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Zweibrücken Nassau
First posted on January 3rd 2002, last revised on February 11th 2010






When Emperor Karl IV. in the Golden Bull of 1356 determined the membership of the Holy Roman Empire's Electoral Council, the Count Palatine was listed as one of the 7 electors. Hence the Count Palatine by the Rhine came to be called Count Elector, his territory Kurpfalz ("Electoral Palatinate").
The Kurpfalz consisted of a number of territoroial stretches located on both banks of the middle Rhine. While the major part of Kurpfalz territory was located on the left bank of the Rhine, its capital - Heidelberg, later Mannheim - was located on the right bank. In the 16th and 17th centuries the Kurpfalz saw repeated change of the official religion - Lutheranism, them Calvinism, then Catholicism - which resulted in repeated emigration waves.
The Kurpfalz suffered greatly from French expansionism in the late 17th and 18th century - the War of the Grand Alliance 1689-1697 also is called the War of Palatinate Succession. In the 18th century, several of the branches of the Wittelsbach Dynasty (one brach ruled the Kurpfalz, another Pfalz-Neuburg, a third Bavaria) extinguished and all three branches were united under one Wittelsbach Dynasty.
In 1795 France annexed the Kurpfalz territories on the left bank of the Rhine. In 1806 the larger part of Kurpfalz territory on the right bank of the river, with Heidelberg and Mannheim, was annexed by Baden.
The Vienna Congress in 1814 created the Bavarian Pfalz, a territory located entirely on the left bank of the Rhine, capital Speyer.



Pfalz 1742-1815 . Holy Roman Empire
Pfalz 1648-1742 . Holy Roman Empire








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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Article : Electoral Palatinate, from Wikipedia
Articles : Kurpfalz, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Kurfürstentum zur Pfalz und bei Rhein, from GenWiki, in German
J.G. Widder, Versuch einer vollständigen geographisch-historischen Beschreibung der Kurfürstl. Pfalz am Rheine, vol.1, 1786, vol.2, 1786, vol.3, 1787, vol.4, 1788, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Links, on History Kategorie : Kurpfalz, from Wikipedia German edition
Zeitgeschichte Online, Clio Online German edition, search for Kurpfalz; German-language search engines
Schwerpunktthema Kurpfalz, from zum, in German
Organizations Kommission für die Geschichte des Landes Rheinland-Pfalz
Landeszentrale für politische Bildung, Rheinland-Pfalz
Atlantische Akademie Rheinland-Pfalz
Museumsverband Rheinland-Pfalz : Museen in Rheinland-Pfalz
Landesarchivverwaltung Rheinland-Pfalz
Institut für Pfälzische Geschichte und Volkskunde
Historischer Verein der Pfalz
Timelines
Accounts of History general Article : Electoral Palatinate, from Wikipedia
Articles : Kurpfalz, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Kurfürstentum zur Pfalz und bei Rhein, from GenWiki, in German
Ludwig Häusser, Geschichte der Rheinischen Pfalz nach ihren politischen, kirchlichen und litterarischen Verhältnissen vol.1, 1856, vol.2, 1856, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods A. von Treskow, Leben des Prinzen Ruprecht von der Pfalz, 1857, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Hans Rott, Friedrich II. von der Pfalz und die Reformation, 1904, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Military Article : Nine Years' War, from Wikipedia
Article : Pfälzischer Erbfolgekrieg, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Dreissigjähriger Krieg : Krieg in der Pfalz, from Encyclopaedia Germanica, in German
Economy
Ethnography
Religion Palatinate, from Jewish Virtual Library
Geschichte der Landeskirche, from Evangelische Kirche der Pfalz, in German
Der Kalvinismus in der Kurpfalz, from Thomas Juelch, Heidelberg und die Kurpfalz, in German
