 1902, IA
T.L. Gilmour, Abyssinia, the Ethiopian Railway and the Powers 1906, IA
O.E. Collat, L'Abyssinie actuelle, 1906, in French, IA
Links General from from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford; from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Ethiopia, from Wikipedia
H-Net, Ethiopian Cultural Resources on the Internet
on History Category : History of Ethiopia, from Wikipedia
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Eritrea-Ethiopia : Year in Brief : 2005, from Global Security
Historical Dictionary Encyclopaedia Aethiopica [publisher's announcement; not online]
Article : The Coptic Encyclopedia, from Wikipedia

Organizations Institute of Ethiopian Studies, Addis Ababa University
Ethiopian American Historical and Cultural Society
Ethiopian Philatelic Society
International Conference on Ethiopian Studies (here list), 8th Conference, Addis Ababa 1984, vol.1, 14th Conference, Addis Ababa 2000, vol.3, 16th Conference, Trondheim 2007, vols.1-4, 17th Conference Addis Ababa 2-5 Nov. 2009; 18th Conference Dire Dawa 29 Oct.-2 Nov. 2012
Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage, Ethiopia
Portals Memoria de Africa e do Oriente, in Portuguese
Timelines
Accounts of History General, Modern from Wikipedia
General, Historical Alvarez Francisco, Historiale description de l'Ethiopie contenant vraye relation des terres, & pa? du grand Roi, Empereur & Prete Ian 1558, in French, IA; German ed. 1567, Gallica
H. Ludolf, Nouvelle histoire d'Abissinie ou d'Ethiopie, 1684, in French, GB; reedited 1972, Gallica
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A.H.M. Jones, A History of Abyssinia (1935), IA
M. Russell, Nubia and Abyssinia: comprehending their civil history, antiquies [&c.]. , 1833, GB
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R. Basset, Etudes sur l'histoire d'Ethiopie, 1882, in French, Gallica
L.J. Morie, Histoire de l'Ethiopie (Nubie et Abyssinie) : depuis les temps les plus recules jusqu'a nos jours, 1904, in French, GB
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V. de Soveral, Memoria acerca dos Portuguezes na Abyssinia, 1894, in Portuguese, IA
A. Wion, Why did king Fasil?? kill his brother ?, pre-print, published in Journal of Early Modern History 8 (3-4), 2004, pp.259-293
Historia de Minas, 'Adem-Sagad, rei de Ethiopia (16th c.), trsl. into Portuguese by F.M. Esteves Pereira, 1888, IA
M.J. de Melo, Panorama da Importancia Historica da Etiopia no Mediterraneo Antigo, in Portuguese
Das Reich von Axum, by Boeck (in German)
Aksum, an African Civilization of Late Antiquity, by Stuart Munro-Hay
Civilizations in Africa : Axum, from World Civilizations, by Richard Hooker/WSU
The Kingdom of Aksum in Ethiopia, from Building Information Network, about 1974 excavations
Prelude to Lalibala : the Zagwe Dynasty, by Richard Pankhurst, from Ethiopia Online
The Solomonic Kings of Ethiopia, from Iyassu's Homepage
The Italian departure and the Arrival of the British, by Richard Pankhurst
Historiography M.L. Derat, Censure et Reecriture de l'histoire du Zar'a Ya'ekob (1434-1468) : Analyse des deux versions de la Chronique d'un souverain Ethiopien
D. Morin, Orality in the Chronicle of King Tewodros II, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, ed. by Svein Ege et al., Trondheim 2009
A.M. d'Alos Moner, The Selling of the Negus : The Emperor of Ethiopia in Portuguese and Jesuit Imagination, Scrinium I 2005, Varia Aethiopica
M.J. de Melo, J.M.G. de Souza Neto, O Kebra Nagast e as Representaçoes di Sesmo Africanas Antigas e Afro-Americanas Contemporaneas
C. Clapham, Rewriting Ethiopian History , Annales d'Ethiopie 2002 vol.18 Issue 18 pp.37-54, Persee
Politics General Politics of Ethiopia, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Ethiopia
Governments on the WWW : Ethiopia
The History and Tradition of Judgment and Judgment Writing in Ethiopia, from Ethiopian Law Web
H. Pennec, D. Toubkis, Reflections on the Notions of "Empire" and "Kingdom" in Seventeenth-Century Ethiopia : Royal Power and Local Power, Journal of Early Modern History 8, 3-4 (2004) 229-258
DADM, Ethiopia 1942-present, Ethiopia/Eritrea 1950-1993
A Historical Explanation as to Why Members & Supportes of the TPLF are Ethnocentric, from Ethiopian Computers and Software, detailed history
Foreign Relations F. Alvares, Narrative of the Portuguese embassy to Abyssinia during the years 1520-1527 (1881), IA
Hormuzd Rassam, Narrative of the British Mission to Theodore, King of Abyssinia: With Notices of the Countries (1869), IA
G.H. Portal, An account of the English mission to King Johannis of Abyssinia in 1887 (1887), IA
R.P. Skinner, Abyssinia of to-day : an account of the first mission sent by the American Government to the court of the King of Kings, 1903-1904 (1906), IA
Liben Eabisa, The 1919 Ethiopian Delegation to the U.S., Tadias 2008
A.A. Yusuf, The Anglo-Abyssinian Treaty of 1897 and the Somali-Ethiopian Dispute
M. de Castanhoso, The Portuguese expedition to Abyssinia in 1541-1543 as narrated by Castanhoso 1902, IA
Vte de Caix de Saint-Aymour, La France en Ethiopie. Histoire des relations de la France avec l'Abyssinie chretienne 1634-1706, 1886, in French, Gallica
L. Eabisa, The 1919 Ethiopian Delegation to the U.S. 2008
The Friends of Ethiopia in America. 1935, IA
B.C. Nalty, Diplomatic Mission To Abyssinia, 1903 1961 (U.S. mission; went through Djibouti)
K.M. Gedamu, Ethiopia and Eritrea : The Quest for Peace and Normalization, thesis Tromsø 2008
R. Robera, Ethio-Eritrean Relations : Problems, thesis Addis Ababa Univ. 2011
Haile Selassie's Post-War Foreign Policy, by Richard Pankhurst; Ethio-American Post-War Relations, by
Military General Wars of Ethiopia, 1800-1999, from ACED
Orders, Decorations and Medals from Ethiopia, posted by Jean Paul le Blanc, from ODM
Article : Military History of Ethiopia, from Wikipedia
I. Hiroki, Changes in the Military System during the Gondar Period (1632-1769): Their Influence on the Decline of the Solomonic Dynasty., Annales d'Ethiopie Annee 2002 Volume 18 Numero 18 pp.215-229, Persee
Harar Military Academy : History
T. Alehegn, Queens, Spies, and Servants: A History of Ethiopian Women in Military Affairs, 2008
Wars pre-19th c.
