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Assam Bihar
First posted on May 26th 2010

In 1765 the Mughal Emperor and the Nawab of Awadh (Oudh) ceded Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the E.I.C., which administrated the area as the Bengal Presidency. The latter expanded fast; a centralized was facing the problem of dealing with an ethnically and culturally diverse population, with a wide range of different environments, with a host of challenges. In order to deal with these efficiently, the administration of Bengal Presidency gradually was decentralized by the establishment of provinces.
When such provinces were established, the British had "practical" considerations foremost in their mind. In 1905 the Province of East Bengal and Assam was established, thus splitting ethnic Bengal in two. This act hurt the sentiment of the Bengali population and brought about a campaign for the reunification of Bengal.
In 1912, the Province of Bihar and Orissa was split of the part of Bengal Presidency hitherto not organized as a province, while the Province of Assam was split off Eastern Bengal and Assam. The remainder of Bengal Presidency hitherto not organized as a province, and of Eastern Bengal and Assam, was formed into the new Province of Bengal.
The vast majority of the population of Bengal had a language in common - Bengali. Just over half of the population was Muslim, just under half of the population was Hindu.
In the 1920es the campaign of the Indian National Congress, first for Home Rule, then with the ultimate goal of independence, captivated the attention of the public on the Indian subcontinent and abroad. In the 1930es it turned into a competition of two political concepts : independence for a multicultural, secular, unpartitioned India (Congress) and the partition into two states, one Muslim, one Hindu (or non-Muslim), propagated by the Muslim League.
Since 1937 Bengal had a parliament of its own, a government headed by a Chief Minister.
During World War II, Bengal (dependent on rice imported from Burma's Irawaddy Delta, now under Japanese occupation) experienced a major famine.
When British India was released into independence, the (secular multicultural) Republic of India and (Muslim, multilingual) Pakistan emerged. In the process, Bengal broke in two : West Bengal, capital Calcutta (Kolkata), joining the Republic of India, and East Pakistan (since 1971 Bangladesh), capital Dacca, which joined Pakistan. 1948 saw a massive exchange of population, as millions of Hindus left East Pakistan for the Republic of India, millions of Muslims left West Bengal, Bihar or Assam for East Pakistan.

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Country Profiles Current from Wikipedia
Links General Category : Bengal, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Bengal, History of Kolkata from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionary Gorkhapedia
Accounts of History Current Article History of Bengal
Historical Ghulam Husayn Zaydpuri, A History of Bengal (1902), posted on Internet Archive
E. Lethbridge, An Easy Introduction to the History and Geography of Bengal (1874), posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods Ch.E. Buckland, Bengal under the Lieutenant-Governors (1901), posted on Internet Archive
The Administration of Bengal under Sir Andrew Fraser 1903-1908 (1908), posted on Internet Archive
Article Partition of Bengal (1905), from Wikipedia
Politics Articles Bengal Provincial Congress, Muslim League (Bengal Provincial), Bengal Moslem Council Party, Bengal Muslim Party, from Banglapedia
Article Election, Constitutional Development, from Banglapedia
Articles The Council, Bengal Pact (1923), from Banglapedia
West Bengal Legislative Assembly, Assam Legislative Assembly, from Legislative Bodies in India, both have pre-partition history
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Bangladesh
Article Modern Banking System, from Banglapedia
Opium Cultivation in Bengal, from Banglapedia
Articles Jute, Jute Industry, from Banglapedia
Articles Plantation Forestry, Tea, Tea Industry, from Banglapedia
Iftekhar Iqbal, The Sundarbanms Forest Systems in Bangladesh : Indigenous Response to Capitalist Enterprises and the Pattern of Colonial Control, c.1830-1905, IEHC 2006
Bengal Textiles, International Cloth, from China National Textile and Apparel Council
P. Kilgour, T. Woodhouse, The Jute Industry : from Seed to Finished Cloth (1921), posted by Gutenberg Library Online
Social History Labour
Education Pr.Ch. Sinha, The Problem of Education in Bengal (1941), posted on Internet Archive
M.A. Huque, History and Problems of Moslem Education in Bengal (1917), posted on Internet Archive
Nutrition and Famine T.K. Dutt, Hungry Bengal (1944), posted on Internet Archive
Ethnography Bengali Language, from I Love India; History of Bangla Language, from Bangla Online
Article Bangla Language, from Banglapedia
Article Armenians, from Banglapedia
Religion Temples of Bengal, from Temple Net; from Art History, UPenn (images)
Archdiocese of Calcutta, Diocese of Dacca, Diocese of Krishnagar, from Catholic Hierarchy
St. Mary's JSO Church, Calcutta, from Syrian Orthodox Archdiocese
Article Bishop of Calcutta (Anglican), from Wikipedia
Eyre Chatterton, A History of the Church of England in India since the Early Days of the East India Company (1924)
History of Regions Article Chota Nagpur Division, East Bengal, Rajshahi Division, Chittagong Division, Dhaka Division, Khulna Division, Barisal Division (Bakerganj), Districts of West Bengal, from Wikipedia
Local History History of Dhaka (Dacca), from Wikipedia
History of Chittagong, from Banglapedia
History of Kolkata (Calcutta), from Wikipedia, from Calcutta Web
History of Darjeeling, from Wikipedia
History of Chandannagar (Chandernagore), from Wikipedia
History of Bardhaman (Burdwan), from Wikipedia
Article Serampore, from Wikipedia
Institutions History, from University of Calcutta
The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, from Railways as World Heritage Sites, by A. Coulls; DHR History, from DHRSA; A Himalayan Loop Line, from Mike's Railway History; K.I. Iqbal, Railways and the Water Regime of the Eastern Bengal Delta, c.1905-1943
History, from Northeastern Frontier Railway
East Indian Railway, Eastern Bengal Railway, from Banglapedia
Culture Online Publications on the History of Bengali Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Article : Architecture of Bengal, from Wikipedia
Article : Bangla Literature, Bangla Script, Bangabda (Bengal Calendar), from Banglapedia
Others Anne Hardgrove, Community and Public Culture. The Marwaris in Calcutta, c. 1897-1997, diss. Columbia UP n.d.

