France 1870-1890
Intellectual Life
France 1914-1918
Intellectual Life
France 1890-1914
the Economy
France 1890-1914
Foreign Policy

France 1890-1914 : Intellectual Life

Writer EMILE ZOLA, in his open letter J'ACCUSE, brought the DREYFUS AFFAIR in the open, accused the French military and political leadership of conspiracy; it caused a major change in French policy. Other famous writers included ROMAIN ROLLAND (Nobel prize for Literature, 1915) and MARCEL PROUST (1871-1922; search for lost time, 1913).
French painting style diversified. The period of Impressionism now was over; FAUVISM was the French version of EXPRESSIONISM (TOULOUSE-LAUTREC, PAUL GAUGUIN, HENRI MATISSE). Other stules included NAIVE PAINTINGS (HENRI ROUSSEAU), and ART NOUVEAU (RENE LALIQUE, architect HENRI GUIMARD, Czech exile ALPHONSE MUCHA), a style which focussed on objects and strongly influenced advertising. The period often is referred to as BELLE EPOQUE (beautiful era) or FIN DE SIECLE (end of the century). In the years preceding the war, PABLO PICASSO and GEORGES BRAQUE developed the style of CUBISM.
MAURICE RAVEL (1875-1937), CLAUDE DEBUSSY (1862-1918) were the leading French composers.
In 1895 the LUMIERE BROTHERS showed the first moving picture.

In France, Polish scientist MARIE CURIE (1867-1934) discovered RADIUM, was awarded the Nobel prizes for Physics (1903) and Chemistry. Her Polish origin and sexism prevented her being elected member of the Academie Francaise.

THERESE OF LISIEUX died in 1897 at the age of 25; she had entered a convent at the age of 15. She was canonized in 1925.

Frenchman PIERRE DE COUBERTIN organized the MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES (first held in Athens in 1896, the second games held in PARIS in 1900). In 1903, the TOUR DE FRANCE was staged for the first time, from then on an annual event.

Links : 19th-Century French Literature ( A Globe-Gate Research Library)
Biography of Maurice Ravel, from Honouring Maurice Ravel, Biography of Claude Debussy, from Classical Music Pages
The Fauves : The Wild Beasts of Early 20th Century Art, from The Fauve Page
Biography of Romain Rolland, from Books and Writers
Biography of Marcel Proust, from Books and Writers
Biography of Marie Curie, from X-Ray Technician Schools
Article Therese of Lisieux, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Cubism, from ArtCyclopedia
Biography of Hector Guimard, from Art Nouveau
Alphonse Mucha, from New York Museums
DOCUMENTS Paintings by Henri Matisse, from CGFA
Paintings by Toulouse-Lautrec, from CGFA
Paintings by Paul Gauguin, from CGFA
Paintings by Henri Rousseau, from CGFA
Dragonfly Woman, by Rene Lalique, from NGA
REFERENCE Jean-Marie Mayeur and Madeleine Reberioux, The Third Republic from its Origins to the Great War 1871-1914, (Fr. Or. 1973, Eng. Trsl. 1984), Cambridge UP 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 944.081 M468t
Article : France, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1913 pp.991-1005 (on events of 1912) [G]
Article : France, in : Statesman's Year Book 1895 pp.467-505, 1898 pp.465-504, 1901 pp.533-580, 1905 pp.589-637, 1910 pp.742-781 [G]
Article : France, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1902 pp.253-268 [G]
Article : France, in : International Year Book 1899 pp.331-345, 1900 pp.356-366 [G]
Article : France, in : New International Year Book 1907 pp.280-284, 1908 pp.256-264, 1909 pp.254-264, 1913 pp.259-267 [G]
Algernon Bastard, The Gourmet's Guide to Europe (1903), posted by Gutenberg Library Online, chapters I-II pp.1-79 on France
VIDEOS The Life of Emile Zola, 1937; Madame Curie, 1944

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on January 6th 2002, last revised on October 17th 2007

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