1800-1930 A.F. Shepherd, The campaign in Abyssinia 1868, GB
T. Holland, Record of the expedition to Abyssinia, vol.1 1870, vol.2 1870, GB
H.M. Hozier, The British expedition to Abyssinia 1869, GB
C.R. Markham, A history of the Abyssinian expedition 1869, GB
The Egyptians in Abyssinia 1875-1876, from Vis Lardica
W.W. Loring, A Confederate Soldier in Egypt [contains chapter on Egyptian Expedition into Abyssinia], 1911, Rice Univ.; 1884 ed. IA
Article : First Italo-Ethiopian War 1895-1896, from Wikipedia
J.W. Jennings, With the Abyssinians in Somaliland 1905, IA
The Battle of Adwa as a Historic Event, by Donald N. Levine; Ethiopia's Decisive Victory ad Adowa, by Greg Blake, from thehistorynet
From British Military Medals : Abyssinian War Medal, 1867
1930-1962 Article : Second Italo-Abyssinian War 1935-1936, from Wikipedia
Article : East African Campaign (World War II) 1940-1941, Italian guerilla war in Ethiopia 1941-1943 from Wikipedia
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Italian Conquest of Ethiopia; Second World War : Ethiopia; Korean War 1950-1953
The Liberation Campaign : Mussolini's 1941 Entry into the European War, by Richard Pankhurst
WW II in Ethiopia Timeline, from World War II Timeline
The 1st South African Light Tank Company : Personal Reminiscences of the Campaign in East Africa, by M. Centner, from South African Military History Society (WW II)
since 1962 Ethiopia/Eritrea Profile, from International Crisis Group
Article : Ethiopian Civil War 1974-1991, from Wikipedia
Article : Ogaden War 1977-1978, from Wikipedia
Article : Ethiopian-Somali Border War 1982, from Wikipedia
Article : Insurgency in Ogaden 1995-2010, from Wikipedia
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Ethiopia : Civil Wars, 1962-1992, Eritrea-Ethiopia War, 1992-1998
CASCON Case SEK : Somalia - Ethiopia - Kenya 1960-1964, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
CASCON Case ETE : Ethiopia-Eritrea 1974-1993, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
CASCON Case OGA : Somalia - Ethiopia (Ogaden) 1977-1988, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
Economy & Finances Entry Ethiopia, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor; Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Ethiopia
Article Economy of Ethiopia, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of Ethiopia, from Wikipedia
National Labour Law Profile : Ethiopia, from ILO
Global Integrity : Ethiopia 2006
History of Coffee in Ethiopia, from Equal Exchange
J.C. Clarke III, A Japanese Scoundrel's Skin Game : Japanese Economic Penetration of Ethiopia and Diplomatic Complications Before the Second Italo-Ethiopian War
Wharton Financial Institutions Center : Ethiopia
A Brief History of Trade and Business in Ethiopia from Ancient to Modern Times, by Richard Pankhurst
Social History Tseday Alehegn, Queens, Spies, and Servants: A History of Ethiopian Women in Military Affairs, Tadias 2008
F. Tolossa, Alienation, A Result and Impact of Western Education on Ethiopian Intellectuals
E. Isaac, Social Structure of the Ethiopian Church
Ethnography Category Languages of Ethiopia, from Wikipedia
Languages of Ethiopia (86), from Ethnologue
Worldwide Refugee Information : Ethiopia, from U.S. Committee for Refugees
Forced Migration Online Research Guide Ethiopia 2004
Ethiopia, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
Ethiopia : Afars, Amhara, Oromo, Somalis, Tigreans, from Minorities at Risk
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Ethiopia
J.M. Flad, A short description of the Falasha and Kamants in Abyssinia, 1866, GB
Article : Ge'ez Language, Amharic Language, from Wikipedia
Abyssinia, pp.688-692 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Abyssinia, pp.1-21 in vol.1A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion General Category : Religion in Ethiopia, from Wikipedia
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, from EOTC, history, doctrines, sacraments, creed
Frumentius of Ethiopia, from the Ecole Glossary; St. Frumentius, from Catholic Online Saints; St. Frumentius, from Saints of the Day; Illustration of St. Frumentius from Patron Saints
Barlaam and Ioasaph, from the Ecole Glossary
Ge'ez Alphabet
Native Ethiopian Saints, webposting by Norman H. Redington; Ethiopian Christianity, webposting by Norman H. Redington
Orthodox A. Devin et al., Abyssinia and its apostle (1867), posted on IA
A.J. Letronne, Materiaux pour l'histoire du Christianisme en Egypte, en Nubie et en Abyssinie contenus dans trois memoires academiques sur des inscriptions grecques Des V. et VI. siecles, 1832, in French, GB
M. Geddes, The church-history of Ethiopia , 1696, GB
Article : Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, from Wikipedia
J.M. Harden, An introduction to Ethiopic Christian Literature, 1926, posted by tertullian.org
Damiano a Goes, Fides, religio moresque Aethiopum sub imperio Preciosi Joannis (quem vulgo Presbyterum Joannum vocant), 1541, in Latin, Gallica
