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Literature on the History of North Africa
First posted on November 24th 2011

The area around Tunis served as a political-administrative center since the days of Carthago (established in c. 800 B.C., conquered by Rome 146 B.C.). In 670 A.D., Kairouan was established as the camp of the army of Islam; Carthago fell in 695. As regional capital, Kairouan soon was replaced by Tunis. The regional population (hitherto largely Christian) in a gradual process converted to Islam and adopted the Arab language.
Tunis often served as the capital of a dynasty, at times was under the rule of a dynasty residing elsewhere. Following the fall of the last Muslim emirate on the Iberian Peninsula, Granada, in 1492, Tunis was exposed to Spanish attacks. See here for the history of the Maghreb from the Arab conquest to the early 16th Century.

Djerba was held by Spain 1521-1524 and 1551-1560. The city of Tunis was held by Spain 1535-1573, La Goletta 1535-1574, Bizerta 1535-1574, Mehedia from 1550 to 1554; the island of Tabarca off Bizerta was held by Genoa from 1541 to 1741. The Hafsid Dynasty of Tunis in 1524 accepted Spanish suzerainty. In 1534, Ottoman Corsair Khaireddin Barbarossa took Tunis and its hinterland. In 1535 a Spanish expedition retook Tunis and reinstalled the Hafsid ruler, but could control only the city and a few coastal places. Tunis was retaken in the name of the Ottoman Empire in 1573 by Corsair Uluj Ali. Tunis now became an Ottoman Eyalet. While both Algiers and Tunis enjoyed the status of Eyalets under the protection of the Ottoman Empire, they frequently were at war with each other. Their ports also provided a haven for corsairs who harrassed Christian shipping in the Mediterranean and Atlantic; hence the coast of the Maghrib in western sources was called the Barbary Coast. From 1613 onward the position of provincial governor again was held within a family, the Muradid Dynasty 1640-1702, In 1705, the Sublime Porte recognized the position of the new Husaynid dynasty and elevated the 'Elayet of Tunis' to the Beylik of Tunis. Ottoman suzerainty over it was merely nominal.

Timeline : Tunisia
List of Wars, Tunisia

Students' Papers : Lee, Seungwoo : Environmental History of North Africa (2009)

