Jülich-Berg, 1666-1742

The TREATY OF KLEVE 1666 finally split the inheritance of Jülich, Berg, Kleve, Mark and Ravensberg among the lines of Pfalz-Neuburg, who inherited JÜLICH-BERG, and BRANDENBURG, the elector of which inherited Kleve-Mark and Ravensberg.
Jülich-Berg consisted of two separate Duchies, Jülich on the west bank of the Rhine with capital Jülich and Berg on the right bank of the Rhine with capital DÜSSELDORF. Since 1658, Jülich-Berg was a member of the RHENIAN CONFEDERATION (a federation of mostly Catholic German principalities leaning on France).
In several treaties, finally in the RECESS OF 1666, the religious matter is settled, as the situation of 1624 was declared as binding - whatever community was Catholic at that time would continue to be so, and whatever community was Lutheran (resp. Calvinist) at that time would remain so. In the HAUPTREZESS of 1675, the authority of the ESTATES of Jülich-Berg was confirmed.
A HOFRAT (court council) had been established early in the 17th century; in 1668 an additional GEHEIMRAT (secret council) was established for Jülich-Berg. Düsseldorf was the Duke's residence 1679-1712; in 1710 here Germany's first GALLERY was opened. Since 1685 Duke Philipp Wilhelm was also Count Palatine (and thus Elector). Duke JOHANN WILHELM built a new capital at Mannheim and officially declared it residence in 1712. Yet he died in Düsseldorf; only his successor KARL PHILIPP moved to Mannheim.
During the FRENCH-DUTCH WAR (1672-1678), the WAR OF DEVOLUTION (1689-1697), the WAR OF SPANISH SUCCESSION (1700-1713) Jülich and Berg often saw foreign (mostly French) troops occupied or passed through. In 1678-1680 French troops ravaged the Duchy of Jülich; from 1695 onward the fortress of Jülich was modernized. In 1741 the city and fortress of Jülich were occupied by French forces.

Dukes of Juelich & Berg
Philipp Wilhelm (1652-1690)
Johann Wilhelm (1690-1716)
Karl Philipp (1716-1742)

Biography of Philipp Wilhelm, of Johann Wilhelm, of Carl Philipp, from Zum
Zeitleiste Jülich im 17. Jahrhundert, im 18. Jahrhundert, (chronology city of Jülich, 17th / 18th c.) from Onlinebibliothek Jülich in German, detailed
DOCUMENTS Image : Fortress Jülich, 18th century, from Zum
Article Herzogthum Jülich, Herzogthum Berg, from Zedlers Universallexikon (1730es), posted by Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, in German, 18th century font
REFERENCE Territorien-Ploetz : Geschichte der Deutschen Länder, Vol.1, Würzburg 1964, pp.170-178
Coins of Jülich-Berg 1601-1700, in Krause, Mishler, Standard Catalog of World Coins : Seventeenth Century 1601-1700, 2nd ed., 2000, pp.538-540
Coins of Jülich-Berg, 1701-1800, in : Krause, Mishler, Standard Catalog of World Coins : Eighteenth Century 1701-1800, 2nd ed., 1997, pp.388-391
Gustav Engel, Politische Geschichte Westfalens (Political History of Westphalia), Köln : Grote 1968

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2001, last revised on November 12th 2004

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