Entry : Ethiopian Prelates, Coptic Encyclopedia vol.3 999a-1003b, posted by Claremont Colleges Digital Library
Jewish J.M. Flad, A short description of the Falasha and Kamants in Abyssinia, 1866, GB
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Ethiopia, from Jewish Virtual Library; Ethiopia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
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J. Halevy, Prieres des Falashas ou Juifs d'Abyssinie 1877, in French, IA
Islam Article : Islam in Ethiopia, from Wikipedia
Catholic Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Ethiopia, from Kirken i Norge
Short History, from Ethiopian Catholic Church
The Indigenous and the Foreign. The Jesuit Presence in 17th Century Ethiopia,
Protestant C.W. Isenberg, Abessinien und die evangelische Mission, 1844, in German, GB
A.T. Geleta, Case Study: Demonization and the Practice of Exorcism in Ethiopian Churches, thesis
History of Regions Category : Provinces of Ethiopia, Subdivisions of Ethiopia, from Wikipedia
Article Provinces of Ethiopia, from Wikipedia
States of Ethiopia, from www.statoids.com
Subprovinces of Ethiopia, from www.statoids.com
Ogadenia History, from Ogaden Youth and Student Union, Secessionist
A. Gascon, Shäwa, Ethiopia's Prussia. Its Expansion, Disappearance and Partition, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, ed. by Svein Ege et al., Trondheim 2009
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Ethiopian Empire : Abyssinia 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, Africa Orientale Italiane, Etiopia 1938-07-08, Imperial State of Ethiopia 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, 1968-07-08, Military Junta of the Derg Government : Provisional Military Administrative Council of Socialist Ethiopia 1978-07-08, People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia 1988-07-08, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
The Spatial Imagination of Oromia : The Ethiopian State and Oromo Transnational Politics. by Bas van Heur, diss. Utrecht 2004
Local History List of Cities in Ethiopia, from Wikipedia
History of Addis Ababa, of Dire Dawa, Gondar, Harar, Lalibela, from Wikipedia
Institutions Ethiopia, from Airline History
Article Imperial Railway Company of Ethiopia, from Wikipedia
List of Universities and Colleges in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa University, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Ethiopia
E. Peroz, Le chemin de fer ethiopien et le port de Djibouti / par le lieutenant-colonel Peroz 1907, Gallica
Culture The Folk Literature of the Galla of Southern Abyssinia, Part 1, Part 2
A. Amare and B. Mikael, The Role of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church in Literature and Art
Y.H. Meskel, History of Ethiopian Theatre pt.1, pt.2, pt.3,
Article : Music of Ethiopia, from Wikipedia
St. George Gallery and Ethiopian Silver Jewelry
K. O'Sullivan, Ethiopian Coptic Crosses in Jewelry Design
V. Santoianni, Il Razionalismo nelle colonie italiane 1928-1943. La "nuova architettura" delle Terre d'Oltremare, in Italian
Ethiopia in the Middle Ages. Literary and Architectural Renaissance, from Iyassu's Homepage
Biographies List of Ethiopians, from Wikipedia
African Women Bibliographic Database
Dictionary of African Christian Biography
Environmental History
Others Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Disaster History by Country : Ethiopia, from Relief Web
R. Pankhurst, The History of Cholera in Ethiopia
Ethiopia, from Crime and Society, A Comparative Crimonology Tour of the World (R. Winslow)
Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Ethiopia
Article Ethiopia at the Olympics, from Wikipedia

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Regnal Chronologies : Eastern Africa, scroll down for Assaw, Dauro, Ethiopia, Harar, Jima, Kaffa, Konta, Shewa
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Ethiopia, from Wikipedia; U.S. Ambassadors to Ethiopia, from NNDB: Chinese Ambassadors to Ethiopia, from PRC MOFA; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Addis Abeba (Äthiopien), from Wikipedia German edition
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : Ethiopia, has incomplete list of U.S. consuls
Lists of Bishops List of Abunas of Ethiopia, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
Population Figures from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
World Life Expectancy : Health Profile : Ethiopia
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1965
Inflation Rates Trading Economics : Ethiopia Inflation Rate, 2006-
Index Mundi, Ethiopia Inflation Rate, since 2000
Election Results from Psephos, since 2005; from IFES Election Guide, since 2000; from African Elections Database
Search IPU Parline for "Ethiopia"
Documents News Pamphlets Histoire de ce qui s'est passe en Ethiopie, Malabar, Brasil et les Indes Orientales: Tiree des lettres escrites es annees 1620 iusques a 1624, in French, GB
Historical Newspapers Haile Selassie, from Time Trail, a number of historical Time Magazine articles on H.S.
