History by Country . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . HI . JK . L . M . N . OP . QR . S . TUV . WXYZ

First posted on July 9th 2002, last revised on February 15th 2013





Abbreviations : NSW = New South Wales, NT = Northern Territories, QLD = Queensland, SA = South Australia, TAS = Tasmania, VIC = Victoria, WA = Western Australia

European Exploration : First recorded sighting by V.O.C. employee Willem Janszoon 1606.

Colonization - Claim : Botany Bay (NSW) 1788, Albany (WA) 1791

Colonization - Date of First Settlement : NSW 1788, TAS 1803, WA 1827, SA 1836.

Colonization - Establishment of Colonies as Administrative Units : NSW 1788, Van Diemens Land 1825 (renamed Tasmania 1856), WA 1827, SA 1836, Victoria 1851 (separated from NSW), QLD 1859 (separated from NSW), NT (1824-1863 part of NSW; 1863-1912 part of SA; since 1912 separate), In 1901 the colonies of NSW, QLD, SA, TAS, VIC and WA established the Commonwealth of Australia.

Name : During much of the 19th century, the Australian colonies were listed as part of Australasia, together with New Zealand and islands of the western Pacific. "Australia" was a commonly used geographical term long before it was officially adopted in 1899.

Development of Democracy : NSW parliament established in 1823, WA parliament established 1832, SA parliament established 1840, VIC parliament established 1851, TAS parliament established 1856, QLD parliament established 1859. Universal adult male suffrage (over 21) introduced 1855 (SA) - 1858 (NSW) except for TAS (1896). SA granted universal adult women's suffrage in 1895, WA in 1900, the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.

Demography and Ethnography : Until 1787, Australia sparsely inhabited by native Australians called aborigines.
1788 begin of European immigration. Early Colonization; NSW Penal Colony 1788-1823 (the first free immigrants arrived in NSW in 1793). Victorian Gold Rush (from 1851 onward) resulted in sharply increased immigration figures. The Suez Canal and improving technology made possible ocean liners to regularly service the connection between England and Australia.
The first Chinese immigrant arrived in 1818; during the 19th century, large numbers of Chinese "coolies" were brought into the country, as cheap labour. The Australian workers of European descent (who felt threatened by cheap Chinese competition, and who, in contrast to their Chinese competitors, had the right to vote) successfully campaigned for the termination of Chinese and other Asian immigration (White Australia Policy 1901-1973). Now, Pacific islanders were brought to Australia to provide cheap labour. In 1983 the last voting restrictions based on race were lifted.

