History by Country . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . HI . JK . L . M . N . OP . QR . S . TUV . WXYZ

India Afghanistan
First posted on May 27th 2002, last revised on June 7th 2010

Pakistan since 1999
Pakistan 1988-1999
Pakistan 1977-1988
Pakistan 1971-1977

The Pakistan of 1972, as a state, is the continuation of Pakistan 1947-1971; as a territory and nation it is the continuation of West Pakistan. For East Pakistan since 1971 see Bangladesh

1958-1971 Pakistan . West Pakistan . East Pakistan
1947-1958 Pakistan . West Pakistan . East Pakistan

The Genesis of Pakistan, 1930-1947

Provinces / Territories of Pakistan : Sindh, Baluchistan, (West) Punjab . North West Frontier Province (since 2010 Khyber Pakhtunkhai; with Federally Administrated Tribal Areas). See also Azad Kashmir, Federally Administered Northern Areas (since 2009 Gilgit-Baltistan)

for the history of Pakistan prior to 1947, see British India
Historical Regions of (West) Pakistan : Bahawalpur, Sindh, Baluchistan, Punjab . North West Frontier Province, See also Jammu and Kashmir


Historical Atlas, Pakistan Page , South Asia Page , British India Page

Students' Paper : Lee, Seung Heon, History of Transportation in South Asia (2009)