History of the Horn of Africa, from World History Archives, scroll down for Ethiopia
Documents Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Ethiopia, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Online Yearbooks International, Abyssinia/Ethiopia Entries P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde; entry : De l'Empire du Prete Ian, in French, 1613, pp.1289-1308, GB; 1614, pp.1287-1306, GB; 1616, pp.1287-1306, GB; 1617, pp.1287-1306, GB; 1621, pp.578-599, GB; 1628, pp.1289-1308, GB; 1630, pp.912-936, GB; 1633, pp.1289-1308, GB; 1659, pp.812-822, GB
Genealogisches Staats-Handbuch : Habesch, vol.65 p.323, 1827, vol.66 pp.373-374, 1835, in German, GB
Genealogisch-historisch-statistischer Almanach : Habesch, vol.1 : 1824 pp.376-377, 1824, vol.3 : 1826 pp.412-413, 1826, vol.8 : 1832 pp.551-552, 1831, vol.9 : 1833 pp.620-621, 1832, vol.10 : 1834 pp.637-638, 1833, vol.11 : 1834 pp.673-674, 1834, vol.12 : 1835 pp.776-777, 1835, vol.13 : 1836 pp.761-762, 1836, vol.16 : 1838/39 pp.718-719, 1839, vol.17 : 1840 pp.879-880, 1840, vol.19 : 1842 pp.902-903, 1842, vol.20 : 1843 pp.902-903, 1843, vol.23 : 1846 pp.753-754, 1846, in German, GB
Statesman's Year-Book, Italy : Abyssinia and Shoa 1890, pp.702-704, IA, 1891, pp.706-708, IA, 1892, pp.715-716, IA, 1894, pp.715-716, IA, 1895, pp.715-716, IA, 1896, pp.715-716, IA, Africa : Central Independent States : Abyssinia and Shoa 1898, pp.316-317, IA, Abyssinia 1899, pp.336-338, IA, 1903, pp.377-380, IA, 1913, pp.591-595, IA, 1919, pp.635-640, IA, 1921, pp.657-662, IA
Yearbook of the United Nations, 1946-2007
Africa : 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007
Staatskalender
Newsreels
Propaganda Films
Films on History/Society Ethiopian Film Initiative
Most Popular Titles, History Titles, Documentaries with country of origin Ethiopia, from IMDb
Documentary Videos Documentaries on Ethiopian Famine, from A24Media
Mohammad Amin, African Calvary, posted on A24Media
Ethiopian Documentary, from Abugida Info, from Ethiopian Video
Ethiopian Documentary Film - Kuchet, from Ethiopian TV
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
View of Addis Abeba, Ethiopia, ca.1920-1940, from USC Digital Library
Northern Ethiopia, a Rich Historic Past, from PBase, photo gallery
Incription from King Ezana, 325 C.E., from Ancient History Sourcebook; Images from Axum, from Images from World History
Axumite Crosses and Coins, from Early Ethiopian Art
Accidental Collections New York State Archives : Gallery : Ethiopia
Universal Collections
Items on Ethiopia
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : Ethiopia
Ethiopia, Ethnic Postcards, Royalty Postcards, Topographic Postcards, from Postcardman (commercial site)
Archival Deposits Ministerio degli Affari Esteri, Arcvhivio Storico Diplomatico
Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo
National Archives, UK
Archivum Secretum Vaticanum
Devlet Arsivleri (Ottoman Archives), Istanbul
Records of the Department of State relating to internal affairs of Ethiopia (Abyssinia), 1910-1929 vol.1, 1962, vol.2, 1962, vol.3, 1962, vol.4, 1962, IA
Search Foreign Relations of the United States for Ethiopia
Manuscritos sobre a Etiopia no Arquivo Distrital de Braga, from The Indigenous and the Foreign. The Jesuit Presence in 17th Century Ethiopia
L. Goldschmidt, Die abessinischen Handschriften der Stadtbibliothek zu Frankfurt am Main (Rüppell'sche Sammlung) 1897, in German, UBFFM
Constitutions W.M. Steen, The Ethiopian Constitution 1936, IA
1994 Constitution, from Civic Webs Virtual Library
Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Ethiopia, from ILO, 19 docs. since 1923
Search Prassi Italiana di Dirito Internazionale, Indice delle leggi e degli altri atti normativi, for Etiopia, 37 entries, in Italian
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections Peace Agreements Digital Collection : Eritrea-Ethiopia, from United States Institute of Peace
Ethiopia, pp.658-682 in vol.7 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1971, GB
Consular Reports Records of the Department of State relating to internal affairs of Ethiopia (Abyssinia), 1910-1929 vol.1, 1962, vol.2, 1962, vol.3, 1962, vol.4, 1962, IA
Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce Abyssinia, 1915 June 14, IA
Affaires d'Ethiopie, 1906 : commerce des armes de la Cote des Somalis 1907, in French, Gallica
Historiography
Document Surveys T.P. Platt, A catalogue of the Ethiopic Biblical manuscripts in the Royal library of Paris, and in the library of the British and foreign Bible society; also some account of those in the Vatican library at Rome, to which are added, Specimens of versions of the New Testament into the modern languages of Abyssinia 1823, IA
Document Collections Information by Country : Ethiopia, from U.S. Commission for Refugees, 10 Reports, 1987-2001
World Digital Library : Books 1-5 of History. Ethiopian Story. Book 8: From the Departure of the Divine Marcus.
