Little Russians - 19th Century Encyclopedia Entries



Herder 1854-1857, Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, Meyer 1885-1892, Meyer 1902-1908, Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926



Herders Conversations-Lexikon 1854-1857, Article : Russinen
Rusyn, Ruthenians, Slavs, a people distinct from the Poles and Russians, living in Galicia, northern Hungary, Volhynia and Podolia, united Greeks, in the Russian provinces incorporated into the Greek Church, a farming, peace-loving people without literature.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, Article : Lillryssarna
In Russian Malorossi, Malorossijane, a Slavic people mainly living in southern Russia and eastern Galicia, by language, temper and history nationally distinguished from the Great Russians. They are often called Ukrainians, and they like to call themselves that way (see there). The Litle Russians inhabit within the present Russian Empire not only the so-called Little Russia (the governments Kiev, Chernigov, Poltava and Charkov) but also the southern part of he government of Kursk, the southern half of the government Voronezh, large stretches of the land of the Don Cossacks (especially around Taganrog Bay) and many colonies further east, in the governments Astrakhan, Saratov and Samara, as well as an extended territory on the Kuban, east of the Sea of Azov (the Black Sea Cossacks or Kuban Cossacks). Of New Russia, which until the second half of the 18th century mainly was inhabited by Turks and Tatars, the governments Ekaterinoslav and Kherson were mainly colonized by Little Russians (Taurida on the other hand by Great Russians), while Bessarabia is split between Little Russians and Romanians. Purely Little Russian are since old Podolia and Volhynia, but also the southern parts of the governments Minsk and Grodno, and in Congress Poland the eastern parts of the governments Lublin and Siedlec. In the Austro-Hungarian monarchy the Little Russians, who there are called Ruthenians or Rusyns, form the mass of the population in the northwestern part of the Bukovina, in eastern Galicia until the river San, and within the borders of Hungary, on the southern slope of the Carpathians. The Little Russians are estimated to be about 16.37 million, of whom 1/2 million live in Hungary, 2 1/2 million in Galicia and the Bukovina. By religion 160,000 of the Hungarian Ruthenians are Reformed, the others Greek Catholics or Unified Greeks.
Already in the time of the principalities southwestern Russia showed other forms of state organization and society than those who became prevalent to the northeast. There, individual fredom and right was sacrificed to the demand of the state; but the constitution of he southwestern principalities (and that of Novgorod) was democratic in principle. In the ime from the early 14th century to the late 18th century the history of the Little Russians completely or partially was united with that of the Lithuanians and Poles, and the Cossacks are the mos manifest example of the political and social ideal of the Little Russians. The Polish attack on their personal, economic and religious liberty resulted in he ruin of the Polish kingdom. While among he Great Russians, family ties restrict the right of the ndividual to make his own decisions, the Little Russians take about he same standpoint as the western European people. Religion among the Little Russians is more of an internal matter, but largely corresponds to that of the Great Russians in traditions and regulations. Among the Little Russiaqns, no Raskolniks ae found. In general he Little Russian is more vital and idealist, he loves nature and has a marked sense of beauty. Little Russian popular poetry is extraordinarily rich and has high poetic value. It is notable that in popular tradition the memory of the oldest period, the era of principalities, has almost completely disappeared; it is presently found again mainly in Great Russian tradition. It has been displaced by the era of the Cossacks and their encounters with the Turks, Tatars and Poles. As the Kievan traditions of pre-Tatar Russia in present-day southern Russia have been forgotten (as historical sources were lost), it is probable that the Little Russians in the era of Tatar rule gradually migrated westward, and populated devastated land. The historical and political tales of Little Russia have been collected by Antonovich and Dragomanov (Kiev 1874, Geneve 1883), legends and stories by Rudchenko (1869-1870) and Dragomanov (1876), proverbs by Nomis (1864), Galician folktales by Golovatsky (1870-1871) etc.
The main works on the ethnography of the Little Russians are older, Beauplan, Description de l'Ukraine (1660), various treatises by Kostomarov (in Istoricheskaya monografii i izledovanija, 1872ff.), Kulisj's Zapiski o juzjnoj Rusi (Notes on Southern Russia, 1856-1857), and Tyubinskiy's collection of the expedition sent out into southwestern Russia in 1872 by the Geographic Society of St. Petersburg (7 volumes, 1872-1878).