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P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
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Country Profiles Current
Historic J. Morgan, Algemeene beschryvinge van Barbaryen, Dutch trsl. of English or., 1733, GB
Links on History Category : Ottoman Tunisia, from Wikipedia (as of Nov. 25th 2011 does not list all relevant articles the Wikipedia has); Category : History of Tunisia, from Wikipedia
History of Tunisia, from European Navigator
Harissa, French language website with numerous pages on detailed aspects of Tunisian history
Historical Dictionary
Organizations Institut Superieure d'Histoire du Mouvement National
Societe d'Histoire des Juifs en Tunisie
Article : Comite International d'Etudes Morisques , from Wikipedia French edition
Centre d'Etudes Maghrebines a Tunis
Timelines timelines.ws ; from Timelines DB; from Tunisia Online; from Focus on Tunisia
Accounts of History current Articles : History of Ottoman-era Tunisia, from Wikipedia
historical M. Roseo, Delle historie del mondo, vol.3 1562 ed., 1598 ed., in Italian, GB, many Tunigi entries
Pierre Dan, Histoire de Barbarie et de ses corsaires, des royaumes, et des villes d'Alger, de Tunis .., 1649, in French, GB
G.B.B. Avogadro, Historia Africana della divisione dell'Imperio degli Arabi 1650, in Italian, GB
Jacques Philippe Laugier de Tassy, Histoire des etats barbaresques qui exercent la piraterie, 1757, in French, GB
R. van der Pijl, Korte Beschrijving der Staten van Barbarije : Marocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli en Fezzan, 1816, in Dutch, IA
G.A. Jackson, Algiers: being a complete picture of the Barbary states; their government, laws, religion, and natural productions; and containing a sketch of their various revolutions, a description of the domestic manners and customs of the Moors, Arabs, and Turks; an account of the four great capitals of Algiers, Tripoli, Tunis, and Morocco, and a narrative of the various attacks upon Algiers, by the European states; including a faithful detail of the late glorious victory of Lord Exmouth , 1817, IA
M. Russell, History and present condition of the Barbary states, 1837, GB
J.J. Marcel, Histoire de Tunis: pr??ee d'une description de cette regence 1851, in French, GB
A. Rousseau, Annales tunisiennes: ou, Aper? historique sur la regence de Tunis 1864, in French, GB
The Beys of Tunis, 1705-1869, pp.188- in A. Perry, Carthage and Tunis: past and present 1869, GB
Specific Periods G.J. de Lavergne Guilleragues, Histoire d'Ali, prince de Tunis, 1689, in French, GB
Article : Hafsid Dynasty, Muradid Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Foreign Relations
Military List of Tunisia-Related Topics : History, from Wikipedia; scroll down for Military History
E. Wiens, Unternehmungen Kaiser Karls V. gegen die Raubstaaten Tunis, Algier und Mehedia, 1832, in German, GB
Victor Louis Marie Gaillard. Expedition de Gui de Dampierre a Tunis, en 1270 , 1835, in French, GB
Gonzalo de Illescas, Jornada de Carlos V a Tunez,1-2, 1839, in Spanish, GB
Fatto d'arme terrestre, tra Muleasse, e Rossette, ne gli anno del Signore 1532, a Tunisi pp.625-628 in vol.2 of G.C. Saraceni, I fatti d'arme famosi successi tra tutte le natione del mondo, 1600, in Italian, GB
Articles : Ottoman Capture of Tunis 1534, Spanish Capture of Tunis 1535, Capture of Mahdye 1550, Battle of Djerba 1560, Ottoman Conquest of Tunis 1574, Action of 1616 (Spanish naval victory), Action of March 1665 (French naval victory over Algerians in Tunisian waters), from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances Global Currency History : Tunisia; Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Tunisia
Tunisian Ceramics and Pottery : History, from Raken
R. Dusgate, Notice sur les poids, mesures et monnaies de Tunis, 1832, in French, GB
See Barbary, in N. Cox, K. Dannehl, Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities, 1550-1820, 2007, posted by British History Online
Social History Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Tunisia, by R. Winslow
Ethnography Languages of Tunisia (8), from Ethnologue
Article Berber People, from Wikipedia, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Tunisia
Slimane Mostafa Zbiss, Histoire des Andalous en Tunisie
A.E.H. Carette, Recherches sur l'origine et les migrations des principales tribus de l'Afrique septentrionale et particulierement de l'Algerie 1853, in French, GB
Article : Italian Tunisians, from Wikipedia
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Tunisia, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Tunisia, from Jewish Virtual Library; History of Tunisian Jews, from Harissa; Tunisia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category Religion in Tunisia, from Wikipedia
International Religious Freedom Report 2003 : Tunisia, from U.S. Department of State
Histoire des Juifs en Tunisie, from Harissa, many subfiles
History of Regions History of Djerba, from Wikipedia
Governorates, Delegations of Tunisia, from www.statoids.com
Local History List of Cities in Tunisia, from Wikipedia
Article Bizerte : History, Gabes : History, Kairouan : History, Sfax : History, Sousse : History, Tunis : History from Wikipedia
History of Kairouan, of Sfax, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
Institutions Structurae : Tunisia; search Lighthouse Explorer for Tunisia
Culture Online Publications on the History of Tunisian Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Biographies Famous Tunisians, from Nations Encyclopedia
African Women Bibliographic Database
Tunicia : Husainid Dynasty, Christopher Buyers
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Tunisia
Disaster History by Country : Tunisia, from Relief Web
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
J.L.G. Guyon, Histoire chronologique des epidemies du Nord de l'Afrique, depuis les temps les plus recules jusqu'la nos jours 1855, in French, GB