W. Raven, Some Early Islamic Texts on the Negus of Abyssinia, Journal of Semitic Studies XXXIII 1988
Records of the Department of State relating to internal affairs of Ethiopia (Abyssinia), 1910-1929 vol.1, 1962, vol.2, 1962, vol.3, 1962, vol.4, 1962, IA
H. Pennec (trsl.), La Correspondence Royale Ethiopico-Europeenne de 1607, Traduite et Reinterprete, in French
Bullarium patronatus Portugalliae regum in ecclesiis Africae, Asiae atque Oceaniae vol.1 : 1171-1600 1868, vol.2 : 1601-1700 1870, GB, search for Abyssinia, Aethiopia
C. Beccari, Rerum aethiopicarum scriptores occidentales inediti a saeculo XVI ad XIX vol.3 1906, vol.4 1906, vol.6 1907, vol.8 1908, IA
Security Council Report, UN Documents for Ethiopia/Eritrea
Ethiopian-Eritrean Conflict Webpage, posts 1 map and 9 documents 1891-1908
Post World War II Agreements with the British, by Richard Pankhurst
Developments of the 1950es and 60es, by Richard Pankhurst
Individual Documents Christian-Ethiopian Perspective Haile Selassie's Appeal to the League of Nations, 1936, from Mt. Holyoke College
Kebra Negast, 1905 edition in Ge'ez, from Library of Ethiopian Texts
Vie de Lalibala, roi d'Ethiopie : texte ethiopien, trsl. into French by J. Perruchon, 1892, Gallica
Les chroniques de Zar'a Ya eqob et de Ba'eda Marayn rois d'Ethiopie de 1434 a 1478, trsl. into French by J. Perruchon, 1893, Gallica
Chronique de Galawdewos (Claudius) roi d'Ethiopie : texte ethiopien, trsl. into French by W.E. Conzelman, 1895, Gallica
Sieur de Rechac, Les estranges evenemens du voyage de Son Altesse, le serenissime prince Zaga-Christ, 1635, in French, Gallica
J. Halevy (trsl.), La guerre de ara-Dengel contre les Falachas, texte ethiopien; extrait des Annales de Sara-Dengel, roi d'Ethiopie (1563-1597); manuscrit de la Bibliotheque Nationale no. 143, fol. 159 ro., col. 2.-fol. 171 vo, col. I 1907, in French, IA
A. Caquot, Les "Chroniques abregees" d'Ethiopie Annales d'Ethiopie Annee 1957 Volume 2 Numero 2 pp.187-192, in French, Persee
W. Maryam, Chronique de Theodoros II roi des rois d'Ethiopie, 1853-1868. D'apr? un MS. original vol.2 1904, in French, IA
Historia de Minas, 'Ademas Sagad, rei de Ethiopia (16th c.), trsl. into Portuguese by F.M. Esteves Pereira, 1888, IA
F.M. Esteves Pereira, Historia dos martyres de Nagran, 1899, in Portuguese, IA
P.M. de Almeida O.S.J., Vida de Takla Haymanot 1899, in Portuguese, Project Gutenberg
Procopius on Axum, from AHS, Accounts of Meroe, Kush and Axum and AHS, Ancient Accounts on Arabia
Barlaam and Iasaph, from OMACL
Muslim Perspective Ahmad ibn Abd al-Qadir Arabfaqih, Futuh Al-Habashah: Or, the Conquest of Abyssinia 1894, IA
Des conquetes faites en Abyssinie au XVIe siecle par l'imam Muhammad Ahmad dit Gragne, French trsl. E Bouillon 1898, Gallica
Portuguese Perspective F. Alvarez, Historia de las Cosas de Ethiopia, 1557 ed., 1561 ed., in Portuguese, BND; Historiale description de l'Ethiopie contenant vraye relation des terres, & pa? du grand Roi, Empereur & Prete Ian French ed. 1558, IA; German ed. 1567, Gallica
Breve relaçao da embaixada que o patriarcha d. Joao Bermudez trouxe do imperador da Ethiopia 1565 ed., 1875 ed., in Portuguese, IA
Dos feitos de D. Christovam da Gama em Ethiopia (1565 ?), by F.M. Esteves Pereira, in Portuguese, 1898, IA
J. dos Santos, Ethiopia Oriental (1622), 1891, in Portuguese, IA
H. Ludolf, Nouvelle histoire d'Abissinie ou d'Ethiopie, 1684, in French, GB; reedited 1972, Gallica
J. Lobo O.S.J., Relation historique d'Abissinie, 1728, in French, GB, Gallica
L. de Urreta, Historia eclesiastica, politica, natural y moral, de los grandes y remotos reynos de la Etiopia, Monarchia del Emperador, llamado Preste Iuan de las Indias : muy util y prouechosa para todos estados, principalmente para predicadores ... / compuesta por ... Luys de Vrreta, de la sagrada Orden de Predicadores ; con tres tablas muy copiosas. 1610, HathiTrust
Other Perspective The Periplus, a document describing Africa's East Coast in the 1st Century B.C., from CCNY
W.E. Ratliff, Follow the leader in the Horn, 1986; A pamphlet about the spread of communism in east Africa in the 1980s.