Timeline : Australia






E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others



DIRECTORY OF NON-KOREAN LANGUAGE INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current CIA World Factbook : Australia; BBC Country Profile : Australia
Article : Australia, from Wikipedia
Library of Congress Country Profiles : Australia
Historical
Links General
on History
Organizations Australian Archaeological Association
Federation of Australian Historical Societies, Australian Historical Association, Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Royal Historical Society of Victoria, Royal Western Australian Historical Society, History Council New South Wales
Australian Society of Archivists
The Numismatic Association of Australia
Australian Mining History Association
Australian Society for the Study of Labour History
Military History Society of Australia, Military History Society of Western Australia
Australasian Federation of Family History Organizations, Queensland Family History Society
History Teachers' Association of Australia, History Teachers' Association of New South Wales, Queensland History Teachers' Association, History Teachers' Association of South Australia (and the Northern Territories), History Teachers' Association of Victoria, History Teachers' Association of Western Australia
Australian Society for Sports History
Oral History Association of Australia
European Association for Studies of Australia, International Australian Studies Association
Historical Dictionary Ancyclopedia of Australian Science
Timelines Timeline, from BBC News; from timelines.ws
Accounts of History Current Article from Wikipedia : History of Australia
australia.gov.au, History
Historical W. Pridden, Australia, its history and present condition 1843, IA
M.A.H. Clarke, History of the Continent of Australia and the Island of Tasmania 1877, IA
D. Blair, The history of Australasia : from the first dawn of discovery in the Southern ocean to the establishment of self-government in the various colonies, comprising the settlement and history of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand, together with some account of Fiji and New Guinea 1878, IA
G.W. Rusden, History of Australia, vol.1 1883, vol.2 1883, vol.3 1883, IA
A. Sutherland, The History of Australia from 1606 to 1888 1892, IA
A. Sutherland, History of Australia from 1606 to 1890, 1894, IA
E. Jenks, A history of the Australasian colonies 1912, IA
A.W. Tilby, Australasia 1688-1911, The English People Overseas, 1912, IA
E. Scott, A short history of Australia, 1916, IA
T. Bateson, A short history of Australia, 1914, IA
R.P. Thomson, A national history of Australia, New Zealand & the adjacent islands from their discovery to the centennial era and from that period to the present day 1917, IA
Specific Periods W. Howitt, The History of Discovery in Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand 1865, IA
J.E.T. Woods, A History of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia 1865, IA
J. Bonwick, First Twenty Years of Australia: A History Founded on Official Documents 1882, IA
Article : Victorian Gold Rush, from Wikipedia
Article : European exploration of Australia, Wikipedia
Historiography Skwirk : SOSE : History (online present-day history textbook, year 9, Tasmania)
Politics Political Resources on the Web : Australia
Articles from Wikipedia : Australian Labour Party, White Australia Policy, Liberal Party of Australia
J.T. Sutcliffe, A history of trade unionism in Australia, 1921, IA
K.R. Cramp, The state and federal constitutions of Australia, 1913, IA
A.L. Haydon, The trooper police of Australia; a record of mounted police work in the commonwealth from the earliest days of settlement to the present time 1912, IA
Military Wars of Australia 1800-1999, from ACED
F.S. Burnell, Australia versus Germany, the story of the taking of German New Guinea n.d., IA
Australian Government, Department of Veteran Affairs, Gallipoli and the Anzacs
Wikipedia : Military History of Australia
Economy & Finances H. Herbert, Modern economic history with special reference to Australia 1922, IA
G.B. Earp, The Gold Colonies of Australia, 1852, IA
T.A. Coghlan, Labour and industry in Australia from the first settlement in 1788 to the establishment of the Commonwealth in 1901, vol.1 1918, vol.2 1918, IA
C.D. Allin, A history of the tariff relations of the Australian colonies 1918, IA
Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, Technology in Australia 1788-1988
Social History J.A. Thompson, A contribution to the history of leprosy in Australia 1897, IA
G. Boxall, History of the Australian bushrangers 1908, IA
Australian Women's History Forum
Skwirk : Australia after 1945 : Changing rights and freedoms : Women
Aussie Educator, History of Australian Education
Illawarra Shoalhaven Public Health District, History of Public Health in Australia
Article : Australia, from Education Encyclopedia
Ethnography R.C. Mills, The Colonization of Australia, 1915, IA
J. Dawson, Australian Aborigines : the languages and customs of several tribes of Aborigines in the western district of Victoria, Australia 1881, IA
C. Lumholtz, Among cannibals; an account of four years' travels in Australia and of camp life with the aborigines of Queensland 1889, IA
Articles : Chinese Immigration to Australia, White Australia Policy, from Wikipedia
M. Darnell, Indentured Chinese Labourers and Employers Identified, New South Wales, 1828-1856, La Trobe
G. Giuliani, Throwaway Labour. Blackbirding and a white Australia 2011
Australian Human Rights Commission, eRace Archives : Australian South Sea Islanders A century of race discrimination under Australian law; G. Hugo, Migration between Africa and Australia: a demographic perspective 2009
Aboriginal Heritage : A Brief Aboriginal History
The Australasian Colonies, pp.909-943 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Australia, pp.246-315 in vol.1A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Australia, from Kirken i Norge
J. Kenny, A History of the Commencement and Progress of Catholicity in Australia, up to the Year 1840 1886, IA
W.H. Daniels, The Illustrated History of Methodism in Great Britain, America, and Australia 1890, IA
J. Colwell, The illustrated history of Methodism. Australia: 1812-1855. New South Wales and Polynesia: 1856 to 1902, 1904, IA
R.A. Giles, The constitutional history of the Australian church 1929, IA
R.W. Hamilton, A jubilee history of the Presbyterian Church of Victoria; or, the rise and progress of Presbyterianism from the foundation of the colony to 1888 1888, IA
Overview of World Religions : Australian Aboriginal Religion
History of Regions Articles from Wikipedia : New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Tasmania, South Australia, Western Australia
W. Harcus, South Australia, its history, resources and productions, 1876, IA
B.T. Finniss, The constitutional history of South Australia during twenty-one years 1886, IA
D.J. Gordon, The central state. South Australia: its history, progress and resources 1903, IA
J.P. Stow, South Australia : its history, productions, and natural resources 1883, IA
J. Blacket, History of South Australia: a romantic and successful experiment in colonization 1911, IA
H.G. Turner, A history of the colony of Victoria : from its discovery to its absorption into the Commonwealth of Australia, vol.1 1904, vol.2 1904, IA
J.C. Davies, Western Australia: Its History and Progress, the Native Blacks, Towns, Country Districts, and ... 1902, IA
G. Barrington, The history of New South Wales: including Botany Bay, Port Jackson, Pamaratta, Sydney, and all its dependancies, from the original discovery of the island : with the customs and manners of the natives, and an account of the English colony from its foundation to the present time 1802, IA
Local History
Institutions
Culture
Biographies Australian Dictionary of Biography
Others Australasia Ecoregion, from WWF
Australia & New Zealand Environmental History Network


