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Literature on the History of North Africa
Morocco History of Northern Africa Mauritania
First posted on July 4th 2002, last revised May 13th 2013

Spain claimed possession of Rio de Oro in 1884, of Saguia el Hamra in 1912 and of Cabo Juby in 1912 (effective occupation 1916).
In 1939 Rio de Oro and Saguia el Hamra were jopined to form the Spanish Sahara; Cabo Juby (long administered as an annex) was annexed into the Spanish Sahara in 1948, but ceded to Morocco in 1957.
When Spain withdrew from the Spanish Sahara in 1975, the country was partitioned by Morocco and Mauritania. The Polisario (Western Sahara Liberation Front), supported by Algeria, fought the occupation. Mauritania withdrew in 1978, and Morocco also occupied the south. Morocco had a series of walls built, which resulted in effective Moroccan control within the walls.
While the Western Sahara is recognized by a number of governments, Morocco remains in control of the larger, and economically more valuable part of the country.

Western Sahara since 1976 . Spanish Sahara, 1936-1976 . Spanish Sahara, 1924-1936 . Rio de Oro 1884-1924

Timeline : Western Sahara
Historical Atlas, Western Sahara


note : In 1975, the Spanish administration of what until then was referred to as the Spanish Sahara was terminated. Morocco and Mauretania partitioned the Western Sahara; in 1978 Mauretania withdrew and Morocco absorbed the entire Western Sahara. A Sahrawi exile government, with Algerian support, was formed in 1976.
Morocco's annexation of the Western Sahara has not been internationally recognized. Many of the websites below refer to the exile government. A number of links below will only refer to organizations representing the SADR / regard the Moroccan hold of the territory illegitimate. User discretion is advised
Country Profiles from BBC Country Profiles; from Wikipedia; from Index Mundi; from CIA World Factbook; countries Western Sahara
Encyclopedia of the Orient : Western Sahara
Links, General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World, from BUBL, from African Studies Center, UPenn, from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford
African Studies : W. Sahara, from Columbia Univ. Library
Category : Western Sahara, from Wikipedia
Links, on History Category : History of Western Sahara, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines Timeline, from Western Sahara Online, very detailed, official site (Polisario)
Accounts of History from Western Sahara Online; from Wikipedia; from Speedy Look
Category : History of Western Sahara, from Wikipedia
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Western Sahara; Country Profile : Western Sahara, from ISS; List of political parties in the Western Sahara, from Wikipedia
Western Sahara Profile, from International Crisis Group
Military M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Morocco vs. Polisario Front, 1975-
Economy & Finances Article : Economy of Western Sahara, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of Western Sahara, from Wikipedia
Global Currency History : Western Sahara
Ethnography Articles : Hassaniya, from Wikipedia
Forced Migration Online Research Guide Western Sahara 2004
Refugee Camps, from Western Sahara Online
People, from Western Sahara Online
Refugee Studies Centre : Stories of a Nation : Historical Narratives and Visions of the Future in Sahrawi Refugee Camps 2005, from Forced Migration Online
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Western Sahara, from Kirken i Norge
Western Sahara, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
History of Regions see Ifni
Articles Cape Juby, Rio de Oro, Saguia el Hamra, from Wikipedia
History of Cities List of Cities in the Western Sahara, from Wikipedia
Institutions Structurae : Western Sahara; search Lighthouse Explorer for Western Sahara
Biographies African Women Bibliographic Database
Others Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
Disaster History by Country : Western Sahara, from Relief Web
Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Western Sahara, by R. Winslow

Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel)
Prime Minister of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Western Sahara, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
Election Results
Online Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Western Sahara
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Document Collections
Historical Maps responsible institutions
information J.A.R. Esteban, El Mapa del Africa Occidental Espanola de 1949 a escala 1:500.000: orgullo militar, camelladas y juegos poeticos saharauis, European Journal of Geography 2011
collections Western Sahara Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Maps of Western Sahara, from Wikimedia Commons
Sahara Mili, Mapas de Sahara Occidental
Maghreb, Modern Y. Jardin, P. Rekacewicz, Les berberes en Afrique du nord 1994
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 900 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1000 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Maghreb, contemporary Bonne, Maghreb 1771, Wikipedia
Herisson, Atlas Portatif, Barbarie, 1806, posted by M. Witkam
Vuillemin, Maghreb 1843, Wikipedia
Stielers Handatlas, 2nd edition, North and West Africa, 1847, posted by M. Witkam
Stanfords, North West Africa, c.1900, Emerson Kent
W. Sahara, Modern Welsh Center for International Affairs, Map Western Sahara : Moroccan Walls
W. Sahara, Contemporary La Historia con Mapas : El Sahara Occidental o Republica Arabe Saharaui Democratica
Encyclopedia Entries Article Rio de Oro, from EB 1911
Article Adrar, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888-1890, in German
Tour Guides La Ssahhra, pp.249-278 in C.P. de Kerhallet, Manuel de la navigation ?la c?e occidentale d'Afrique vol.1, 1857, in French, GB
Archives, Musea, Libraries
National Symbols Flag, from FOTW
Coat of Arms of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, from Wikipedia
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of the Western Sahara, from World Currency Museum
Sahrawi Coins, from African Coins and Tokens
Stamps Rio de Oro Stamps 1905-1921, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on W. Sahara survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
general bibliographies pp.371-431 in T. Hodges, Historical Dictionary of the Western Sahara, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1982 [G]
ARSO, Western Sahara : Thematic Bibliography
T. Monod, Notes bibliographiques sur le Sahara occidental, Journal de la Societe des Africanistes Annee 1933 Volume 3 Numero 3-1 pp.129-196, Persee
T. Monod, Notes bibliographiques sur le Sahara occidental, premier supplement ibid. Numero 3-2 pp.335-340, Persee
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies
serial publications
general bibliographies
W. Sahara entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Westsahara-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
Bibliographie de l'Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord des originmes a la fin du Moyen-Age
Bibliographie Maghreb (1), (2), (3) from Haldun Overblog
Temehu. Bibliography. A List of Books About the Berbers, Berber history, language and culture.
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
International Boundary Studies
on the Western Sahara Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
General Accounts
Historical Dictionary Terry M. Mays, Historical Dictionary of Multinational Peacekeeping, Lanman Md. : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
Tony Hodges, Historical Dictionary of Western Sahara, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1982 [G]

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