1846-1863 1890-1914
Grand Duchy of Posen
Congress Poland, 1863-1890

The Polish National Movement, 1863-1890

Political Organizations

The situation in the various parts of Poland differed considerably. While both in Prussian and Russian Poland the administration tried to Germanify or Russify the Poles, thus alienating all strata of society, Austria in Galicia had granted autonomy to a Polish administration which was dominated by the Polish nobility, which in turn attempted to Polonize the Ruthenian (Ukrainian) population of Eastern Galicia, and was keenly opposed to an extension of the franchise that would threaten the nobility's hold on power.
Political organizations emerged in the various parts of partitioned Poland, reacting to the respective political and social conditions. In Russian Poland, political parties remained illegal until 1905, thus were underground organizations.
A major group were organizations representing the interests of the peasants, Zamoyski's Agrarian Union, founded in 1858 in Warsaw, being the first. In 1873 numerous farmers' associations were founded in the Province of Posen (Poznan), in 1877 a farmers' association was founded in Galicia, by STEFAN STOJALOWSKI.
In 1881 a COUNCIL FOR THE DEFENSE OF WORKERS was founded in Warsaw as the first of a number of (illegal) socialist groups.
In 1887 the LIGA POLSKA was founded in Switzerland.

A Brief History of Poland during the last 200 years, from genpoland , encyclopedic, many maps
The Awakening of the Polish Nation, 1870-1914, ch.11 from Henry Bogdan, From Warsaw to Sofia
REFERENCE Enno Meyer, Grundzüge der Geschichte Polens (Main Features of Polish History), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft 1977
Manfred Hellmann, Daten der Polnischen Geschichte (Dates in Polish History), München : dtv 1985

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on March 17th 2002, last revised on November 11th 2004

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