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook, Countries : Pakistan
Library of Congress Country Studies : Pakistan
from World Wide Gazetteer
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL, from dmoz
from Pakistan Virtual Library; Category : Pakistan, List of Pakistan-related Topics, from Wikipedia; Pakistan, from Post-Colonial Web
on History from Pakistan Virtual Library; Category : History of Pakistan, from Wikipedia; Pakistan History, from Post-Colonial Web
Organizations National Fund for Cultural Heritage, Pakistan
Pakistan Historical Society
National Institute of Pakistan Studies
National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research, Pakistan
Ministry of Culture, Department of Archaeology and Museums (no website as of April 1st 2012)
Historical Dictionaries Pakistanpaedia
Timelines from timelines.ws, a website exploiting US newspaper articles, very detailed on the 20th century; from BBC News
The Chronicle of Pakistan, by Khurram Ali Shafique
Accounts of History Current History of Pakistan, from Pakistan - the Land of Talent, many chapters mainly on ancient history; many links; from Pakistan - a Tourist Paradise, from Lonely Planet, from PTIC, from Story of Pakistan, has 11 chapters and 35 biographies; from pakistaninformation.com, with links; from PakAvenue
History of Pakistan, from Wikipedia; Pakistan's Legislative History, posted by Shehzaad Nakhoda
Ejaz Hussain, Pakistan : Politics in a Post-Colonial State
Specific Periods Sanderson Beck, Liberating India and Pakistan, 1934-1950
Oraction, Lossiete A., Constitution-Making in Pakistan (1947-1956), diss. 1968
Historiography History of Ancient Pakistan
Politics Links Political Resources on the Net : Pakistan; Governments on the WWW : Pakistan; Category : politics of Pakistan, from Wikipedia
General Article Politics of Pakistan, from Wikipedia; Pakistan Profile, from International Crisis Group
Institutions Brief History of Parliament Houses in Pakistan, from N.A., Pakistan; Parliamentary History, from N.A., Pakistan
Political Parties, Movements Political Parties in Pakistan, from Human Rights Commission of Pakistan
The Left in Pakistan : a Brief History, by Farooq Sulehria
History, from PPP
MQM, PPP, from Wikipedia
P. Pobre, Cesar, History of Political Parties in Pakistan (1947-1958), diss. 1970
Foreign Relations Dar, Saeeduudin Ahmad, Pakistan's Relations with Egypt 1947 - 71, diss. 1982
Article : Foreign Relations of Pakistan, from Wikipedia; Japan-Pakistan Relations, from MOFA Japan; Pakistan-U.S. Relations, by K. Alan Kronstadt; Bilateral Political Relations : Pakistan, fromMOFA PRC
Military Wars of Pakistan, from ACED
Article Military History of Pakistan, from Wikipedia; Sectarianism in Pakistan, from Wikipedia
Armed Conflicts Report - Pakistan, from Ploughshares
Global Security : Pakistan Special Weapons Guide, Military Guide, Intelligence Agencies
Pakistan Assessment, from SATP
Balochistan's History of Insurgency, 2006 article from Green Left
The ICRC since 1945 : post-independence violence in India and Pakistan, from ICRC
Timeline of Nuclear Weapons Development in South Asia, from IEER
South Asian Nuclear Crisis : Pakistan, from IEER
CASCON Case KAS : Kashmir 1947-, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
Pakistan Index, from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Lionel Baixas, Chronological Index : Thematic Chronology of Mass Violence in Pakistan, 1947-2007 , from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Pakistan; What is the Pakistani Rupee ?, from Go Currency; Article Economy of Pakistan, from Wikipedia; Article Pakistani Rupee, from Wikipedia; History, from Karachi Stock Exchange
Lahore Chamber of Commerce and Industry, scroll down for history
History of Pakistan Engineering Council
Article Trade Unions in Pakistan, from Wikipedia
National Labour Law Profile : Pakistan, from ILO
History and Evolution of Privatisation in Pakistan, by Syed Anwar ul-Hasan Bokhari (1998)
Issues of Corruption and the NAB, from NAB (historical, Pakistan)
Pakistan, from Showcaves, lists historical mines
History of Pakistan's Auto Industry, from Goliath
History & Development of Poultry Industry in Pakistan, from Pakistan
Mohammad Niaz Asadullah, Educational Disparity in East and West Pakistan 1947-1971 : Was East Pakistan Discriminated Against ? (2006)
Company Histories : Pakistan International Airlines, from Funding Universe
Global Integrity : Pakistan 2006, 2007
Enterprise Pakistan, from Economy Point
Social History from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World (Robert Winslow)
Pakistan : History of the Third Sector, Pakistan : History of Philanthropy, from Philanthropy and the Third Sector in Asia and the Pacific
Ethnography Languages of Pakistan (72), from Ethnologue
Minorities at Risk - Pakistan, entries Ahmadis, Baluchis, Hindus, Mohajirs, Pashtuns, Sindhis
Country Report : Pakistan, from
U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants; About UNHCR Pakistan; Pakistan, from Refugees International
Pakistan, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
South Asia, from World Cultures Encyclopedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Pakistan
Religion Islam in Pakistan, from Wikipedia
Shrines, Tombs and Mosques in Pakistan, from CCOL; Category Mosques in Pakistan, from Wikipedia
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Pakistan, from Kirken i Norge
Category Religion in Pakistan, from Wikipedia
Hindu Temples of Pakistan, from Shaivam, from Wikipedia; Hinduism in Pakistan, from Wikipedia
Jain Temples in Pakistan, from Jainsamaj; from Jain World
History of Parsis in Pakistan, from Vohuman; From Iran to Karachi - taking a Look at Parsi Migration, from Fravahr
The Virtual Jewish History Tour : Pakistan; Pakistan, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
History of Regions see Baluchistan, Punjab, NWFP, Sindh, Kashmir, East Pakistan (until 1971)
Provinces of Pakistan, Divisions of Pakistan, from www.statoids.com
Local History History of Lahore, by Sohail Abid; from Wikipedia
History of Islamabad, from Wikipedia, by Sohail Abid
History of Rawalpindi, from Wikipedia; History of Karachi, from Wikipedia
History of Hyderabad (Sindh), from Wikipedia
History of Peshawar, from Wikipedia
History of Quetta, from Wikipedia
Institutions History of Broadcasting in Pakistan, from The Broadcast Archive; History of Pakistan Television Corporation
History of Pakistan Railways, from Wikipedia; Hill Lines of India, from Mike's Railway History (until 1935)
History of Pakistan International Airlines; History of Jinnah Int'l Airport (Karachi), from Wikipedia; Pakistan, from Airline History
Education in Pakistan, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Pakistan; Search Lighthouse Depot for Pakistan
Culture Online Publications on the History of Pakistani Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Article Pakistani Literature, from Wikipedia
Pakistan, from UK Food Online, a history of Pakistani cuisine
Biography List of Pakistanis, from Wikipedia
Women of Pakistan, from Jazbah
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Pakistan
Disaster History by Country : Pakistan, from Relief Web; Category : Disasters in Pakistan, from Wikipedia
Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Pakistan
Article Sport in Pakistan, Pakistan at the Olympics, History of Cricket in Pakistan to 1970, from 1971 to 1985, from 1986 to 2000, from 2001, from Wikipedia
Pakistan Directory, from Peace Corps Online
Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
Jennifer Crook, War in Kashmir and its Effect on the Environment, ICE Case Studies 1998, Samantha Hulkower, Kashmir: Melting Glaciers, Boiling Conflicts, ICE Case Studies 2007

