Russian Rule

Livonia under Russian Rule, 1848-1880

The city of RIGA expanded; the city walls were demolished in 1858, railway construction began in 1861, in 1869 it had a dockyard for steamship construction. The city's population rapidly expanded, over 100,000 inhabitants in 1867, over 40 % ethnic Germans, about 25 % Russians and about 20 % Livonians (regulations forbidding them to move into the city had become obsolete).
The RITTERSCHAFT stubbornly held on to it's exclusive control of the LANDTAG (diet) and the country's administration; suggestions were made to grant the LITERATI (the better educated citizens) representation on the Landtag were refused.
Latvian and Estonian literature continued to thrive, developing national identity, political awareness and confidence in the peasantry. Estonian and Latvian cultural organizations and publications emerged, ending the monopoly German had as the language of written culture.
In 1849 the Livonian peasantry had gained the right to rent or purchase land; over the next decades, a stratum ow landowning Livonian peasant farmers developed.

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Courland, Livonia and Estonia. Confidential Handbooks No.57, 1919, from the British Foreign Office, posted on the Web by
History of Livonia, from
Tartu History Timeline, from (Dorpat)
Riga, History of, from vest_ang
REFERENCE David G. Kirby, The Baltic World 1772-1993, London : Longman 1995, /font>

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on January 5th 2002, last revised on November 11th 2004

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