source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article : Russen, Paragraph : Kleinrussen
The Little Russians (Malorossi) occupy the southwestern part of European Russia in a coherent unit, excluding the Crimea and adjacent terroriries on the mainland. In the extreme southeast [!], in Bessarabia, they are mixed with Romanians, a larger, cohesive Little Russian territory we find on the eastern bank of the Sea of Azov, that of the so-called Chernomorian Cossacks, who had been moved there by Empress Catherine II. A number of Little Russian exclaves stretches east via Saratov to the Ural Mountains. The total number of Little Russians living in European Russia, according to Rittich, numbers 14,193,665 souls, of whom 333,494 live in Bessarabia, in the Don Region 315,114, in Saratov 119,974, in Samara 63,505, in Orenburg 11,925, in Kursk 442,321 and in Astrakhan 75,022. The people continue to dwell beyond the present western border of Russia, as the Ruthenians (Rusyns, Rosniaks) in Galicia and the Bukovina belong to the Little Russians. Their number in hese countries is 2,800,000; but they also live in the Carpathians and, as Boykos and Huzuls, live in the northern Hungarian Comitats. The total number of Little Russians thus is about 17.5 million. In regard to their language see Little Russian language and literature. While in all offices and schools only Great Russian is used, Little Russian dominates in the life of the people. By physique, the Little Russians form a specific Slavic type separate from those of the Poles and the Great Russians, despite their fate having been connected first with one of them, then with the other, without resulting in them giving up their nationality. Only recently in artistic field the approachment of Great Russians and Little Russians is noticable, while in Galicia the Ruthenian regards the Pole his enemy. Little Russians and Great Russians share the Greek religion, but the Little Russian is to a larger degree farmer, than the Muscovite is, and also fiffers from the latter in his physique. The Little Russian, the descendant of the Polanes who once dwelled on the Dniepr, shows the Slavic type in rather pure form, and has largely remained free of blending. He mostly has black hair, dark eyes and fine facial features, a tipped nose and a slim body. The characteristics of Slavic character, cheeriness, carelessness, complacency also show in the Little Russians, but they are paired with reclusiveness, namely toward foreigners and Great Russians, whom he regards oppressors. The Little Russian is poetically talented, his folk songs breath intimacy, enthusiasm, appreciation for bauty in man and nature. Their rhythm is vivid. This poetic alent makes he Little Russian more religious than the Great Russian, with a tendency toward superstition, especially belief in legends. In every village stories are told about rising dead and about vampires. The family life of the Litle Russians differs from that of the Great Russians; the family members become independent as soon as possible. Therefore this tribe has strongly developed individuality, while he Great Russian stands out because of his preference for association. The towns lack streets; they are unorderly conglomerations of houses; the livng house (Chata) are constructed as frameworks of timber and clay, covered with straw or reed, and are mostly painted white, and clean, surrounded by a flower and vegetable garden. The main occupations of the Little Russians are agriculture, livestock keeping, fishery, horticulture, beekeeping and the trade of the wagoner. He has little talent for mechanical trades. At harvest time many migrate toward southern regions, with scythe and bandurka ( a small violin). The Chumak (wagoner) also trades in salt, which he brings from the seaside cities, and with fish.
source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek


Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, Article : Russen, Paragraph : Kleinrussen
The Little Russians occupy the southwestern part of European Russia in a coherent unit, excluding the Crimea and adjacent terroriries on the mainland. Their area includes the west Russian governments of Volhynia and Podolia, the southern, smaller half of Grodno, the eastern half of Sjedletz and Lublin, further so-called Ukraine (Kiev, Chernigov, Poltava, Charkov), pieces of Kursk and Voronezh, a third of the Don territory, and the Neorussian governmens Ekaternoslav, Kherson and Bessarabia. In the latter, they are mixed with Romanians, a larger, cohesive Little Russian territory we find on the eastern bank of the Sea of Azov, that of the so-called Chernomorian Cossacks, who had been moved there by Empress Catherine II. A number of Little Russian exclaves stretches east via Saratov to the Ural Mountains. The total number of Little Russians living in European Russia, now numbers about 22.5 million. The people continue to dwell beyond the present western border of Russia, as the Ruthenians in Galicia, the Bukovina and the northern Hungarian comitats belong to them. In 1900 the number of Ruthenians living in Austria was 3,376,000, of those in Hungary in 1902 439,000, so that the total number of Little Russians presently (1904) is about 26.75 million. In regard to their language see Little Russian language and literature. While in all offices and schools only Great Russian is used, Little Russian dominates in the life of the people. The Little Russian resents both the Poles and the Russians, despite their fate having been connected first with one of them, then with the other, without resulting in them giving up their nationality. Only recently in artistic field the approachment of Great Russians and Little Russians is noticable, while in Galicia the Ruthenian regards the Pole his enemy. The Little Russian, the descendant of the Polanes who once dwelled on the Dniepr, shows the Slavic type in rather pure form, and has largely remained free of blending. He mostly has black hair, dark eyes and fine facial features, a tipped nose and a slim body. The characteristics of Slavic character, cheeriness, carelessness, complacency also show in the Little Russians, but they are paired with reclusiveness, namely toward foreigners and Great Russians, whom he regards oppressors. The Little Russian is poetically talented, his folk songs breath intimacy, enthusiasm, appreciation for bauty in man and nature. Their rhythm is vivid. This poetic alent makes he Little Russian more religious than the Great Russian, with a tendency toward superstition, especially belief in legends. In every village stories are told about rising dead and about vampires. The family life of the Litle Russians differs from that of the Great Russians; the family members become independent as soon as possible. Therefore this tribe has strongly developed individuality, while he Great Russian stands out because of his preference for association. The towns lack streets; they are unorderly conglomerations of houses; the livng house (Chata) are constructed as frameworks of timber and clay, covered with straw or reed, and are mostly painted white, and clean, surrounded by a flower and vegetable garden. The main occupations of the Little Russians are agriculture, livestock keeping, fishery, horticulture, beekeeping and the trade of the wagoner. He has little talent for mechanical trades. At harvest time many migrate toward southern regions, with scythe and bandurka ( a small violin). The Chumak (wagoner) also trades in salt, which he brings from the seaside cities, and with fish.
source in German, posted by Zeno


Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926, Article : Lillryssarna
In Russian Malorossi, Malorossijane, a Slavic people mainly living in southern Russia and eastern Galicia, by language, temper and history nationally distinguished from the Great Russians. They are often called Ukrainians, and they like to call themselves that way (see there). The Litle Russians inhabit within the present Russian Empire not only the so-called Little Russia (the governments Kiev, Chernigov, Poltava and Charkov) but also the southern part of he government of Kursk, the southern half of the government Voronezh, large stretches of the land of the Don Cossacks (especially around Taganrog Bay) and many colonies further east, in the governments Astrakhan, Saratov and Samara, as well as an extended territory on the Kuban, east of the Sea of Azov (the Black Sea Cossacks or Kuban Cossacks). Of New Russia, which until the second half of the 18th century mainly was inhabited by Turks and Tatars, the governments Ekaterinoslav and Kherson were mainly colonized by Little Russians (Taurida on the other hand by Great Russians), while Bessarabia is split between Little Russians and Romanians. Purely Little Russian are since old Podolia and Volhynia, but also the southern parts of the governments Minsk and Grodno, and in Congress Poland the eastern parts of the governments Lublin and Siedlec. In the Austro-Hungarian monarchy the Little Russians, who there are called Ruthenians or Rusyns, form the mass of the population in the northwestern part of the Bukovina, in eastern Galicia until the river San, and within the borders of Hungary, on the southern slope of the Carpathians. The Little Russians are estimated to be about 20 million, of whom 1/2 million live in Hungary, 2 1/2 million in Galicia and the Bukovina. By religion 160,000 of the Hungarian Ruthenians are Reformed, the others Greek Catholics or Unified Greeks.
Already in the time of the principalities southwestern Russia showed other forms of state organization and society than those who became prevalent to the northeast. There, individual fredom and right was sacrificed to the demand of the state; but the constitution of he southwestern principalities (and that of Novgorod) was democratic in principle. In the ime from the early 14th century to the late 18th century the history of the Little Russians completely or partially was united with that of the Lithuanians and Poles, and the Cossacks are the mos manifest example of the political and social ideal of the Little Russians. The Polish attack on their personal, economic and religious liberty resulted in he ruin of the Polish kingdom. While among he Great Russians, family ties restrict the right of the ndividual to make his own decisions, the Little Russians take about he same standpoint as the western European people. Religion among the Little Russians is more of an internal matter, but largely corresponds to that of the Great Russians in traditions and regulations. Among the Little Russiaqns, no Raskolniks ae found. In general he Little Russian is more vital and idealist, he loves nature and has a marked sense of beauty. Little Russian popular poetry is extraordinarily rich and has high poetic value. It is notable that in popular tradition the memory of the oldest period, the era of principalities, has almost completely disappeared; it is presently found again mainly in Great Russian tradition. It has been displaced by the era of the Cossacks and their encounters with the Turks, Tatars and Poles. As the Kievan traditions of pre-Tatar Russia in present-day southern Russia have been forgotten (as historical sources were lost), it is probable that the Little Russians in the era of Tatar rule gradually migrated westward, and populated devastated land. The historical and political tales of Little Russia have been collected by Antonovich and Dragomanov (Kiev 1874, Geneve 1883), legends and stories by Rudchenko (1869-1870) and Dragomanov (1876), proverbs by Nomis (1864), Galician folktales by Golovatsky (1870-1871) etc.
The main works on the ethnography of the Little Russians are older, Beauplan, Description de l'Ukraine (1660), various treatises by Kostomarov (in Istoricheskaya monografii i izledovanija, 1872ff.), Kulisj's Zapiski o juzjnoj Rusi (Notes on Southern Russia, 1856-1857), and Tyubinskiy's collection of the expedition sent out into southwestern Russia in 1872 by the Geographic Society of St. Petersburg (7 volumes, 1872-1878). The main work concerning the history of Little Russia is Bantysh-Kamenskiy, Istoria Maloi Rossiji (1830, 4th edition 1903), Antonovich, Monografiji po historiji zapadnoj i jugo-zapadnoj Rossiji (1885) as well as M. Grusyevskiy's IstoriyaUkraini-Rusi I-VII 1904-1907, in part translated into German. A shorter overview is given by M. Arkas, Istoriya Ukraini-Rusi (1908).

source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg




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First posted on March 9th 2009

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