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Denmark Lübeck
First posted on November 16th 2007, last revised on January 21st 2014

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

until 1848 . 1848-1864 . 1864-1920 . since 1920
Predecessors : Holstein-Gottorp, Duchy of Sachsen-Lauenburg, Lübeck
see also Prussia, Denmark, Germany 1871-1945, Federal Republic of Germany

Until 1848
Holstein emerged as a Duchy in the Holy Roman Empire, Schleswig as a Duchy within the Kingdom of Denmark. In the early 14th century both duchies were united in dynastic union. The Dukes of Schleswig Holstein long saw themselves as opponents of the Kings of Denmark. In 1460 King Christian I. of Denmark and Duke of both Schleswig and Holstein, granted the two duchies the privilege to be up ewig ungedeelt (for ever undivided).
Due to dynastic events, Schleswig and Holstein were partitioned, until all of Schleswig was reunited under the King of Denmark in 1773, Holstein, except for Eutin (to Oldenburg), in 1815. Schleswig-Holstein, while in dynastic union with Denmark, remained separate entities; Holstein was a member of the German Confederation 1815-1864. Denmark acquired the Duchy of Lauenburg from Hannover in 1816.

The Danish government, in 1848 and again in 1863, sought the full integration of Schlewsig in a Danish nation state. In both situations, a revolt erupted in Schleswig-Holstein; in 1848-1849 a war was narrowly avoided and a diplomatic solution found in the London Protocol (1852); in 1864 Austria and Prussia declared war on Denmark, defeated the latter; Denmark ceded Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg.

Following the Seven Weeks War 1866, Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg were annexed by Prussia, formed the Province Schleswig-Holstein, which in 1871 became part of unified Germany. In 1890 Helgoland was annexed by Germany and allocated to Schleswig-Holstein.
While most Holsteiners and a considerable part of the population of Schleswig felt German, there were those who identified with the Danish nation. In the treaty of 1864 a plebiscite in Schleswig was foreseen to establish the will of the population; this plebiscite was only held in 1920, when a majority in Zone 1 (North Schleswig) voted in favour of Denmark, a majority in Zone II voted for remaining with Germany.

since 1920
The Gross-Hamburg-Gesetz of 1937 resulted in the annexation of Altona and Wandsbeck (hitherto Holstein) to Hamburg, and the annexation of the Principality of Lübeck (hitherto Oldenburg) and the Free City of Lübeck into Schleswig-Holstein.
In 1945, Schleswig-Holstein came under British occupation; in 1949 Schleswig-Holstein joined the Federal Republic of Germany.