DIRECTORY OF NON-KOREAN LANGUAGE INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Australia, by Ben Cahoon
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Australia, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques Australian Newspapers Online 1803-1982
scroll down for Korea
Specific Newspapers
Newspaper Clips World History Archives : Australia
Staatskalender Australian Bureau of Statistics, Year Book Australia 1908-2012
Online Yearbooks - Australia Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Entry : Australasia vol.1 1864 pp.647-680, GB, vol.2 1865 pp.647-679, GB, vol.3 1866 pp.670-705, GB, vol.4 1867 pp.698-749, GB, vol.5 1868 pp.698-749, GB, vol.6 1869 pp.705-753, GB; 1871, pp.701-749, IA, 1872, pp.700-749, IA, 1873, pp.699-745, IA, 1874, pp.701-745, IA, 1875, pp.701-745, IA, 1876, pp.713-755, IA, 1877, pp.730-772, IA, 1878, pp.730-774, IA, 1879, pp.731-774, IA, 1880, pp.731-774, IA, 1881, pp.731-774, IA, 1883, pp.731-774, IA, 1884, pp.808-853, IA, 1885, pp.828-876, IA, 1886, pp.857-913, IA, 1887, pp.887-946, IA, 1888, pp.895-958, IA, 1889, pp.909-971, IA, 1890, pp.222-300, IA, 1891, pp.228-306, IA, 1892, pp.235-312, IA, 1894, pp.235-312, IA, 1895, pp.235-312, IA, 1896, pp.235-312, IA, 1898, pp.235-312, IA, 1899, pp.253-331, IA, Australia 1903, pp.289-367, IA, 1913, pp.293-351, IA, 1919, pp.337-426, IA, 1921, pp.350-417, IA
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Picture Australia
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Western Australia Historical Photographs
firstworldwar.com, Propaganda Posters Australia
Vintage Venus : This is Australia (posters; commercial site)
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Australia
License Plates, from Francoplaque; from License Plates of the World
Airline Timetable Images : Australia
Archival Deposits British Archives Search National Archives, U.K. for Australia
ArchivesHub, UK
Mundus. Gateway to Missionary Collections in the United Kingdom
Dutch Archives Nationaal Archief (NL), Nederlandse Emigranten in Australië
Nationaal Archief (NL), Ambassade Australië
Nationaal Archief (NL), Inventaris van het archief van het Ministerie van Marine : Marinecommandant Australië, tot 27 oktober 1943 tevens Onderbevelhebber der Strijdkrachten in het Oosten en daarbij gedeponeerde archiefbescheiden, 1942-1947
Constitutions, Laws ComLaw Online (Commonwealth of Australia Law)
Treaties Australian Treaties Library, Foreign Policy Documents
Australia, pp.140-201 in vol.5 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1976, GB
Consular Reports Foreign Relations of the United States 1851-1958/1960
Historic School Textbooks
Document Surveys K. Bagnall, Digging deep: sources for Chinese-Australian history in NSW
Document Collections Australian History : Links to Online Primary Sources
Wikisource, Portal : Australia
Documenting a Democracy - Australia's Story, posted by Commonwealth of Australia
John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library, Investigating Ausatralia's History through Primary Sources, 55 docs
G.H. Swinburne, A source book of Australian history 1919, IA
New South Wales Family History Document Service, Over 30,000 pages of online records for family history research in New South Wales, Australia.
Individual Documents Bradshaw's Railway Manual, Shareholder's Guide, and Official Directory 1905 NSW State p.400, QLD State p.409, SA State p.409, TAS State p.415, VIC State p.417, IA
Historical Maps Responsible Institutions Australian Government, Geoscience Australia
Mapping and Imagery, NSW Land and Property Information
Mapping and Surveying, QLD Government
Land Information System, Tasmania
collections Historical Maps, Australia and the Pacific, PCL, UTexas
Historical Maps, Melbourne University Map Collection
Queensland Historical Atlas
information
Australia, Modern Geoscience Australia, Palaeogeographic Atlas
Australia, Historical Historical Diagrams showing the Subdivision of Australia, 10-map scan of 1904 posted by Australian Empire
Probert Encyclopaedia, Australia 1875, 1877, 1898, 1900, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1911, 1922, 1926, 1932, 1932 (2), 1936, 1938, Industries 1906, Industries and Communication 1922, Railways and Minerals 1937, Agriculture and Industries 1956, Population Density 1956