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Category : Presidents of Pakistan, from Wikipedia
Lists of Ambassadors U.S. Ambassadors to Pakistan, from NNDB; Chinese Ambassadors to Pakistan, from PRC MOFA; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Karachi / Islamabad (Pakistan), from Wikipedia German edition; Embajadores de Mexico en Pakistan, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Government of Pakistan, Population Census Organization
Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Economic Affairs & Statistics
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Pakistan, from Population Statistics
City Population : Pakistan, from City Population
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Election Results from Psephos (since 2002) ; from IFES Election Guide (since 2002)
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques Wikipedia : List of Online Newspaper Archives : Pakistan
Selected Articles History of Pakistan, from World History Archives
Life Magazine, 1936-1972, Search for "Pakistan", search all issues; 736 Pakistan articles, GB
Modern Newspapers links from World Newspapers, from Online Newspapers, from ABYZ News Links
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Pakistani History, from Webshots
History Pakistan - Partition - 14 August 1947, from NowPublic
Our Pakistan, Historic Images of Pakistan
Historic Karachi 1918-1930s
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Oriental Collections
Items on Pakistan
Pakistan, from Images of Asia
Pakistan : Karachi, from Tram Views of Asia
AGSL Digital Photo Archive : Asia and Middle East
Asian Historical Architecture, a Photographic Survey
Contemporary Views of Central Asia (late 1970s-early 1980s)
Universal Collections
Items on Pakistan
License Plate, from World License Plate
Passport, from World Passports
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Airline Timetable Images : Pakistan
Medals of Pakistan, from OMSA
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK) for Pakistan
The U.S. and the South Asia Crisis of 1971, from National Security Archive
India / Pakistan - on the Nuclear Threshold, from National Security Archive
Pakistan, from British Library (Guide to Sources)
Pakistan Collection, from IISG (NL)
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Pakistan, from ILO, 34 docs. since 1947
Internet Law Library : Pakistan; Constitution, from Pakistani.org
Treaties Peace Agreements Digital Collection : India-Pakistan, from United States Institute of Peace
Pakistan, pp.645-650 in vol.10 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1972, GB
Document Surveys British Library, Guide to Current South Asian Official Publications; scroll down for Pakistan
Document Collections Documents on Jammu and Kashmir, from Vinnie's Homepage
Pakistan Documents, from Vinnie's Homepage
Kashmir Historical Documents, from jkashmir.net; from Kashmir Information
Speeches by M.A. Jinnah, from pakistan.gov.pk
Pakistan Documents, from SATP
UN General Assembly 2nd Session 1947-1948, Resolution No.108; 25th Session 1970-1971, Resolution No.2643; 26th Session 1971-1972, Resolution No.2790, 47th Session 1992-1993, Resolution No.47/2, 60th Session 2005-2006, Resolution No.60/13
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO : National Map Agencies, Pakistan : Survey of Pakistan (SP), Rawalpindi
collections WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Pakistan page
Atlas of Pakistan, from Wikimedia
Category : Old Maps of Pakistan, Maps of the History of Pakistan, Wikimedia Commons
Schwartzberg, Historical Atlas of South Asia, posted by DSAL
Pakistan Maps, PCL, UTexas
Historical and Political Maps of India 1805-1995, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Pakistan, hindsight
Pakistan, contemporary Afghanistan & Pakistan, from Asian Linguistic Maps
Languages of India, map by Stephen Huffman
Maps : Iranian Languages, Indic Languages from Titus
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries
As Pakistan was conceived in the 1930es and established in 1947, earlier encyclopedia editions naturally do not have Pakistan entries. Look under Punjab, Kashmir, Sindh, Balochistan, North West Frontier Province, and - until 1967 - East Bengal
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives National Archives of Pakistan
National Archives of Pakistan, from Archives Wiki
Archives in Pakistan, from e-prints in library and information service
Huntington Archive of Buddhist and Buddhist-related Art, Pakistan
Musea Museums in Pakistan, from National Fund for Cultural Heritage
Monuments Tentative List : Pakistan, World Heritage List, scroll down for Pakistan, World Heritage in Danger, scroll down for Pakistan, from UNESCO World Heritage
Libraries National Library of Pakistan
Libraries in Pakistan, from LibDex
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Emblem, from Wikipedia; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Pakistan from World Currency Museum; of Pakistan, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money, from Zeno
Numismatic Collections of Coins - Pakistan, bilingual Russian-English site