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies, scroll down for Tunisia; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors List of French representatives in Barbaresques/Tunis, of Barbaresques/Tunis in France pp.xli-xliv in vol.38 of F. Schoell, Cours d'histoire des etats Europeens 1833, in French, GB
Lists of Consuls On Consuls in Tunis, 1271-, Manuel des consuls, pp.451-452, 1838, in French, GB
A. de Miltitz, Manuel des Consuls, vol.2 pt.2 : Des Consulats a l'Etranger par les Principaux Etats de l'Europe et les Etats-Unis de l'Amerique du Nord, bk.3 : Etablissement des Consulats a l'Etranger, France et Tunis pp.178-201, Deux-Siciles et Tunis pp.259-260, Sardaigne et Tunis pp.324-325, Espagne et Tunis pp.495-498, Portugal et Tunis p.588, Grande Bretagne et Tunis pp.866-875, Pays-Bas et Tunis pp.996-1001, Danemark et Tunis pp.1092-1097, Suede et Tunis pp.1178-1182, Autriche et Tunis pp.1452-1458, Etats Unis d'Amerique et Tunis pp.1588-1594, 1839, in French, GB
France et Tunis, pp.329-335 in L.J.A. de Moreuil, Manuel des agents consulaires français et etrangers, 1853, in French, GB
Lists of Bishops Article : Episcopal See of Carthage, from Wikipedia
Article : Arcidiocesi di Tunisi, from Wikipedia Italian edition; more detailed
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers]
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Painting : J.C. Vermeyen, Attack at la Goletta, 16th century, from Wikipedia
Archival Deposits Tunisia Documents, from Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties Antoine Isaac Silvestre de Sacy, Memoire sur le traite fait entre Philippe-le-Hardi et le Roi de Tunis, en 1270, 1825, in French, GB
Antiguos tratados de paces y alianzas entre algunos reyes de Aragon y Diferentes Principes Infieles de Asia y Africa, desde el Siglo XIII hasta el XV, (136 pp.), (118 pp.), 1786, GB
Edgard Rouard de Card (ed.), Traites de la France avec les pays de l'Afrique du nord, Algerie, Tunisie, Tripolitanie, Maroc, 1906, in French, GB
Recueil des traites de la Porte ottomane avec les puissance etrange?res, depuis le premier traite conclu, en 1536, entre Suleyman I et Francçois I jusqu'a nos jours, vol.1, 1864, vol.2, 1865, vol.3, 1866, vol.4, 1876, vol.5, 1882, vol.6, 1884, vol.7, 1892, vol.8, 1894, vol.9, 1898, vol.10, 1901, in French, posted on Internet Archive
Treaties Between Turkey and Foreign Powers. 1535-1855, 1855, posted on Internet Archive
Etats Barbaresques : Tunis, pp.142-144 in vol.1 of Table des traites entre la France et les puissances etrangeres, depuis la paix de Westphalie jusqu'a nos jours, 1802, GB
Document Surveys Catalogues of Oriental Manuscripts, at this site
Document Collections The Chronicles of Rabbi Joseph ben Joshua ben Meir, Oriental Translation Fund, 1836, GB
Documenti sulla storia di Tunis: dall' anno 883 avanti G. C., fino all' anno 1837, vol.1, 2, 1838, GB
Corona catalano-aragonesa, Ordenanzas de las armadas navales de la Corona de Aragon, 1787, GB
Negociations de la France dans le Levant; ou, Correspondances, m?oires et actes diplomatiques des ambassadeurs de France a Constantinople et des ambassadeurs, envoyes ou residents a divers titres a Venise, Raguse, Rome, Malte et Jerusalem, en Turquie, Perse, Georgie, Crimee, Syrie, Egypte, etc., et dans les etats de Tunis, d'Alger et de Maroc, vol.1 : 1515-1546, 1848, GB, vol.2 : 1547-1566, 1850, IA, GB, vol.3 : 1567-1580, 1853, IA, GB vol.4 : 1581-1589, 1860, IA, GB
Historical Maps Maps of Tunis, from Historic Cities
Map : Tunis Eyalet 1609, from Wikipedia
Encyclopedia Entries
Geographical Juan Diaz, Primera parte de la descripcion general de Affrica , Tunez entries, 1573, in Spanish, GB
Provincia Cartaginense, p.159 in G. Botero, Relationi Universale di Giovanni Botero, 1640, in Italian, GB
Della Barbaria, pp.94-95 in vol.1 of L. de Linda, Le relationi et descritioni universali et particolari del mondo 1674, in Italian, GB
Tunis, pp.969-970 in C. Maty, Dictionnaire geographique universel, 1701, in French, GB
Tunetanum, pp.536-537 in G. Cellarius, Geographia nova, sive hodiernam terrarum orbis faciem clarissime illustrans 1716, in Latin, GB
Historical Entry : Tunis, p.84 in : vol.3 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1746, GB
Le Royaume de Tunis, pp.198-209 in : Ferdinand Ludwig Bresler, Les souverains du monde, 1722, in French, GB
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives Archives Nationales, Tunisie
Search AHA Archives Wiki for Tunisia
Les Archives Nationales de Tunisie
Repositories of Primary Sources : Africa and the Near East : Tunisia, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 2 entries
Archives, from Institut Superieure d'Histoire du Mouvement National
Musea Lists, Links Category : Museums in Tunisia, from Wikipedia
Museums in Tunisia, from International Council of African Museums
Musees, from Institut Superieure d'Histoire du Mouvement National
Musea Museum Websites
Monuments World Heritage List, scroll down for Tunisia; from UNESCO World Heritage; Tentative Lists : Tunisia
Tunisia List, from Showcaves
Libraries Bibliotheque Nationale, Tunisie
Tunisia, from Directory of Libraries in North Africa
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes Coin Catalogue of Tunisia, from Numismaticon; Tunisia Coins, from World Coin Gallery; Tunisia, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins

Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Tunisia Tunisia, from Online Books Page
Bibliography Tunisia (anonymous)
Tunisia Bibliography, from NNDB
Tunesien-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on North Africa
H.S. Ashbee, A bibliography of Tunisia from the earliest times to the end of 1888 (in two parts) including Utica and Carthage, the Punic wars, the Roman occupation, the Arab conquest, the expeditions of Louis IX. and Charles V. and the French protectorate (1889), posted on Internet Archive
Publications, from Institut Superieure d'Histoire du Mouvement National
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Swiss Electronic Library; Gallica
on Tunisia Digital Library, National Library of Tunisia
Online Journals full text online Persee (Digital Library of Academic Journals, Mainmtained in France)
Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Mediterran? 1966-1999, Persee
Table of Contents
Rafawid (in French, 1995-)
Watha'iq (1984-)
Historiography Article : African Historiography - North Africa (Maghreb), by E. Ann McDougall and Mohamed Lahbib Noubi, pp.8-11, Article : Arabic Historiography, by E.M. Choueiri, pp.40-42 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.24, pp.990-995 Article North Africa : Tunisia. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.24
H. Vivian, Tunisia and the modern Barbary pirates (1899), posted on Internet Archive
Jamil M. Abun-Nasr, A History of the Maghrib, Cambridge : UP 1971 [G]
Economic History
Special Topics Norman A. Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands, A History and Source Book, Philadelphia : Jewish Publication Society of America 1979, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 909.04 S857j
Historical Dictionaries Kenneth J. Perkins, Historical Dictionary of Tunisia, Lanham Md.: Scarecrow 2nd ed. 1997

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