Historical Atlas, Schleswig-Holstein Page

Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current Article : Schleswig-Holstein, from Wikipedia
Article Schleswig-Holstein, from Wikipedia German edition
Preussen, Provinz Schleswig-Holstein, from Verwaltungsgeschichte (Administrative History) by M. Rademacher, in German
Schleswig-Holstein, from Deutsche Schutzgebiete, in German
Historic A. Niemann, Handbuch der schleswig-holsteinischen Landeskunde, 1799, in German, GB
A.Ch. Gudme, Schleswig-holstein: Eine statistisch-geographisch-topographische Darstellung (1833 in German, IA
S. Laing, Observations on the social and political state of Denmark, and the duchies of Sleswick and Holstein, in 1851 (1852), IA
K.W.Schäfer, Die deutschen Herzogthümer Schleswig-Holstein-Lauenburg in ihrem staatlichen .. (1864) in German, IA
O.G. Doormann, Landeskunde der Provinz Schleswig-Holstein und der Freien und Hansestadt Lübeck mit ihrem Gebiete, 1910, GenWiki Digital Library, in German
Links General Category : Schleswig-Holstein, from Wikipedia
on History Clio Online, keyword Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Dithmarschen, Nordfriesland, Flensburg, Lübeck; German language History Portal
Kategorie : Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, from Wikipedia German Edition
Organizations Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte
Archäologische Gesellschaft Schleswig-Holstein
Institut für Schleswig-Holsteinische Zeit- und Regionalgeschichte
Arbeitskreis für Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte Schleswig-Holsteins
Arbeitskreis zur Erforschung des Nationalsozialismus in Schleswig-Holstein
Arbeits-Gemeinschaft Genealogie Schleswig-Holstein
Historisk Samfund for Sønderjylland
Historische Landeshalle für Schleswig-Holstein
Historical Dictionary
Timelines Chronik Schleswig-Holsteins, from Landesregierung Schleswig-Holstein, in German
Zeitleiste, from Sylter Geschichte
Accounts of History current Article : History of Schleswig-Holstein, from Wikipedia
Article : Schleswig-Holstein : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
historical W.E. Christiani, Geschichte der Herzogthümer Schleswig und Hollstein, vol.1, 1775, vol.2, 1776, vol.3, 1777, vol.4, 1779, in German, GB
G. Waitz, Schleswig-Holsteins Geschichte, vol.1, 1851, vol.2, 1852, in German, GB
H. Handelmann, Geschichte von Schleswig-Holstein: Mit Berücksichtigung der nordelbingischen Kleinstaaten (1873) in German, IA
Specific Periods
Politics Article : Politics of Schleswig-Holstein, South Schleswig Voter Federation, from Wikipedia
Kategorie : Politik (Schleswig-Holstein), from Wikipedia German edition
FDP Schleswig-Holstein, Geschichte
Article : SPD Schleswig-Holstein : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Military A.H. Baudissin, Geschichte des Schleswig-holsteinischen Kriegs (1862) in German, posted on Internet Archive
A.H. Baudissin, Schleswig-holsteinische Soldatengeschichten (1863) in German, posted on Internet Archive
E.A. Erichsen, Forced to fight : the tale of a Schleswig Dane (1917), posted on Internet Archive
F. Pflug, Der Deutsch-dänische Krieg: Geschichte des Feldzugs in Schleswig-Holstein (1865) in German, posted on Internet Archive
E.J.S. Dicey, The Schleswig-Holstein war, vol.1, vol.2, 1864, GB
J.F.Ch. Knudsen, Danmarks kamp for Slesvig i aarene 1848 og 1849 efter nogle friviliges papirer, 1851, in Danish, GB
Economy & Finances
Social History Herzogtum Schleswig-Holstein, pp.179-183 in A. Judeich, Die Grundentlastung in Deutschland, 1863, in German, GB
Ethnography Fremdsprachige Minderheiten im Deutschen Reich : Kreise mit mindestens 5 % fremdsprachiger Bevölkerung 1903 (Minorities Speaking Foreign Languages in Germany : Districts with at least 5 % non-German Speaking Population 1903), from Verwaltungsgeschichte (Administrative History) by M. Rademacher
Dänische Minderheit (Danish Minority), Friesen (Frisians), Kartoffeldeutsche, Vertriebene, Fluechtlinge, Displaced Persons, from Schleswig-Holstein von A bis Z, in German
E. Beauvois, La nationalite du Slesvig (1864) in French, posted on Internet Archive