Search GAMEO for Pfalz, Palatinate
Article : Bistum Speyer : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Die Kurpfalz - Asyl für Glaubensflüchtlinge im 16. Jahrhundert, from reformiert-info.de, in German
Richard Lossen, Staat und Kirche in der Pfalz im Ausgang des Mittelalters , 1907, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Diocese of Speyer, from Catholic Hierarchy
Jüdisches Leben in der Eifel und in der Pfalz (Jewish Life in the Eifel and the Pfalz), by Ursula Homann
History of Regions
Local History Articles : Heidelberg, Mannheim, from Wikipedia
Article : Geschichte Heidelbergs, Geschichte Mannheims, from Wikipedia German edition
Thomas Juelch, Heidelberg und die Kurpfalz
Structures, Institutions History of the University, from Heidelberg University
Ruperto Carola : Chronologie, from Heidelberg University, German-language Timeline
Biographies on Germany Elektronische Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
Search BBKL for Pfalz
on the Kurpfalz
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen List of Counts Palatine, from World Statesmen
Titles of European Hereditary Rulers : Pfalz
Lists of Ambassadors List of French representatives with the Elector of the Palatinate and vice versa, pp.lxii-lxvii in vol.38 of F. Schoell, Cours d'histoire des etats Europeens 1833, in French, GB
Documents Archive Deposits Online
Archive Deposits Indices Nationaalarchief (NL) : Inventaris van de archieven van de Legaties bij de Opperrijnse en Nederrijnse-Westfaalse Kreitsen en bij de Keurvorsten van Keulen, Mainz, Trier, de Palts, Beieren en Hessen-Kassel, (1700) 1749-1806
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties E. Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty, Showing the Various Political and Territorial Changes which Have Taken Place since the General Peace of 1814, vol.1 1875, vol.2 1875, vol.3 1875, posted on Internet Archive
K. Martens, Recueil manuel et pratique de traites, conventions et autres actes diplomatiques, : sur lesquels sont etablis les relations et les rapports existant aujourd'hui entre les divers etats souvernains du globe, depuis l'annee 1760 jusqu'a l'epoque actuelle, vol.1, 1846, vol.2, on 1788, 1846, vol.3, 1846, vol.4, on 1826 1846, vol.5, on 1839 1849, vol.6, on 1840 1856, vol.7, on 1852 1857, 2nd ser. vol.1 1885, posted on Internet Archive
F. Murhard, Nouveau Recueil General de Traites, Conventions et autres Transactions Remarquables, vol.1 1843, vol.2, on 1841, 1844, vol.3, on 1842, 1845, vol.4, 1846, vol.5 1847, vol.9, on 1846, suppl. 1841-1845, 1852, vol.10, on 1847, 1852, vol.12, on 1848, 1854, vol.13, 1855, vol.14 1856, vol.15 1857, vol.16 1860, vol.17, 1861, vol.18, 1873, vol.4, on 1817-1842, 1843, ? posted on Internet Archive
K. Martens, Nouveau recueil general de traites et autres actes relatifs aux rapports de droit international, vol.1, 1876, vol.10 1886, vol.11 1887, vol.12, on 1884-1886, 1887, vol.15, 1891, vol.16 1891, vol.19 1894, vol.20 1896, vol.21 1897, vol.23 1898, vol.29, on 1885-1898, 1903, vol.30 1904, vol.32 1905, vol.33 1906, vol.34 1907, vol.35 1908, posted on Internet Archive
G.F. Martens, Recueil de traites d'alliance, de paix, de treve ... et plusieurs autres actes servant aa la connoissance des relations etrangeres de puissances et etats de l'Europe ... depuis 1761 jusqu'a present , vol.3 : 1784-1788, 1818, vol.4, 1818, vol.5 : 1791-1795, 1826, vol.6 : 1795-1799, 1829, vol.7 : 1800-1803, 1831, vol.8 : 1803-1808, 1835, Table General Chronologique et Alphabetique du Recueil des Traites, Conventions et Transactions des Puissances de l'Europe et s'autres Parties du Globe ... vol.1 1837 (garbed scan), vol.1 1838, vol.2 1843, posted on Internet Archive
M. Tetot, Repertoire des Traites de Paix, de Commerce, d'Alliance etc., Conventions et autres Actes conclus entre tous les Puissances du Globe, principalement depuis la Paix de Westphalie jusqu'a notre jours, I : Tableau Chronologique 1493-1866, 1866, posted on Internet Archive
