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Jammu & Kashmir (India) Azad Kashmir
First posted on June 6th 2010

In 1947 the British withdrew from India. The political visions of the Muslim League (a Muslim State in India called Pakistan, with Punjab, Kashmir and Sindh as core areas) and of the Indian National Congress (a Republic of India comprising of a multi-ethnic, multi-religious, unpartitioned India) conflicted. Both the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress regarded India's 500+ princely states as remnants of a feudal past. The Maharaja of Jammu & Kashmir (a Hindu) opted for the Republic of India, much to the surprise of many of the Muslim inhabitants of Jammu & Kashmir, which made up the overwhelming majority of the population.
Political upheaval followed, with the opponents of the Maharaja being supported by Pakistani forces, the princely administration by the Indian forces; Jammu & Kashmir was partitioned, separated by the Line of Control (1948). Several Indo-Pakistani Wars (1965, 1971) and the actions of guerillas called liberation fighters by one, terrorists by the other side, have failed in changing the political map in Jammu & Kashmir.
The Pakistani-administrated part of Jammu & Kashmir was partitioned in two : Azad (Jammu and) Kashmir, and the Federally Administrated Northern Areas (FANA, also called Gilgit-Baltistan).
Formally, FANA is not part of Pakistan, but a separate area. When the Election Commission of Pakistan describes the territory of Pakistan as comprising "the provinces of Punjab, Sindh, North-West Frontier and Balochistan, the Islamabad Capital Territory i.e. the Federal Capital, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATAs) and such states and territories as are or may be included in Pakistan whether by accession or otherwise", Azad Kashmir and the Federally Administrated Northern Areas may be interpreted as "such states and territories as are or may be included in Pakistan whether by accession or otherwise".
During the 1950s and 1960s, FANA was frontier area where military concerns took precedent over civilian matters. The issue of Jammu & Kashmir remains unresolved, as Pakistan regards the Indian part of Jammu and Kashmir as illegally occupied by the Republic of India, while the Republic of India regards Azad Jammu & Kashmir and FANA as illegally occupied by Pakistan. The Federally Administered Northern Areas in 2009 were renamed Gilgit-Baltistan, and granted political autonomy. Organizations rejecting the territory being part of Pakistan refer to it as Balawaristan.

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as the Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA) are disputed territory, users are advised to use discretion, as many of the sources linked below are biased in one way or another. The webmaster of WHKMLA is not responsible for the content of external websites.
For sources which treat FANA as part of the region of (Jammu and) Kashmir, see pre-partition Jammu and Kashmir, Azad Kashmir and (Indian) Jammu and Kashmir.

Country Profiles Articles Gilgit-Baltistan, Balawaristan, from Wikipedia
Gilgit-Baltistan, from UNPO
Links Category : Gilgit-Baltistan, from Wikipedia
Kashmir Virtual Library
Organizations Kashmir Study Group
Historical Dictionaries
Accounts of History Current Article : Gilgit-Baltistan : History, from Wikipedia
Specific Periods Article : History of Ladakh, from Wikipedia
Politics Senga H. Sering, Pakistan's Divide and Rule Policy in Gilgit-Baltistan, IPCS 2009
Military Articles Line of Control, Kargil War, from Wikipedia
Gilgit-Baltistan, from Pakistan Conflict Monitor
Shigar Fort Residence, Baltistan, from AKDN
Economy & Finances
Social History
Ethnography Article : Burusho, Dard People, Wakhi People, Balti Language, from Wikipedia
Religion Jammu & Kashmir, Distribution of Religions, from Kashmir Study Group
Local History Article : Dardistan, Hunza (Princely State), Gilgit : History, Nagar Valley : History, from Wikipedia
Institutions History, from Karakoram International University, Gilgit
Others Article Simla Agreement (1972), from Wikipedia
Jennifer Crook, War in Kashmir and its Effect on the Environment, ICE Case Studies 1998, Samantha Hulkower, Kashmir: Melting Glaciers, Boiling Conflicts, ICE Case Studies 2007

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), scroll down
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Pakistan, by State (Province), from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
Election Results
Documents Historical Newspapers
Modern Newspapers Gilgit-Baltistan Times, since 2009
Dardistan Times
Image Databanks
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK)
Search Janus
Constitutions, Laws
Document Collections Balawaristan Documents, from Balawaristan.Net
Memory of the World Register : Gilgit Manuscripts, from UNESCO
Historical Maps Location of places in Azad Kashmir, from TAGEO
Maps, from Kashmir Study Group
Kashmir, from Asian Linguistic Maps
Map, from Kashmir Heritage
Maps of Balawaristan, from Balawaristan.Net
Encyclopedia Articles
Article : Dardistan, Gilgit, Hunza, Ladakh and Baltistan, from EB 1911, posted by Classic Encyclopedia
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives
Monuments Indian Cemeteries, entry for Gilgit
Libraries National Library of Pakistan
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of the Islamic Republic of Gilgit, 1947, from FOTW

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Gilgit-Baltistan
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
International Boundary Studies
Search DBNG for Bengalen etc.
on Gilgit-Baltistan Tibetan & Himalayan Digital Library
Pakistan Research Repository
Fouq Library, articles on the Kashmir Issue
Indcat, Online Uinion Catalogue of Indian Universities, from INFLIBNET, click Union Database
Digital Library of India
History of India Digital Library
Books, from Balawaristan.Net
Online Journals
Online Yearbooks
General Accounts
Specific Topics

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