UN Security Council Resolutions 1998 res. 1177, 1999 res. 1226, 1227, 2000 res. 1297, 1298, 1312, 1320, 2001 res. 1344, 1369, 2002 res. 1398, 1430, 1434, 2003 res. 1466, 1507, 2004 res. 1531, 1560, 2005 res. 1586, 1622, 1640, 2006 res. 1670, 1678, 1681, 1710, 2007 res. 1741, 1767, 2008 res. 1798, 1827
Historical Maps responsible institutions Ethiopian Mapping Authority National Mapping Agencies in Africa
information N. Ayele, On Ethiopia's Legitimate Claim To Its Natural Seashores. Cartographic Images of Border Regimes-1936-1991
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Ethiopia Category : Maps of the History of Ethiopia, from Wikimedia Commons
Atlas of Ethiopia, from Wikimedia Commons
Ethiopia Maps, from PCL, UTexas
David Rumsey Map Collection : Ethiopia
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
Ethiopia, Modern African Linguistic Maps : Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti, Muturzikin; Famiglie linguistiche del Corno d'Africa, Etiopia Magica
Ethiopia 1850, Wikimedia Commons
Atlas historique : Ethiopie 1936
Ethiopia, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 29. Gondar 1891, 29. Gondar 1899, 30. Berbera 1887, 30. Berbera 1888, 30. Berbera 1898, 37. Barderah 1886, 37. Barderah 1888, 37. Barderah 1898, 38. Mouqdicha 1886, 38. Mouqdicha 1888, Gallica
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheet 15 Al Khurtum (1979), sheet 20 Adis Abeba (1978), sheet 21 Djibouti (1968), sheet 24 Nairobi (1968), sheet 25 Mogadiscio (1967) PCL, UTexas
Egypt, Abyssinia c.1880
Abyssinia 1891, Wikipedia
Abyssinia 1895, Heritage Antique Maps, commercial site
Abyssinia 1900, Cosmovisions, scroll down
Maps : Abyssinia 1906, Abyssinia 1922, Abyssinia 1930, Abyssinia 1932, from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
Italian East Africa, Wikimedia Commons
Carta dei possedimenti e zona d'influenza dell'Italia in Africa 1896, Gallica
detail, hindsight/modern Map Italian-Ethiopian War 1896
detail, contemporary Addis Abeba 1912, from American Geographical Society Library, Digital Map Collection
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article Abyssinia, from EB 1902
Articles Abyssinia, Tigre, Amhara, Gondar, Harrar, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Article Abessinien, Tigre, Amhara, Gondar, Harar, Galla, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Pierre d'Avity, Archontologia Cosmica, 1628, Ordo Religiosum Visionis in Aethiopia, Book III pp.78-81
De l'Eglise Meridionale, Abissine ou Aphricaine, pp.53-62 in P. Geslin, La saincte chorographie ou description des lieux o?reside l'Eglise, 1641, in French, GB
Habesh oder Abyssinien, pp.650-658 in vol.2 of C.Fr. Staeudlin, Kirchliche Geographie u. Statistik, 1804, in German, GB
Die Jakobiten in Abyssinien. - Der Katholiken fruchtlose Missions-Versuche, pp.69-72 in H. Zschokke, Darstellung gegenwärtiger Ausbreitung des Christenthums auf dem Erdball , 1819, in German, GB
Affairs of Ethiopia, pp.343-356 in J.M. Neale, A History of the Holy Eastern Church: The Patriarchate of Alexandria, vol.2, 1847, GB
Ethiopie, pp.299-342 in vol.54 of J.P. Migne, Encyclop?ie th?logique, 1863, in French, GB
Article Falashas, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Articles Ethiopia, Abyssinia, Axum, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907
Economic J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Abyssinien oder Habesch, posted by DTBSWS
Political Empire du Grand Negus, pp.485-524 in P. d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties, 1643, in French, GB
Empire du Grand Negus, pp.504-562 in P. d'Avity, Le monde, ou la description g??ale de ses quatre parties vol.2, 1660, in French, GB
Discours de l'Empire du Prete Ian, pp.1229-1243 in P. d'Avity, Nouveau theatre du monde: contenant les estats, empires, royaumes, et principautez, representez par l'ordre et veritable description des pays, moeurs des peuples, forces, 1661, in French, GB
Interets du Grand Negus ou Roy des Abessins, appelle en Europe Prete Jan, pp.247-248 in H. de Rohan, Int??s et maximes des principes et des estats souverains, 1666, in French, GB
Pierre d'Avity, Archontologia Cosmica, 1628, Imperium Abyssinorum sive Prete Iani, Book II pp.225-235
Geographical De l'Abissinie dite Ethiopie, pp.143-148 in P. du Val, La Geographie du temps, 1688, in French, GB
De l'Abissinie, p.172 in N. de Fer, Introduction ?la geographie, 1708, in French, GB
De l'Abissinie, pp.251-252 in N. Bion, L'usage des globes celeste et terrestre, et des spheres 1710, in French, GB
Habesch, pp.231-251 in vol.5 of K. Hammerdoerfer, Europa, Asia, Afrika und Amerika: ein geographisch-historisches Lesebuch, 1787, in German, GB
Habesch, pp.641-645 in J.C. Gatterer, Kurzer Begriff der Geographie, 1789, in German, GB
Habesch, pp.186-188 in vol.2 of F.Chr. Franz, Lehrbuch der Länder- und Völkerkunde, 1790, in German, GB
Habesch - Abyssinien, pp.205-207 in J.A.Chr. Löhr, Geographie : oder, Beschreibung der Länder aller Erdtheile für den frühen Unterricht, 1819, in German, GB