C.F. Allen, Geschichte der dänischen Sprache im Herzogthum Schleswig oder Südjütland (1857) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Religion Article Evangelisch-Lutherische Landeskirche Schleswig-Holstein : Geschichte, Noldelbische Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche, from Wikipedia German edition
Evangelisch-Lutherische Landeskirche Schleswig-Holsteins, from Deutsche Verwaltungsgeschichte by M. Rademacher, in German
Christen und Juden 1933-1945, Juden in Schleswig-Holstein, Herrnhuter, Sepharden, from Schleswig-Holstein von A bis Z, in German
H.N.A. Jensen et al., Schleswig-Holsteinische Kirchengeschichte (1873) in German, IA; also from GenWiki (4 vols., 1873-1879)
H.N.A. Jensen, Versuch einer kirchlichen Statistik des Herzogthums Schleswig (1841), posted on Internet Archive
M.M. Hansen, Kirkelig Statistik over Slesvig Stift, vol.1 pt.2, 1863, vol.2, 1864, vol.3 pt.1, 1864, in Danish, GB
History of Regions Duchy of Schleswig Article South Jutland County, from Wikipedia
Articles Nordschleswig : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Articles Sønderjylland, Sydslesvig, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Nordschleswig 1840-1920, from Schleswig-Holstein von A bis Z, in German
A. Sach, Das Herzogtum Schleswig in seiner Ethnographischen und nationalen Entwickelung (1907) in German, posted on Internet Archive
F. Bajer, A serious drama of modern history : how Danish Slesvig was lost : a peep behing the veiled scenes of diplomacy, and a warning (1897), posted on Internet Archive
Article : Sønderjylland (Historie), from Den Store Danske, in Danish
Duchy of Holstein
Duchy of Lauenburg Article Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg, from Wikipedia
Articles Herzogtum Sachsen-Lauenburg, from Wikipedia German edition
Lauenburg, from Schleswig-Holstein von A bis Z, in German
City of Lübeck For Lübeck (city), see under Lübeck
other Article Dithmarschen : History, Nordfriesland : History, Heligoland : History, from Wikipedia
Articles Fürstentum Lübeck, Fehmarn : Geschichte, Alsen : Geschichte, Herzogtum Sachsen-Lauenburg, Holstein-Pinneberg, Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf, Schleswig-Holstein-Hadersleben, Dithmarschen : Geschichte, Nordfriesland : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Articles Kreis Nordfrisland : Historie, Kreis Dithmarschen, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Das Fürstentum Lübeck (The Principality of Lübeck), from AGGSH, in German
Danish Wadden Sea Islands
Brede Å and Vidåen, Sylt, Wiedingharde, Amrum, Föhr, Halligen, Bökingharde, Nordergosharde, Südergosharde, Nordstrand, Pellworm, Eiderstedt, Norderdithmarschen, Süderdithmarschen, from Lancewad Plan
Dithmarschen, Nordschleswig 1840-1920, Lauenburg, Fürstbistum Lübeck, Wagrien, Polabien, from Schleswig-Holstein von A bis Z, in German
Local History For Lübeck, see under Lübeck
Articles Schleswig : History, Flensburg : History, Tønder : History, Abenra : History, Haderslev : History, Husum, Eckernförde, Rendsburg, Kiel : History, Lauenburg : History, Hamburg-Altona, History, Hamburg-Wandsbek : History, Eutin, Ahrensbök, from Wikipedia
Articles Hamburg-Wandsbek : Geschichte, Hamburg-Altona : Geschichte, Pinneberg : Geschichte, Itzehoe : Geschichte, Oldesloe : Geschichte, Rendsburg : Geschichte, Kiel : Geschichte, Neumünster : Geschichte, Plön : Geschichte, Preetz : Geschichte, Eutin : Geschichte, Lauenburg : Geschichte, Husum : Geschichte, Geschichte der Stadt Eckernförde, Flensburg : Geschichte, Apenrade : Geschichte, Hadersleben : Geschichte, Tønder : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German Edition
Article Slesvig By, Flensborg : Historie, Aabenraa : Historie, Sønderborg : Historie, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Ein arabischer Berichterstatter aus dem 10. Jahrhundert über Fulda, Schleswig, Soest, Paderborn (1896) in German, posted on Internet Archive
P.G. Thorsen, De med Jydske lov beslaegtede stadsretter for Slesvig, Flensborg, Aabenraa og Haderslev, 1855, in Danish, GB
Institutions Article University of Kiel, Kiel Canal, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Schleswig-Holstein
H. Ratjen, Geschichte der Universität zu Kiel (1870) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Biographies Biographisches Lexikon für Schleswig-Holstein und Lübeck
Environmental History

