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Congress Poland Galicia
First posted on September 23rd 2010

The Free City of Krakow was not much of a state. However, the city with it's Republican constitution could serve as a haven for Polish patriots and a field to experiment with the new, non-monarchic constitution. The republic extended not far beyond the city limits, her not having been included in any of the partitioned shares rather lay in the fact that none of the partitioning powers avtually wanted this former Polish capital, known as a center of Polish patriotism.
In 1800 Krakow's population had been estimated at 24,000; in 1850 at 50,000 - no comparison with cities such as Vienna, Paris and London, which only a little over a century earlier had shared the fate of being a major nations' capital, not even with newcomers such as Berlin and St. Petersburg. Cracow suffered from the lack of a hinterland, as the partitioning powers were rather interested in disrupting connections between the independent city and the adjacent areas under their sovereignty.
The Free City of Krakow had a constitution written by Prince Adam Czartoryski, a Polish nobleman at that time favoured by Czar Alexander I.; the city had a Senate, headed by a President, and a Representative Assembly, the members of which in part were appointed; the aristocracy had a secure majority. The partitioning powers were represented by residents. The Republic covered an area of 1150 square km and had a total population of 90,000 (c. 1815).
In 1827, the liberal opposition won in strength; the partitioning powers interfered and restricted the Republic's autonomy. Nonetheless the rebellion in Congress Poland in 1830-1831 enjoyed strong support from Krakow. The partitioning powers (Russian Empire, Austria, Prussia) interfered in Krakow, forcing the president to resign (1830); in 1831 Krakow temporarily was occupied by Russian troops. A Residents' Conference in 1833 further limited Cracow's autonomy.
In 1835 the Union of the Polish People (a political organization) was founded in Krakow. In 1836 troops of the partitioning powers again occupied Krakow; the Austrian troops remained until 1841.
In 1846 Krakow again became the focal point of Polish patriots conspiring to organize a rebellion; a rebellion actually erupted in neighbouring Austrian Galicia. Austrian troops again occupied Krakow; Austria annexed the republic; as the Grand Duchy of Krakow it was integrated into the (Austrian) Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria.

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Country Profiles modern Article : Free City of Krakow, from Wikipedia
historical P.A.F.K. Possart, Die Königreiche Schweden und Norwegen, das Kaiserthum Russland, das Königreich Polen und der Freistaat Krakau, 1840, in German, GB
Cracow in 1815 and 1860 addressed to the plenipotentiaries of the European Powers about to Assemble in Congress, 1860, GB
Links on History Category : History of Krakow, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines Timeline : Krakow History, from Explore Krakow
Accounts of History General, Modern History of Cracow (Krakow), from Wikipedia
Dorota Wasik, A short long history of Cracow 1999
General, Historical L. Krolikowski, Memoire historique et politique sur l'etat actuel de la ville libre de Cracovie, 1840, in French, GB
Specific Periods
Military Article : Krakow Uprising (1846), from Wikipedia
Cracow Revolution of 1846, from Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions
Th. Januszewicz, Quelques mots sur l'occupation de Cracovie en 1836 , 1838, in French, GB
Economy & Finances Article : Krakow Zloty, from Wikipedia
Social History
Religion Article : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Krakow, from Wikipedia
Rebecca Weiner, Cracow, from Jewish Virtual History Tour
Institutions Jagiellonian University in Krakow

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Cracow Republic, from World Statesmen
Lists of Bishops Archbishop of Krakow : List of Bishops and Archbishops, from Wikipedia
Population Figures
Documents Historical Newspapers
Newspaper / Magazine Articles On Events in Cracow, 1836, pp.272-277 pp.425-428 Documents on Cracow, 1836, pp.333-338 in The Annual register 1836, GB
Extract from a letter from Cracow, 1836, pp.84-87, Further Aggressions against Cracow, pp.597-598 in vol.3 of The Portfolio, or a collection of State papers, 1836, GB
Annuaire Historique Universel 1837, several Cracovie entries
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Krakow Archives - Jewish Records, from Shtetl Links
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties Cracovie, pp.727-752 in vol.5 of Recueil manuel et pratique de traites, conventions et autres actes, 1849, in French, GB
Acte du Congres de Vienne du 9 juin 1815 : Pologne, from Histoire Empire
Documents on the Annexion of Cracow by Austria 1846, posted by psm-data, scroll down for "Nation without a State"
Document Collections Documents on Cracow, 1836, pp.333-338 in The Annual register 1836, GB
Historical Maps
Encyclopedia Entries
General Cracow, pp.133-134 in vol.8 of Penny cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 1837, GB
Economic J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Krakau, posted by DTBSWS
Der Freistaat Krakau, pp.759-761 in F.W. von Reden, Allgemeine vergleichende Handels- und Gewerbs-Geographie und Statistik, 1844, in German, GB
Geographical Republic of Cracow, pp.672-674 in vol.6 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1828, GB
The Republic of Cracow, pp.120-121 in vol.1 of J. Bell, A system of geography, popular and scientific, 1832, GB
Republic of Cracow, p.343 in A. Balbi, An abridgement of universal geography: modern and ancient, 1835, GB
The Republic of Cracow, pp.141-142 in H. Murray et al., The encyclop©Ądia of geography, 1839, GB
Tour Guides Jozef Krasinski, Guide du voyageur en Pologne et dans la republique de Cracovie, 1820, in French, GB
Travelogues J. Holman, Travels through Russia, Siberia, Poland, Cracow, Austria, Bohemia, Saxony, Prussia, Hanover &c. &c, undertaken in the years 1822, 1823 and 1824, 1834, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Institutions Archives Archiwum Panstwowe w Krakowie
Musea Czartoryski Museum, Krakow
Article : Historical Museum of Krakow, from Wikipedia
Monuments Wawel Royal Castle
Libraries Jagiellonian Library in Krakow
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of Krakow, from FOTW
Coat of Arms, from World Civic Heraldry
The Flags of the Poles and Poland - Part 2 : 1795 to 1926, from Historical Flags of Our Ancestors; scroll down for Free City of Krakow 1815-1846, Grand Duchy of Krakow 1846-1918
Coins Article : Krakow Zloty, from Wikipedia

Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Cracow
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Cracow National Digital Library, Poland
Online Journals full text online
Contents Online
General Accounts Enno Meyer, Grundzüge der Geschichte Polens (Main Features of Polish History),Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft 1977
Manfred Hellmann, Daten der Polnischen Geschichte (Dates in Polish History), München : dtv 1985
Zdzislaw Zygulski, Cracow, an Illustrated History, NY : Hippocrene 2001, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 943.86 Z99c

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