1848-1849 1867-1893

The Bohemian Lands in 1849-1867

The Status of the Bohemian Lands within the German Federation . Together with the Austrian Lands, the Bohemian Lands, represented by the Austrian government, formed part of the German Federation established in 1815.
In 1850, the Olmütz Punctation - an agreement between Austria and Prussia - was signed in Olomouc, Moravia; it resulted in Prussia conceding Austria's continued leadership in the German Federation.
When the Austro-Prussian War/B> (or Seven Weeks War) broke out 1866, Bohemia as usual provided the scenery for the fighting. The decisive Battle of Sadowa (in German : Königgrätz) resulted in a Prussian victory; in the subsequent Treaty of Nikolsburg (Mikulov, Moravia) left the German Federation.

Relations between the ethnic comminities . During the 1848 Revolution the nationalism of Bohemia's (and Moravia's) two ethnicities, the Czechs and the Germans, which so far had had little conflict, pursued similar aims and had cooperated, entered on divergent paths. Bohemia's German patriots strove for the country's integration in a larger German nation state (the Paulskirche Grossdeutschland concept), while the Czechs regarded the lands of the Bohemian crown as essentially Slavic (Czech).

Administration . In the wake of the suppression of the revolutions of 1848, a new period of Viennese patronization of Bohemian politics set in. In 1848 the Viennese ministry of education decreed that elementary school education in Bohemia and Moravia should be conducted in the locally prevalent language, thus German or Czech according to the local population majority. In 1866/1868 the segregation of high schools by language was decreed, further emphasizing the country's division into rival ethnicities. Prague University continued bilingually, though the far majority of classes was held in German.
The October Diploma of 1860 and the February Patent of 1861 provided the constitutional basis for political organizations; the party dominating in Bohemia was F.L. Rieger's Old Czech Party; it boycotted the Vienna Reichstag between 1863 and 1879. Settlement restrictions for Jews in Prague lasted until 1860.

The Economy . Bohemia, Moravia and (Austrian) Silesia were strongly affected by the ongoing industrialization, the most industrialized part of the entire Austrian Empire. In 1848 serfdom was abolished. In 1857 Austria (with it the Bohemian Lands) joined a monetary union with the Zollverein. An 1859 law abolished the guilds and introduced free trade. In 1865 steam navigation on Vltava River began.

Culture . Czech Gymnastic association Sokol founded in Prague in 1862; similar organizations soon sprang up in Czech communities in Bohemia, Moravia and (Austrian) Silesia, and beyond in other Slavic lands.
In 1862 the Deutsches Kasino in Prague was built, soon becoming the center of cultural life of the city's German community.

Article Sokol, from Wikipedia
Gallery (ed.), Geschichte Verstehen, Die Entwicklung der Deutsch-Tschechischen Beziehungen in den Böhmischen Ländern 1848-1948, in German
Timelines Bohemia 1850-1900, from Family Lines CZ
REFERENCE Derek Sayer, The Coasts of Bohemia, A Czech History, Princeton : Univ. Press 1998
A.J.P. Taylor, The Habsburg Monarchy, 1809-1918, Univ. of Chicago Press 1983

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on October 7th 2007

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