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen List of Dukes / Grand Dukes, from World Statesmen (Ben Cahoon)
Lists of Bishops Article : Liste der Bischöfe von Lübeck, Liste der Bischöfe von Ratzeburg, Liste der Bischöfe von Schleswig, from Wikipedia German edition
Statistical Data Population Figures Germany, Historical Demographical Data of the Administrative Divisions Before 1950, from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
Population Holstein 1812-1866, Lauenburg 1815-1875, Schleswig-Holstein 1867-1914, from HGIS
Economic Statistics Schleswig-Holstein, Production of Lignite, Steel, 1867-1914, posted by HGIS
Election Results Reichstagswahlen bis 1918, from Wahlen in Deutschland
Preussen : Provinz Schleswig-Holstein, from Wahlen in der Weimarer Republik, in German
Documents Historical Newspapers Schleswig-Holsteinische Blätter für 1835 [-1840], in German, GB
Schleswig-Holsteinische Anzeigen , 1838-1869, in German, GB
Modern Newspapers
Online Yearbooks Staatskalender Links, from GenWiki
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Image Databanks Historische Fotografien von Sylt
Schleswig-Holstein, from Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits
Constitutions Verfassungen von Schleswig-Holstein (Constitutions of S.-H.), from Verfassungen.eu, in German
Historiography N.H. Heldvad, Nicolaus Helduader's Chronik der Stadt Schleswig: Vom Jahre 1603 bis zum .. (1822) in German, IA
Document Survey
Document Collections R. Schleiden, Aktenstücke zur neuesten Schleswig-Holsteinischen Geschichte (1851) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Urkundensammlung der Schleswig-Holstein-Lauenburgischen Gesellschaft vol.1 (1839, GB), vol.2 (1842), vol.3, (1875), vol.4, (1874), in German, IA
F. Herzog von Schleswig-Holstein, Aufzeichnungen des Prinzen Friedrich von Schleswig-Holstein zu den Jahren 1848 bis 1850 (1851) in German, IA
Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Quellensammlung (1862) in German, IA
Samvirkende Sønderjyske Foreninger, Manuel historique de la question du Slesvig: documents, cartes, pieces (1907) in French, IA
La question et la polemique dano-allemandes a propos des duches de Slesvig (1866), IA
Individual Documents Schleswig-Holstein, from Gemeindeverzeichnis Deutschland 1900, in German
House Laws of Oldenburg, from Heraldica, site in English, laws in German
Denkschrift über den grossen Norddeutschen Kanal zwischen Brunsbüttler Koog an der Elbe und dem Kieler Hafen. Hrsg. von dem Kieler Committee für den Kanalbau (Memorandum on the Great North German Canal between Brunsbüttel Koog on the Elbe and the Port of Kiel) (1865),online book in German, posted by DTBSWS
Durchstich der Holsteinischen Landenge zwischen Ostsee und Nordsee (Perforation of the Holstein Isthm between North Sea and Baltic Sea) (1863), online booklet in German, posted by DTBSWS
Der Elbe -Trave-Kanal. Zur Eröffnungsfeier am 16. Juni 1900 (The Elbe Trave Canal; On the Opening Ceremony on June 16th 1900) (1900), online booklet, in German; posted by DTBSWS
Lohse, Ernst Theodor: Das dänische Reichsbank-Geld in den Herzogthümern Schleswig-Holstein. Eine Petition der Bürger und Einwohner Rendsburgs an die sechste Holsteinische Ständeversammlung. (The money issued by the Danish National Bank. A Petition of the Burghers of Rendsburg to the 6th Gathering of the Holstein Estates) (1846) online book in German, posted by DTBSWS
Runde, Karl G.: Statistik der Moore in der Provinz Schleswig-Holstein incl. Lauenburg (Statistcs of Moors in the Province Schleswig Holstein with Lauenburg), (1880), online book in German, posted by DTBSWS
Sartori, August: Kiel und der Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (Kiel and the Kiel Canal) (1891), online book in German, posted by DTBSWS
T. Twiss, On the relations of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein to the crown of Denmark and the Germanic Confederation, and on the treaty-engagements of the great European powers in reference thereto (1848), posted on Internet Archive
An old Englishman's opinion on Schleswig-Holstein and Germany, being a practical evidence for the justice of their cause, given after a 50 years' residence in Germany (1864), posted on Internet Archive
O. von Wenckstern, Memoir on the constitutional rights of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, presented to Viscount Palmerston by Chevalier Bunsen, on the 8th of April 1848; published with M. de Gruner's Essay on the Danish Question and all the official documents, 1848, GB