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Pakistan survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database Bibliography Pakistan
general bibliographies pp.229-252 in S.J. Burki, Historical Dictionary of Pakistan, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1993 [G]
pp.361-400 in S.J. Burki, Historical Dictionary of Pakistan, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 1999 [G]
pp.541-582 in S.J. Burki, Historical Dictionary of Pakistan, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 2006, KMLA Library R 954.91003 B959h
Bibliography, from Library of Congress Country Studies : Pakistan
annual bibliographies Annual Bibliography of Indian History and Indology vol.4 IA
Pakistan National Bibliography 1998-2010
specialist bibliographies SAFHR, Partition in the West - Punjab, Annotated Bibliography
Bibliography of Iqbal and Pakistan Movement
Tribal Textiles, Pakistan Bibliography
S.A. Zaidi, Annotated Bibliography on Poverty in Pakistan
V. Lal, Select Research Bibliography on the Partition of India
References attached to abstract : Ali Imran, Historical Impacts of Pakistan's Economy, posted by Sage Publications
serial publications Publications, from NIHCR
New Asia Books : Pakistan
general bibliographies
Pakistan entries
from UC Berkeley, South Asia Library
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for Pakistan
Food and Culture (Bibliography) : South Asia
D. Ludden, Bibliography on South Asian Agrarian History (c.1990)
Bibliography on Topics Relevant to Indic Civilization, from Indic Studies
Labor in South Asia, a Bibliography, from UC Berkeley Library
booksellers Oxford University Press Pakistan
Online Libraries general Project Gutenberg, Online Catalogue, keywords Ceylon
Internet Archive
International Boundary Studies
Center for Research Libraries (CRL)
on Pakistan Digital Library Pakistan (links to international digital libraries; seems not to have a section for literature on Pakistan & its predecessors)
Theses Server Pakistan Research Repository
Online Journals full text online Pakistan Journal of History and Culture (NIHCR)
Search Parameters, US Army War College Quarterly 1971- for Pakistan
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Annual of Urdu Studies 1981-
Journal Asiatique 1822-1940
The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, JSTOR : 1835-1865
Table of Contents online
General Accounts Christophe Jaffrelot (ed.), A History of Pakistan and its Origins, translated from the French, London : Anthem Press (2002) 2004, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 954.91 J23h
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.25, pp.393-406 Article Pakistan. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.25
Mushirul Hasan (ed.), The Partition Omnibus, Oxford : UP 2002, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 954.03 P132p
Specific Topics Chr.V. Hill, South Asia : an Environmental History, Santa Barbara : ABC Clio 2008, 329 pp., KMLA Lib. Call Sign 304.2 H645s
Historical Dictionaries S.J. Burki, Historical Dictionary of Pakistan, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1993 [G]
S.J. Burki, Historical Dictionary of Pakistan, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 1999 [G]
S.J. Burki, Historical Dictionary of Pakistan, Lanham MD : 3rd edition Scarecrow 2006, KMLA Library R 954.91003 B959h
Articles : Baluchistan pp.57-59, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]
Historical Atlasses C. Collin Davies, An Historical Atlas of the Indian Peninsula, Oxford : UP, 2nd edition, 1959 [G]
Historical and Cultural Maps, National Atlas of India Vol.8, published by National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organisation, Calcutta 1983, edited by G.K . Dutt, S.K. Biswas [G]
J.E. Schwartzberg, A Historical Atlas of South Asia, Chicago : UP 1978 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]

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