G. de Ribier, Repertoire des traite?s de paix de commerce, d'alliance, etc.; conventions et autres actes conclus entre toutes les puissances du globe, depuis 1867 jusqu'a nos jours (faisant suite au Repertoire de M. Tetot); table generale des principaux recueils francçais et etrangers ... ouvrage pub. sous les auspices du Ministere des affaires etrangeres, 1899, posted on Internet Archive
J.L. Klüber, Acten des Wiener Congresses in den Jahren 1814 und 1815, vol.1 2nd ed. 1819, vol.2 1815, vol.3 1815, vol.4 2nd ed. 1832, vol.5 2nd ed. 1833, vol.6 2nd ed. 1836, vol.7 1817, vol.8 1819, vol.9, 1835, in German, posted by Google Books
Palatinat du Rhin, pp.58-61 in vol.1 of Table des trait? entre la France et les puissances ?rang?es, depuis la paix de Westphalie jusqu'?nos jours, 1802, in French, GB
Document Collections Schreiben des Kurfuürsten Karl Ludwig von der Pfalz und der Seinen, 1884, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Die Briefe der Liselotte von der Pfalz, Herzogin von Orleans, 1912, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Ch.21 : De Scriptoribus Historiae Bavaricae et Palatinae, pp.552-563 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Individual Documents Kurze, wolgegründete Widerlegung, die Administration der Pfalz betreffend 1594, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Historical Maps Historical Map of Rhenania-Palatinate 1789, by Thomas Hoeckmann
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Article Rhenish Palatinate, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Parliamentary
Debates
HRE / Germany Deutsche Reichstagakten, vol.1 : 1376-1387, 1867, vol.2 : 1388-1397, 1874, vol.3 : 1397-1400, 1877, vol.4 : 1400-1401, 1882, vol.5 : 1401-1405, 1885, vol.6 : 1406-1410, 1888, vol.7 : 1410-1420, 1878, vol.8 : 1421-1426, 1883, vol.9 : 1427-1431, 1887, vol.10 : 1431-1433, 1906, vol.11 : 1433-1435, 1898, vol.12 : 1435-1437, 1901, Jüngere Reihe, vol.1 1893, vol.2 1893, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives Zentralarchiv der evangelischen Kirche der Pfalz
Landesarchiv Speyer
Bistumsarchiv Speyer
Generallandesarchiv Karlsruhe
Musea Kurpfäzisches Museum der Stadt Heidelberg
Historisches Museum der Pfalz, Speyer
State Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
Coat of Arms, Wikipedia
Coins, Banknotes Search Coin Archives for Kurpfalz, Palatinate
Search Early Dated Coins (1166-1520s) for Pfalz, Palatinate

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Kurpfalz Rheinland-Pfälzische Bibliographie
Pfälzische Bibliographie (1908-1998)
F.P. Wundt, Allgemeine Pfälzische Bibliothek, oder systematisches Verzeichniss der Schriften, welche zur genauen Kenntniss der Landes- sowohl als Regierungs-Geschichte von der Kurfürstlichen Rheonpfalz, den Herzogthümern Oberpfalz, Neuburg und Sulzbach und ehmaligen Herzogthume Zweibrücken dienen vol.1 1802, in German, posted on Google Books
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
Digitale Texte im Seminar für Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte, Univ. Köln; many 19th century texts, mostly in German
on Kurpfalz dilibri Rheinland-Pfalz
Online Journals on Kurpfalz contents online Zeitschriften, from dilibri Rheinland-Pfalz
Mitteilungen des Historischen Vereins der Pfalz, vol.XX 1896, vol.XXVIII 1907, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Magazin für die Kirchen- und Gelehrten-Geschichte des Kurfürstenthums Pfalz 1789, 1790, in German, posted on Google Books
Schlözer's Stats-Anzeigen vol.1 1782, vol.2 1782, vol.3 1783, vol.4 1783, vol.5 1783, vol.6 1784, vol.7 1785, vol.8 1785, vol.9 1786, vol.10 1787, vol.11 1787, vol.12 1788, vol.13 1789, vol.14 1790, vol.15 1790, vol.16 1791, vol.17 1792, vol.18 1793,
General Accounts
Specific Topics