Habessinien, Habesch, Aethiopien, pp.347-420 in vol.21 of A. Chr. Gaspari, Vollständiges Handbuch der neuesten Erdbeschreibung, 1824, in German, GB
Entry : Nubia, Abyssinia, and the Coasts of Beja and Habesh, pp.114-151 in vol.4 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography 1826, GB
Abyssinia, pp.472-485 in vol.2 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1829, GB
Abyssinia, pp.858-860 in vol.2 of S.G. Goodrich, Pictorial geography of the world, 1840, GB
Abyssinia, pp.621-625 in vol.2 of R.Sw. Fisher, The Book of the World, 1851, GB
Abyssinia, pp.891-895 in Th. Prescott, The Volume of the World, 1855, GB
Abyssinia, pp.392-393 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Habesch oder Abyssinien, p.408 in vol.1 of V.F. Klun, Allgemeine Handels-Geographie, 1869, in German, GB
Abyssinia p.319 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Ethnographical Abyssinia, pp.281-288 in J.L. Blake, A view of the world: as exhibited in the manners, costumes ... 1841, GB
Einwohner von Habesch, pp.101-107 in J.C. Reimers, Völkerkunde, oder, Lebensweise, Sitten und Gebräuche der verschiedenen Völker der Erde, 1844, in German, GB
Abyssinie, p.398 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Nilotic Atlantidae, pp.499-506 in R.G. Latham, The natural history of the varieties of man, 1850, GB
The Abyssinians of Tigre and Amhara. The Agows. The Falasha. The Gafat, pp.92-98 in R.G. Latham, Descriptive Ethnology, 1859, GB
Historical Abissinie, pp.19-20 in L. Moreri, Le grand dictionaire historique, 1681, in French, GB
The History of the Ethiopians, pp.251-332 in vol.18 of An universal history: The ancient part, 1748, GB
Histoire des Ethiopiens, pp.432-489 in vol.12 of Histoire Universelle, 1751, GB
The History of Abissinia, or Upper Ethiopia, pp.1-353 in vol.15 of G. Sale, An universal history: from the earliest accounts to the present time, 1760, GB
Other Hans Meyer, Die Eisenbahnen im Tropischen Afrika (The Railroads in Tropical Africa), Leipzig : Duncker & Humblot 1902, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Französisch-Somaliland und Abessinien, pp.156-159
Parliamentary Debates
Travelogues B. Tellez, The travels of the Jesuits in Ethiopia , 1717, GB
J. Lobo O.S.J., A Voyage to Abyssinia, 1789, IA
H. Salt, A voyage to Abyssinia, and travels into the interior of that country, 1816, GB
E. Combes, Voyage en Abyssinie, dans le pays des Galla, de Choa et d'Ifat, 1838, GB
Ch. Johnston, Travels in southern Abyssinia, vol.1 1844, vol.2, 1844, GB
Bruce's travels and adventures in Abyssinia, 1860, GB
H.A. Stern, Wanderings among the Falashas in Abyssinia; together with a description of the country .. (1862), IA
A.E. Brehm, Ergebnisse einer Reise nach Habesch, 1863, in German, GB
H.J. Blanc, The Story of the Captives, a Narrative of the Events of Mr. Rassam's Mission to Abyssinia (1868), IA
W. Winstanley, A Visit to Abyssinia: An Account of Travel in Modern Ethiopia (1881), IA
G.H. Portal, My Mission to Abyssinia (1892), IA
J.Th. Bent, The Sacred City of the Ethiopians: Being a Record of Travel and Research in Abyssinia in 1893 (1896), IA
Travelogues G.J. Afework, Guide du voyageur en Abyssinie, 1908, in French, Gallica
Residence Memoirs Ch.T. Beke, The British Captives in Abysinia (1867), IA
S. Gobat, A. Baird, Journal of Three Years' Residence in Abyssinia (1850), IA
H. Blanc, Narrative of Captivity in Abyssinia with Some Account of the Late Emperor the Late Emperor Theodore, His Country and People (1868), IA
M. Parkyns, Life in Abyssinia: Being notes collected during three years' residence and travels (1853), IA
A. d'Abbadie, Douze ans dans la Haute-Ethiopie (Abyssinie), 1868, in French, GB
D. Sabrijian, Deux ans de sejour en Abyssinie, vols.1-2, 1871, in French, GB
Institutions Archives Ethiopian National Archives and Library Agency
Musea Category : Museums in Ethiopia, from Wikipedia
Museums in Ethiopia, from International Council of African Museums
Monuments Tentative List : Ethiopia, World Heritage List, scroll down for Ethiopia; from UNESCO World Heritage
Ethiopia, from Showcaves; lists several historic mines
Imperial Monuments of Ethiopia, from Imperial Ethiopia
The Lalibala Churches, by Richard Pankhurst
Libraries Ethiopian National Archives and Library Agency
Academic and Research Libraries - Africa, from UNESCO Libraries Portal
Libraries in Ethiopia, from LibDex
State Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from Wikipedia
National Anthem, posted by David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Ethiopia, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Coin Catalog of Ethiopia, from Numismaticon; Ethiopian coins from Collections of Coins, bilingual Russian and English page; from World Coin Gallery; Ethiopia, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Digital Library Numis : Africa; most entries on Ethiopia
Article Aksumitische Muenzen, from Das Grosse Muenzlexikon (The Great Numismatic Lexicon), posted by Verlag Reppa, in German