Wikimedia Commons : Australia (Colton 1855)
Detail, Modern Atlas of South Australia
Queensland Historical Atlas
Detail, Historical data.gov.au, Lands & Surveys Historic Map Series Western Australia 1880s-1890s
Northern Territories, Historic Map Index
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Australia, from from Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 edition
Religious Article Australia, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907 edition
Economic Of the Agriculture of Australasia, p.166 in J.Cl. Loudon, An Encyclopedia of Agriculture, vol.1, 1825, GB
E.G. Balfour, The Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive
J.H. Curle, The Gold Mines of the World, 1905, IA; Australia pp.149-204
Geographical New Holland and its Dependencies, pp.528-571 in vol.III of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography 1822, GB
Australien, pp.177-182 in vol.1 1858, Ny Sydwales pp.475-476, Queensland p.576, Syd-Australien p.763, Van Diemens Land pp.837-838, Victoria pp.855-856, in vol.2 1863 of S. Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog, in Danish, Project Runeberg
Australia pp.485-498 in H.G. Bohn, A pictorial hand-book of modern geography 1861, IA
British Colonies in Australasia : Australia, pp.151-189 in J.P. Faunthorpe, Geography of the British colonies and foreign possessions 1874, IA
Australia, pp.673-693 in G.G. Chisholm, Handbook of commercial geography 1922, IA
Ethnological
Historical
Other
Parliamentary Debates Parliament of Australia, Search Hansard 1901-
Parliament of South Australia, Hansard 1993-
Parliament of Western Australia, Hansard 1996-
Parliament of Tasmania Hansard 1992-
Queensland Parliament Hansard 1990-
Parliament of Victoria Hansard 1991-
Parliament of New South Wales Hansard 1882-
Postal Routes etc. Search Bradshaw's continental railway, steam transit, and general guide 1853, 1859, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, GB, for Australia
Tourist Guides D. MacKenzie, The emigrant's guide, or, Ten years' practical experience in Australia, 1845, IA
H.S. Evans, A Guide to the Emigration Colonies: Including Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Cape of Good Hope ... 1851, IA
J.J. Shillinglaw, The Australian shipmaster's guide; a handbook of mercantile and maritime information, relating to merchant ships and seamen in Victoria 1858, IA
T.A. Coghlan, Picturesque New South Wales: An Illustrated Guide for Settler and Tourist 1901, IA
W. Lorck, Isles of the East : an illustrated guide : Australia, New Guinea, Java, Sumatra 1912, IA
U.S. Army, Pocket Guide to Australia, 1943, IA
Travelogues T.L. Mitchell, Three expeditions into the interior of eastern Australia; with descriptions of the recently explored region of Australia Felix, and of the present colony of New South Wales, vol.1 1839, IA
R.H. Major, Early voyages to Terra Australis, now called Australia: a collection of documents, and extracts from early manuscript maps. illustrative of the history of discovery on the coasts of that vast island, from the beginning of the sixteenth century to the time of Captain Cook 1859, IA
J.H. Tuckey, An account of a voyage to establish a colony at Port Philip in Bass's Strait on the south coast of New South Wales, in His Majesty's Ship Calcutta, in the years 1802-3-4 1805, IA
Institutions Archives Directory of Archives in Australia
National Archives of Australia
Musea National Museum of Australia
Sovereign Hill Gold Museum, Ballarat
Monuments Monument Australia (private website)
Libraries National Library of Australia
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from National Anthems, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes from Australia, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
R. Nason, A little piece of my heartíŽ The Convict Love Token collection of the National Museum of Australia
Stamps Rare Australia, Australian States Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Australia Stamps 1912-1914, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920, by Evert Klaseboer, subfiles to various Australian States


