1949-1969 History of Italy Italy since 1990

Italy, 1969-1990

Foreign Policy . Domestic Policy . The Economy . Cultural History

Foreign Policy . Italy was member of NATO, EEC/ EC, European Council, UN. Italy received more benefits from EEC coffers than it paid to the organization; EEC member countries bought the bulk of Italy's exports and provided the majority of the tourists visiting Italy.

Domestic Policy . In the late 1960es, a considerable number especially of young Italians was disaffected with the political system. A radical terrorist organization, the Brigate Rosse (Red Brigades) undertook a terrorist campaign; among others they abducted and subsequently assassinated DC politician Aldo Moro (1978).
Italy introduced civil divorce legislation in 1970, legalized abortion under certain conditions in 1978.
Italy's Communists, under E. Berlinguer, after 1968 had developed a profile of their own, distancing themselves from the USSR; they were referred to as Eurocommunists, not sticking to dogmatism, but willing to cooperate with the other political parties (Historical Compromise). In certain towns of Italy, they formed the administration, proving their will to live with the political system as well as their ability to pragmatically tackle the problems. In the years of detente, the public's fear of the communists thus declined; the communists were regarded as an uncorrupted political movement.
In Italy's industrial north, populist Umberto Bossi founded the Northern League. 120 years after unification, Italy's south, the Mezzogiorno economically was as far backward in comparison to the north as it had been in the period of unification; Bossi advocated a secession of the north (called 'Padania', after Po River).
The collapse of communism made Italy's peculiar democratic system - the PCI an opposition party by definition, the DC the main government party by definition, obsolete.

The Economy . Italy long had operated with comparatvely large budget deficits, which in return had caused inflation and a gradual further depriciation of her currency, the Lira. The Maastricht Treaty (1992) establishing economic conditions to be met for member nations to join the Euro Zone provided an incentive for Italy to pass deepgoing reforms; Italy was widely regarded not capable of making the criteria.

Cultural History . In 1969, Salvadoe E. Luria, U.S. citizen of Italian origin, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiognomy In 1975, Italian Eugenio Montale was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Italy won the Soccer World Cup in 1982, held in Spain (3-1 victory over the FRG) and hosted the Soccer World Cup in 1990 (FRG won 1-0 over Argentina). In 1984, Italian Carlo Rubbio was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics. In 1986, Italian Rita Levi-Montalcini was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiognomy. In 1990, Italian writer Alberto Moravia died.

Cronologia, Italian language site on Italian and World History
History of Italy : Republic, from Wikipedia
Political Resources on the Net : Italy
Timeline of Italian history, from BBC News, focussed on recent history
Italy, economic indicators 1968-1978, from the Oil Crisis History Site
Antonio Negro, Between Historic Compromise and Terrorism (Le Monde Diplomatique 1998), from Negri Archive
The History of Fiat, from Fiat New Zealand, from Fiat, from Wikipedia
Alberto Moravia, from Books and Writers
DOCUMENTS World Statesmen : Italy
Historical Population Statistics : Italy, from Population Statistics, Univ. Utrecht
REFERENCE History Book Reviews : Italy

Frances Winwar, The Land and People of Italy, Philadelphia : Lippincott (1951) revised edition 1971 [G]
Article Italy, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1970 pp.443-445, 1971 pp.424-425, 1972 pp.390-391, 1973 pp.387-389, 1974 pp.390-392, 1975 pp.415-416, 1976 pp.440-444, 1977 pp.435-437, 1978 pp.468-471, 1979 pp.462-464, 1980 pp.465-467, 1981 pp.467-469, 1982 pp.466-468, 1983 pp.458-460, 1984 pp.459-461, 1985 pp.535-536, 708-709, 1986 pp.528-530, 705-706, 1987 pp.500-502, 674-675, 1988 pp.456-457, 626-627, 1989 pp.457-459, 627-628, 1990 pp.472-474, 642-643 [G]
Arthur Marwick, The Sixties., Cultural Revolution in Britain, France, Italy, and the United States, c.1958-c.1974, Oxford : UP 1998, 903 pp KMLA Lib.Sign. 940.55 M891s
Article : Italy, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Encyclopedia Yearbook 1983 pp.206-207 [G]
Article Italy, in : Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.22 pp.165-247, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862n v.22
Article : Italy, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 pp.1078-1090 , 1975-1976 pp.1071-1083, 1976-1977 pp.1077-1090, 1978-1979 pp.715-726, 1979-1980 pp.720-731, 1980-1981 pp.718-729, 1981-1982 pp.720-731, 1983-1984 pp.720-731, 1984-1985 pp.721-732, 1985-1986 pp.724-735, 1986-1987 pp.724-735, 1987-1988 pp.731-742, 1988-1989 pp.732-743, 1989-1990 pp.741-752 [G]
Article : Italy, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.236-239, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.236-239, 4th ed. 1984 pp.236-239 [G]
Article : Italy, in : Americana Annual 1971 pp.374-377, 1972 pp.369-372, 1973 pp.373-377, 1974 pp.312-315, 1976 pp.314-316, 1988 pp.295-297, 1989 pp.297-299, 1990 pp.289-292 [G]
Article : Italy, in : Yearbook on International Communist Affairs 1980 pp.178-185 (Giacomo Sani)

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First posted in 2000, last revised on March 2nd 2007

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