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Literature on the History of East Africa
Belgian Congo Tanganyika
First posted on September 26th 2007, last revised on November 12th 2013







History of Ruanda-Urundi : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE
For the country's earlier history, see History of Burundi, History of Rwanda, History of German East Africa
1916-1962
For the country's later history, see History of Burundi, History of Rwanda



Ruanda-Urundi 1916-1962
During World War I in 1916 Belgian troops occupied Rwanda and Burundi, hitherto protectorates which formed part of German East Africa. In 1920, Belgium was granted the mandated territory of Ruanda-Urundi. It was annexed as a province into Belgian Congo. The Belgian Congolese administration continued the protectorate status of Ruanda and Burundi. The Belgian Congolese currency was introduced; French became the language of administration.
When the Belgian Congo was released into independence in 1960, Belgium held on to the mandated territory of Ruanda-Urundi for two more years; when independence was granted in 1962, the territory was split into the Republics of Rwanda and Burundi.

Historical Atlas, Rwanda Page








WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern Article : Ruanda-Urundi, from Wikipedia
Historical
Links General
on History
Organizations
Historical Dictionaries East Africa Living Encyclopedia
Rwandapedia
Timelines Rwanda Chronology, from American Radio Works
The World at War : Ruanda-Urundi Timeline 1914-1962
Jim Jones, Timeline of Events in Ruanda and Burundi
Accounts of History Current Article : Ruanda-Urundi, from Wikipedia
Historical Office de l'information et des relations publiques pour le Congo belge et le Ruanda-Urundi, Ruanda-Urundi: Geography and History (1960), posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods The Changing Face of Africa : Rwanda and Burundi, Belgian Rule
Historiography
Politics F. Reyntjens, Chiefs and Burgomasters in Rwanda. The Unfinished Quest for a Bureaucracy 1987
E. Ntakutirama, La Français au Rwanda n.d.
J.J. Carney, From Democratization to Ethnic Revolution: Catholic Politics in Rwanda, 1950-1962, thesis Catholic Univ. of America 2011
Military National Defense and the Canadian Forces, Operation UN Commission for Ruanda-Urundi
Economy & Finances Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Rwanda, Burundi
Office de l'information et des relations publiques pour le Congo belge et le Ruanda-Urundi, Economy vol.1, vol.2; posted by IA
Office de l'information et des relations publiques pour le Congo belge et le Ruanda-Urundi, Commercial information relative to the principal products of the Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi, 1959, IA
S.W. Skinner, The agricultural economy of the Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi 1960 ed., 1962 ed., IA
P.P. Leurquin, Agricultural Change in Ruanda-Urundi, 1945-1960 1963
National Bank of Rwanda, A Brief Survey of Rwanda's Monetary History, partially confused
S. Bizimana, The Burundi Legal System and Research 2007
Social History Office de l'information et des relations publiques pour le Congo belge et le Ruanda-Urundi, Social Achievements (1960), posted by IA
A. Cornet, Punir l'indigene : les infractions speciales au Ruanda-Urundi (1930-1948) , Afrique & Histoire vol.7 2009/1 pp.49-73
D. Singiza, La famine ruzagayura (Rwanda, 1943-1944) causes, consequences et reactions des autorites 2011
C. Dobyns, Colonial Education Policies in Rwanda, Burundi, and Botswana: Sources of Post-Colonial Conflict and Prosperity, 2012
H. Musahara, Perspectives on Cooperatives with Reference to Rwanda, draft 2012
Ethnography J. Nicaise, Applied Anthropology in the Congo and Ruanda-Urundi, Human Organization 19/3 1960
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Rwanda, from Kirken i Norge
Diocese of Bujumbura, from Catholic Hierarchy
Archdiocese of Kigali, from Catholic Hierarchy
A.F. Tarr, Glimpses of Progress in Ruanda-Urundi, The Southern African Division Outlook XXXII 1934, Adventist Archives
by Region J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Belgian-administered Urundi Residency 1920-07-08, Belgian-administered Kingdom of Ruanda 1920-07-08, League of Nations Mandate of Ruanda-Urundi, Province of Belgian Congo 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08
A. Vetter, Die Ergebnisse der neueren Untersuchungen über die Geographie von Ruanda 1906, IA
Rwanda Gateway, Colonial Rwanda
E. Lime, Rwanda : Belgian Colonization
D. Mayersen, "Race" relations in Rwanda: An historical perspective, Wollongong 2010
Burundi : Descent into Chaos or Manageable Crisis ? from writenet, article from 1995, covers history 1850-1966.
Local History History of Kigali, from The African Executive, from Wikipedia,
Institutions
Cultural History
Biographies African Women Bibliographic Database
Dictionary of African Christian Biography
Environmental History
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel, scroll down for Ruanda-Urundi), Colonial Heads of Burundi, from Wikipedia
East Africa Index, from Regnal Chronologies
Statistical Data Population Figures Belgian Delegation, The present state of development of statistics in the Belgian Congo Ruanda-Urundi, 1959, UNECA
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Online Newspapers
Individual Articles The Spectator 22 July 1954, Ruanda-Burundi
The Tablet 30 July 1960, Ruanda and Urundi
Online Yearbooks - Ruanda-Urundi Entries UN Yearbook Collection, 1946-2007