C.F. Wegener, Om den evige forbindelse mellem Slesvig og Danmark i statsretlig henseende , 1848, in Danish, GB
Landwirtschaftliches Adressbuch Schleswig-Holstein 1950, in German, GenWiki Digital Library
Historical Maps responsible institutions Landesvermessung und Geobasisinformation Niedersachsen
collections WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Schleswig-Holstein Page
Schleswig-Holstein, hindsight Schleswig-Holstein 1730, from Thomas Höckmann, maps, links, in German
Schleswig-Holstein, contemporary Map Schleswig-Holstein 1887 (Meyer 5th ed.), from Hic Leones
Language Map Schleswig (Andrees Handatlas 6th edition 1914), posted by M. Witkam
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary Map of Altona 1887, Flensburg and Environs 1887, Hamburg, Altona and Wandsbek 1894, Kiel 1906, from Discus Media
City Panoramas 1750, from Historic Maps, click Glueckstadt
Lübeck, Oldenburg in Holstein, Ratzeburg, from Historic Maps
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Schleswig-Holstein (city), Schleswig (state), Schleswig-Holstein-Question, Kiel, Altona, Flensburg, Apenrade, Hadersleben, Fehmarn, from EB 1911
Articles Schleswig-Holstein, Schleswig, Kiel, Flensburg, Sonderburg, Alsen, Hadersleben, Apenrade, Tondern, Nordostseekanal, Nordfriesland, Sylt, Pellworm, Nordstrand, Eiderstedt, Dithmarschen, Rendsburg, Helgoland, Eckernförde, Itzehoe, Oldesloe, Altona, Lauenburg, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, posted by Retro Bib, in German
Articles Schleswig-Holstein, from Brockhaus Konversationslexikon 1894-1896, posted by Retro Bib, in German
Duchy of Sleswick, p.281, Duchy of Holstein p.281, Duchy of Lauenberg [!] p.281 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Herzogthümer Holstein und Lauenburg, pp.408-410 in A. Moser, Die Capitalanlage in Werthpapieren der Staaten, Creditvereine und Actiengesellschaften des In- und Auslandes, 1862, in German, GB
Religious Article Schleswig, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907
Economic Sleswick, pp.220-223 in vol.4 pt.1 of J.M. Demeunier, Economie politique et diplomatique, 1788, in French, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Altona, Holstein, Kiel, posted by DTBSWS
Political Du Duc Souverain de Sleswig-Holstein, pp.576-577 in vol.2 of J.R. de Missy, Le Ceremonial diplomatique des cours de l' Europe, 1739, in French, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides
Institutions Archives Schleswig-Holsteinische Archive
Article Landesarchiv Schleswig-Holstein, from Wikipedia German edition
Landsarkivet for Sønderjylland
Musea Schloss Gottorf
Museen in Schleswig-Holstein und Hamburg
Museum Sønderjylland
Monuments Schleswig-Holstein, from Monumente Online
Libraries Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek
Fabian-Handbuch : Bibliotheken in Schleswig-Holstein
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Historical Flags, SLH, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; from Hic Leones
Coins Schleswig-Holstein coin of 1796, from Napoleonic Medals
Search Coin Archives for Schleswig, Holstein, Schleswig-Holstein, Eutin,
Stamps Schleswig-Holstein Stamps, from Stamps Catalogue by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holsteinische Bibliographie
Schleswig-Holstein, from BibScout
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Schleswig-Holstein
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open-Access Repositories : Germany, Denmark
Multimedialer Archiv- und Publikationsserver der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
Online Journals Directory Directory of Open Access Journals
on Schleswig-Holstein full text online
contents online Zeitschriftenmagazin : Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fü Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte (ZSHG) 1870-1890, 1891-1910, 1911-1931, 1933-1956, 1957-1975, 1976-1995, 1996-2004, posted by S. Jenks
Zeitschriftenmagazin " Zeitschrift des Vereins fü Lübeckische Geschichte und Altertumskunde (ZVLGA) 1860-1940, 1949-1959, 1960-1979, 1980-1996, 1997-2007, posted by S. Jenks
General Accounts Otto Brandt, Geschichte Schleswig-Holsteins, Kiel : Walter G. Mühlau 1925 [G]
Peace Handbooks issued by the Historical Section of the Foreign Office : Vol.35, Schleswig-Holstein, 1920, 108 p. [G]
Handbook / Encyclopedia Entries Territorien-Ploetz : Geschichte der Deutschen Länder, Vol.1, Würzburg 1964, in German [G]

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