1863-1890 World War I
Polish National Movement

Russian or Congress Poland, 1890-1914

A.) Domestic Policy

The Russian administration of Russian Poland continued in attempting to suppress political movements of any kind, patriotic as well as socialist, liberal, catholic or anarchist. The policy o RUSSIFICATION was continued.
CZAR NICHOLAS II. in 1896 visited Warsaw; a Russian Polytechnic was opened in Warsaw.
In 1905, after the Russo-Japanese War and the Revolution of 1905, Polish was readmitted as one of the languages of education; RELIGIOUS TOLERATION was provlaimed throughout the entire Russian Empire. Poland was allocated 37 seats in the new DUMA in St. Petersburg. Political parties now were permitted; the PPS (socialists) boycotted the election, which was won by the National Democrats. In 1909 preparations were made to establish a separate Gouvernement Cholm in Galicia, with a Ukrainian population majority, subjected by intense Russification.

B.) The Economy

Industrialization, urbanization and emigration continued.

C.) Foreign Policy, as far as Russian Poland was concerned

When Russian diplomats in 1891 visited Berlin, suggesting to their German counterparts to extend the REINSURANCE TREATY of 1887, they were shown the ZWEIBUND TREATY. The Russians signed an alliance with France instead (1892/1894). This alliance was to last, beyond the Russo-Japanese War of 1904/1905.

D.) Polish Political Organizations

Various attempts to found political parties had been made in the 1880es. Because of state suppression of political activities, Poland's first political party of duration, the PPS (Polish Socialist Party) was founded in Paris in 1892; it had to operate illegally in Russian-Poland, operated a secret printing bureau.
During the RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR, several Polish politicians, among them JOZEF PILSUDSKI (1867-1935) and ROMAN DMOWSKI (1864-1939) established contact with Japanese embassies, suggesting that a Polish volunteer corps would enter the war, fighting on Japan's side. The plan was discussed, but not carried out. After the war, Dmowski focussed his energy on anti-German Polish nationalist agitation, culminating in his 1908 book The Germans, Russia and the Polish Question was printed; a French translation in 1909.
May Day demonstrations in Lodz in 1892 escalated into an anti-Jewish pogrom. After the publication of Theodor Herzl's The Jewish State, Poland's Jews in 1897 established the GENERAL JEWISH WORKERS' FEDERATION IN POLAND, LITHUANIA AND RUSSIA

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A Brief History of Poland during the last 200 years, from genpoland , encyclopedic, many maps
The Awakening of the Polish Nation, 1870-1914, ch.11 from Henry Bogdan, From Warsaw to Sofia
Deutsche Zollgeschichte : Russland, from Deutsche Zollgeschichte, postcards featuring the border between Germany/ German Poland to Russian Poland/Lithuania, commented in German
Biography of Roman Dmowski, from omp
Photo of Roman Dmowski, from Spartacus Schoolnet
Photo of Josef Pilsudski, from Spartacus Schoolnet
DOCUMENTS Images from Chronik 2000 Bilddatenbank : Marie Curie nee Sklodowska, Marie Curie nee Sklodowska
Jan Slomka: The Life of a Polish Peasant, c. 1900, from Modern History Sourcebook
List of Polish statesmen, from World Statesmen by Ben Cahoon
Article Poland, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1911 edition
Catalog of Polish Paper Money : Russian Poland
REFERENCE Enno Meyer, Grundzüge der Geschichte Polens (Main Features of Polish History), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft 1977
Manfred Hellmann, Daten der Polnischen Geschichte (Dates in Polish History), München : dtv 1985
Triloyalism and the National Revival : Russian Poland, pp.36-64 in : R.F. Leslie (ed.), The History of Poland since 1863, Cambridge : UP (1980) 1989 [G]
Algernon Bastard, The Gourmet's Guide to Europe (1903), posted by Gutenberg Library Online, chapter XIV pp.217-226 on Russia

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on March 14th 2002, last revised on October 17th 2007

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