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Provinces of British India, from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon)
Population Figures History of the Population of India by Province, from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer; scroll down for Bengal
Documents Historical Newspapers
Image Databanks
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK)
Search Janus
India Office Records : Family History Sources : Bengal Presidency, from British Library
Bengal Presidency - LDS Microfilms, from Family History in India
Constitutions, Laws
Document Collections
Historical Maps see here
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Bengal, Dacca, Calcutta, Hugli, Chandernagore, Serampur, Chittagong, Eastern Bengal and Assam, Mymensingh, Faridpur, Backergunje, Noakhali, Rajshahi, Dinajpur, Jalpaiguri, Rangpur, Bogra, Pabna, Malda, Burdwan, Rajshahi, Calcutta, Darjeeling, from EB 1911
Religious Article Dacca, Archdiocese of Calcutta, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1908 edition
Geographical Article Bengal, Eastern Bengal and Assam, Burdwan Division, Presidency Division, Rajshahi Division, Calcutta, Cooch Behar State, Darjeeling District, from Imperial Gazetteer of India (1909), posted by DSAL
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives Article Archives, from Banglapedia
Monuments Indian Cemeteries, entry for Calcutta
Libraries Libraries in Bangladesh, from LibDex
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes Article Coins, from Banglapedia

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on India Indcat, Online Uinion Catalogue of Indian Universities, from INFLIBNET, click Union Database
D. Ludden, Bibliography on South Asian Agrarian History (c.1990)
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
International Boundary Studies
Search DBNG for Bengalen etc.
on India Digital Library of India
Online Journals
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.14, pp.711-720 Article Bangladesh. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.14
Specific Topics
Historical Atlasses C. Collin Davies, An Historical Atlas of the Indian Peninsula, Oxford : UP, 2nd edition, 1959 [G]
Historical and Cultural Maps, National Atlas of India Vol.8, published by National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organisation, Calcutta 1983, edited by G.K . Dutt, S.K. Biswas [G]
J.E. Schwartzberg, A Historical Atlas of South Asia, Chicago : UP 1978 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Historical Dictionaries C. Baxter & E. Rahman, Historical Dictionary of Bangladesh, Lanham Md. 4th edition : Scarecrow 2004

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