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Australia survey of bibliographies Tennessee Archaeology Net : Bibliographies for Anthropological Research : Australia and Oceania
bibliographic database Australian National Bibliographic Database
general bibliographies pp.214-283 in J.C. Docherty, Historical Dictionary of Australia, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1992 [G]
Article : Bibliography of Australian History, from Wikipedia
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies The Parliament of Australia : a Bibliography
Bibliography for Australian Aboriginal Studies
National Library of Wales, The Welsh in Australia : Bibliography
T. Gill, Bibliography of South Australia 1886, IA
Convicts to Australia Bibliography
Australia's Muslim Cameleers, Bibliography
1018 : Australians in France, Bibliography, from Australian War Memorial
Australian Mining History Association, Bibliography of the Mining History of Australia, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea
Autralian Literature Resource, Banned in Australia, The Banned in Australia AustLit Research community and this bibliography collects literary publications that were prohibited as imports into twentieth-century Australia, tracing the main arch of federal publications censorship from 1901 to 1973.
serial publications New Asia Books : Australia
Australian Scholarly Publishing : Australian History
Historical Society of South Australia, Bookshop
Royal Western Australian Historical Society, Publications
general bibliographies
Australia entries
booksellers Regimental Books, new and used military books about Australians at war
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
on Australia National Library of Australia, Digital Collections
State Library of South Australia, Bradman Digital Library
Project Gutenberg Australia, Australian History
Online Journals full text online Australian Heritage Online 2005-, most articles online
Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 1979-
Journal de la Societe des Oceanistes, 1945-2009 online
Contents Online Routledge, Australian Historical Studies
Historiography Article : Australian Historiography, by Raymond Evans, pp.56-58 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998
Historical Dictionaries James C. Docherty, Historical Dictionary of Australia, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1992, 284 pp. [G]
Robert D. Craig and Franklin P. King, Historical Dictionary of Oceania, Westport CT : Greenwood 1981 [G]





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