Conditions of Trust Territories in East Africa, UN Yearbook 1950, 1951, 1952, 1954, 1955, Conditions in Indivudual Trust Territories : Ruanda-Urundi, UN Yearbook 1956, Conditions in Trust Territories : Ruanda-Urundi, UN Yearbook 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962
Staatskalender
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Ruanda-Urundi
License Plates, from License Plates around the World, from Francoplaque
Archival Deposits Kingdom of Belgium, Africa Archive
Musee Royale d'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren (B), Archives
African Studies Centre, Leiden : Development plans - Ruanda-Urundi
Truman Library, John F. Melby Papers 1922-1969, General file : Africa - trusteeship - reports on Ruanda-Urundi, 1948-1950
Library of Congress, Benjamin Gerig Papers 2012, see United Nations file
Yale Univ. Library, Archives of the Bishop of Uganda, finding aid by C. Byaruhanga 2007; archdiocese included Ruanda-Urundi
League of Nations Documents and Serial Publications, 1919-1946 Reel Listing, see : Administration of Ruanda Urundi
Laws Conseil d'Etat (Belgium), Chrono, Textes legislatifs et arretes de nature reglementaire, arrets d'annulation de la Cour constitutionnelle, arrets d'annulation du Conseil d'Etat en matiere reglementaire, ainsi que circulaires d'interet general, 1487-today
Treaties
Historiography
Document Surveys
Document Collections Search Hansard for Ruanda-Urundi
UN Jobs, Ruanda-Urundi, links to documents
Individual Documents Belgium, Ministry of African Affairs, A ten year plan for the economic and social development of the Belgian Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi (1952), posted on Internet Archive
UN General Assembly Resolutions, 14th session 1959-1960, No.1459, 5 Dec. 1959, Plans of Political Reforms for the Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi, 15th session 1960-1961, No.1579, 20 Dec 1960, Question of the future of Ruanda-Urundi, Refworld; No.1605 21 Apr. 1961, Question of the future of Ruanda-Urundi, No.1606, 21 Apr. 1961, Land Tenure and Agrarian Reform in Ruanda-Urundi, UN Documents; 16th session, 1961-1962, No.1743, 23 Feb. 1962, No.1744, 23 Feb. 1962, No.1746, 27 June 1962
World Bank, Ruanda, Urundi - Usumbura - Kigali Highway and Port of Usumbura Projects (English), report on a priject, 1957
World Health Assembly, Admission of Ruanda-Urundi 1961
CIA, Central Intelligence Bulletin 28 March 1962, Situation Report : Ruanda-Urundi
Historical Maps collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Ruanda-Urundi U.S. Army Map Service, Ruanda-Urundi Topographic Maps 1:100,000 (1942), PCL UTexas
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Distribution of African Languages, map from Muturzikin
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
Ruanda-Urundi, Modern
Ruanda-Urundi, Contemporary
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary U.S. Army Map Service, Ruanda-Urundi Topographic Maps 1:100,000 (1942), PCL UTexas
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Ruanda, Urundi, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th ed. 1885-1892, in German, Retrobibliothek
Religious
Economic
Geographical
Historical
Parliamentary Debates La Chambre des representants de Belgique, Annales parlementaires 1844/1845-
Senat de Belgique, Annales 1848-
Travelogues
Institutions Archives
Musea Museums in Rwanda, from International Council of African Museums
Museums in Burundi, from International Council of African Museums
National Museum of Rwanda
Monuments
Libraries
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Ruanda-Urundi, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Coins from Nations that no longer exist, from Joel's Coins; scroll down for Ruanda-Urundi
Stamps Catalogue Ruanda Urundi 1924, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer
Colnect Stamp Catalogue : Ruanda-Urundi

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Ruanda-Urundi survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies A selective bibliography of books on subjects related to the Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi published in the U.S.A. from 1940 to 1958 (1958), posted on Internet Archive
specialist bibliographies
serial publications
booksellers
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica; Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek
International Boundary Studies
on Ruanda-Urundi Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Universitätsbibliothek, Sammlungen, click : Kolonialbibliothek
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories : Rwanda
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
General Accounts
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries Learthen Dorsey, Historical Dictionary of Rwanda, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1994 [G]
Ellen K. Eggers, Historical Dictionary of Burundi, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1997 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Belgian Colonial Empire, 1946 pp.116-117, 1950 pp.105-106, 1950 p.103, 1952 p.99, 1953 pp.99-100, 1954 p.98, 1955 p.159, 1956 pp.99-100, 1957 p.158, 1958 p.98 (on events in 1957) [G]
Belgian Overseas Territories, 1959 pp.100-101 [G]
Ruanda-Urundi, 1961 p.609, 1962 p.600-601 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Ruanda and Urundi, 1943 pp.729-731 [G]
Americana Annual Ruanda-Urundi, 1957 p.677, 1961 pp.647-648, 1962 pp.652-653 [G]
Other