Ethiopia's Money, from Elgin Coin Club Newsletter, featuring coins issued by Negus Menelik II, 1894-95
Stamps Ethiopia Stamps 1896, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Ethiopia survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
D.E. Miller, T. Maggs, Precolonial Metalworking in Africa, A Bibliography (1998)
National Bibliography of Ethiopia
general bibliographies Bibliography, from Library of Congress Country Studies : Ethiopia
Ethiopia, from The Online Books Page
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Rita Pankhurst, Bibliography of Publications by Richard Pankhurst : (1) Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa
J. Abbink, A Bibliography on Christianity in Ethiopia 2003
Bibliography : Ethiopian Jews, from Jewish Virtual Library
Eritrea-Ethiopia Bibliography, by Mike Metras
serial publications
general bibliographies
Ethiopia entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Äthiopien-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
Ch.12 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Africanarum et Americanarum, pp.263-273, in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Scriptores de rebus Aethiopicis sive Habessinicis, pp.110-134 in vol.3 pt.1 of B.G. Struve/J.G. Meusel, Bibliotheca historica 1787, in Latin, GB
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Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories : Ethiopia
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Thesis Server Addis Ababa University Libraries Electronic Thesis and Dissertations Database
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Annales d'Ethiopie 1955-2005, Persee
Aethiopica. International Journal of Ethiopian and Eritrean Studies 1998-2011
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.17, pp.823-830 Article Eastern Africa : Ethiopia. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.17
Specific Topics L.V. Bertarelli, Guida d'Italia del Touring Club Italiano. Possedimenti e Colonie, Milano 1929 [G]
Haile Selassie, My Life and Ethiopian Progress, Vol.1 : 1892-1937, Chicago : Frontline (1976) 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 963.055 S464m
Chapter 15 : Haile elassie, Emperor of Ethiopia, pp.247-273, 16 : More about Ethiopia, Eritrea and the Somalis, pp.274-284, in : John Gunther, Inside Africa, NY : Harper & Bros. (1953) 1955 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Articles : Adal pp.7-9, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Abyssinia, 1913 p. 953 [G]
Ethiopia, 1944 p.267, 1945 p.268, 1946 pp.293-294, 1947 p.304, 1948 p.287, 1949 pp.247-248, 1950 p.261, 1951 pp.261-262, 1952 p.259, 1953 p.259, 1954 pp.255-256, 1955 pp.305-306, 1956 p.243, 1957 pp.305-306, 1958 p.240, 1959 pp.237-238, 1960 pp.236-237, 1961 p.249, 1962 p.238, 1963 pp.352-353, 1964 pp.349-350, 1965 pp.342-343, 1966 p.289, 1967 pp.331-332, 1968 pp.333-334, 1969 pp.332-333, 1970 p.335, 1971 p.318, 1972 pp.291-292, 1973 p.288, 1974 pp.307-308, 1975 pp.289-290, 1976 pp.335-337, 1977 pp.333-336, 1978 pp.378-380, 1979 pp.372-374, 1980 pp.370-372, 1981 pp.372-374, 1982 pp.371-372, 1983 pp.367-368, 1984 pp.370-372, 1985 pp.464-465, 674, 1986 pp.459-460, 670, 1988 pp.388-389, 592, 1989 pp.388-389, 592, 1990 pp.405-406, 607, 1993 pp.360-361, 604, 1994 pp.358-359, 605, 1995 pp.404, 605 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Abyssinia and Shoa, 1898 pp.316-317 [G]
Abyssinia, 1901 pp.359-361, 1905 pp.387-391, 1910 pp.563-567, 1919 pp.633-640, 1924 pp.645-650, 1925 pp.649-654, 1926 pp.631-636, 1928 pp.637-642, 1929 pp.631-636, 1932 pp.635-641, 1937 pp.667-672, 1943 pp.675-680 [G]
Ethiopia, 1970-1971 pp.884-889, 1975-1976 pp.900-905, 1978-1979 pp.433-439, 1980-1981 pp.434-440, 1983-1984 pp.446-452, 1984-1985 pp.444-449, 1985-1986 pp.446-451, 1987-1988 pp.457-461, 1988-1989 pp.459-463, 1989-1990 pp.462-466, 1990-1991 pp.461-465, 1991-1992 pp.461-465, 1992-1993 pp.530-534, 1993-1994 pp.537-541, 1994-1995 pp.528-531, 1995-1996 pp.526-530, 1996-1997 pp.466-469, 1997-1998 pp.476-479, 1998-1999 pp.521-525, 2000 pp.600-605, 2001 pp.580-585, 2002 pp.605-610, 2003 pp.608-613, 2004 pp.608-613, 2005 pp.607-612 [G]
Americana Annual Abyssinia, 1927 p.2 [G]
Ethiopia, 1928 pp.227-228, 1930 p.287, 1931 pp.292-294, 1932 pp.256-257, 1933 pp.287-288, 1934 pp.226-227, 1935 p.254, 1936 pp.262-266, 1937 pp.258-262, 1938 pp.252-254, 1944 p.250 [G]
Italo-Ethiopian War, 1936 pp.377-381 [G]
Italian East Africa, 1938 p.349, 1939 pp.386-388, 1940 p.399, 1943 pp.392-394 [G]
Ethiopia, 1945 pp.263-264, 1946 pp.266-267, 1947 p.238, 1957 pp.260-261, 1961 p.244, 1962 pp.245-246, 1963 p.227, 1964 pp.224-225, 1965 p.262, 1967 p.263, 1968 p.252, 1969 p.280, 1970 pp.281-282, 1971 p.284, 1972 p.275, 1973 p.281, 1974 pp.79, 234, 1976 pp.71, 239-240, 1989 p.224, 1990 pp.223-224, 1992 pp.229-230, 1993 p.230, 1994 pp.228-229 [G]
Other Article : Abyssinia, in : The International Year Book 1898 pp.1-4, 1899 pp.1-3 [G]
History of Ethiopia, p.17; Ethiopia p.58, in : Year Book and Guide to East Africa 1963 [G]