1947-1955 1970-1977





Sindh, 1955-1970



The administrative reform of 1955 replaced Pakistan's provinces and princely states into by two new provinces : East Pakistan and West Pakistan; Sindh and Khairpur became absorbed by West Pakistan. The provincial institutions of Sindh were dissolved.
In 1958 General Ayub Khan staged a coup and established an authoritarian regime. The state capital was moved from Karachi (Sindh) to Rawalpindi (Punjab), later to Islamabad (Punjab). Under the Ayub Khan administration, Pakistan's economic planning board achieved a significant expansion of the country's infrastructure (hydroelectric dams, irrigation schemes, new industries), which did benefit Sindh; the loss of the capital function had adverse impact on the economy of Pakistan.
In 1963 Pakistan and India signed a border agreement, ending the border dispute in the Rann of Cutch; most of the disputed territory was allocated to India.
In 1961, Sindh had a population of 8.3 million; the figure for 1972 was 13.9 million. Karachi in 1961 had 1.4 million inhabitants, in 1972 the number had risen to 2.8 million.
General Ayub Khan viewed Pakistan as one nation, himself as a benevolent, yet strict father figure, who saw his policies justified in his achievements, first among which the country's economic progress. West Pakistan (with Sindh) benefitted greatly, at the expense of East Pakistan. His social policies, the Land Reform of 1959 (which confiscated excessive land holdings, and parcelled them out to former tenants) and the policy to replace urban slums by regular housing projects, alienated some, and found the support of many. On the other hand, the population growth rate prevented this progress to translate into a significant rise in the standard of living. Democratic tradition was deeply intrenched, and Pakistan's various ethnic and social groups resented Ayub Khan's authoritarian style, and wanted a restoration of the country's democratic traditions, based on the traditional provinces. While general Ayub Khan's health began to fail, in late 1968 a wave of demonstrations and occasional riots began, which caused the general turned president to resign. His successor General Yahya Khan in 1970 restored the old provinces, among which Sindh.



EXTERNAL
FILES
History of Sindh, from Pakistan History, from Wikipedia
Hyderabad History, from Apnahyderabad, from Wikipedia
Kolachi to Karachi, from City of Karachi
Story of Karachi, from Pakistan History; from Wikipedia
Article Provincial Assembly of the Sindh, from Wikipedia
History of the High Court of Sindh, Karachi
Article Khayrpur, from Wikipedia
DOCUMENTS Pakistan Provinces : Sind, from World Statesmen
Historical Population Figures : Pakistan, Provinces, from Population Statistics
REFERENCE Christophe Jaffrelot (ed.), A History of Pakistan and its Origins, translated from the French, London : Anthem Press (2002) 2004, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 954.91 J23h



This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on April 30th 2007

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