1608-1635 1697-1737










Lorraine, 1635-1977



The DUCHY OF LORRAINE, mostly French-speaking, was a part of the HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. Her capital was NANCY. During the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), Lorraine was an ally of the Emperor; in 1635 France entered the war, Lorraine was occupied by French troops from 1634 to 1661, battleground in the Franco-Spanish War (1635-1659) which included the troubles caused by the Fronde. The French reformed the administration of Lorraine, according to the French model, establishing a parliament with seat in Metz (French territory) the responsibility of which extended over Lorraine. In 1648 the three bishoprics of Verdun, Toul and Metz - a French protectorate since 1552 - were formed into the French province of the Three Bishoprics, surrounded by the territory of the Duchy of Lorraine. Duke Charles of Lorraine continued to fight for his Duchy, as a Spanish ally; in 1653 he was arrested by the Spanish who distrusted his loyalty. His successor, Nicholas François, in 1657 switched camps. The Treaty of the Pyrenees 1659 stipulated that Charles regained the Duchy of Lorraine; Lorraine had to cede some territories to France, to provide France with a road connecting her with her new territories in the Alsace.
FRANCE attempted to establish influence over Lorraine; in a 1662 treaty, Duke Charles IV. agreed to recognize Louis XIV.'s right to succeed him as Duke of Lorraine. In 1664/1668, the pope granted Louis XIV. the right to appoint the bishops of Lorraine. The duchy again was occupied by French troops in 1670-1697; Louis XIV. regarded it a secure acquisition. Yet he was involved in the Dutch War of Louis XIV. (1672-1678) and in the War of the Grand Alliance (1689-1697), in the course of which the diplomacy of the anti-French alliance insisted on the reestablishment of the Duchy. According to the Treaty of Rijswijk, LEOPOLD JOSEPH was recognized as Duke of Lorraine (1697; formally, Duke 1690-1729)).



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EXTERNAL
FILES
Histoire de Lorraine, from en-lorraine.com, in French
Histoire de Nancy, from en-lorraine.com, in French
Article Lorraine, from Catholic Encyclopedia
DOCUMENTS List of Dukes of Lorraine, from Kessler History Files (scroll down)
Regnal Chronologies : France, scroll down for Guise and Lorraine
REFERENCE Coins of Lorraine, 1601-1700, in Krause, Mishler, Standard Catalog of World Coins : Seventeenth Century 1601-1700, 2nd ed., 2000, pp.268-270
Yves le Moigne, Das französische Königtum und die Aufteilung des lothringischen Raumes (1608-1697) (The French Kingdom and the Partition of the Region of Lorraine), pp.281-330, in : Michel Parisse (ed.), Lothringen, Geschichte eines Grenzlandes (Lorraine, History of a Border Country), Saarbrücken 1984
Geoffrey Parker, The Army of Flanders and the Spanish Road 1567-1659, Cambridge : UP 1972 [G]



This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on January 3rd 2002, last revised on January 15th 2007

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