Volhynia - 19th Century Encyclopedia Entries

Brockhaus 1837-1841, Pierer 1857-1865, Anskjaer 1858-1863, Meyer 1885-1892, Meyer 1902-1908

Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon 1837-1841, Article : Volhynien
Volhynia or Wolynsk, a government of western European Russia with 1350 square miles and 1 1/2 million inhabitants, belongs to so-called Little Russia (Ukraine) and is bordered by he kingdoms of Galicia, Poland and the governments of Grodno, Minsk, Kiev and Podolia. The plain and overall rather fertile soil only in the south is somewhat hilly, and because of the moderate climate well-suited for the cultivation of grain and other crops. Two thirds of the population are engaged in agriculture. Extended pastures provide grazing for large herds of catle and sheep, and the country is rich in forests. The population consists to the larger part of Ukrainians, the nobility and part of the urban population are of Polish descent, further here live many Jews, Tatars and Gypsies. Industrial diligence has created factories of texiles, leather and leatherwares, hats, earthenware, glass, coton and linen textiles, and at several locations in Volhynia is very important. The capital Shitomir on the Teterow has 8000 inhabitants and is seat of a Greek bishop; Islaskaw, Dubno, Ostrog are places of 5000-6000 inhabitants, Krzeminiec with 8000 inhabitants is the seat of a gymnasium and of a number of secondary schools. Radziwilow is the main place of trade with Galicia and seat of a customs office. Berdyczew with 6000 mostly Jewish inhabitants has important fairs and markets. The government Volhynia was formed in 1796 from parts of the Palatinate Kiev and the Palatinate Volhynia, which was ceded by Poland in 1793 and 1795.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Volhynien
Volhynien, government in European Russia, between the governments Grodno, Minsk, Kiev, Podolia, Austrian Galicia and Poland. 1295,17 square miles; in the north almost flat, in the south somewhat hilly, at several places swampy, everywhere fertile or suitable to be made into fertile land, has no larger rivers (Bug, Pripez, Styr, Horyn, Teterew, Usha; several small lakes), moderate climate. The 1,528,400 inhabitants are Ukrainians, Poles and Jews, also immigrated Moldavians, Germans, Russians, Tatars etc., by religion mostly Greek Catholics (1,200,000), further Catholics (172,300), Jews (186,000), Protestants (2300) and Muslims (250); divided in nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants, the latter until recently have been serfs. Occupations agriculture, horticulture, a little fruit cultivation, forestry (a lot of timber, firewood, pitch, tar being produced), hunt on aurochses, deer, wild hogs, bears, lynzes, wolves, hares etc.; further there are beavers, otters, waterfowl. Bred are horses, cattle (of a good race), sheep (some of them of the ameliorated kind), hogs, bees, fishery not without importance. Among minerals bog iron, salpetre, stones for construction; also a few mineral springs. The indusry is of a rather low level, a little cloth, tool, leather production, a little fayence. Trade exports grain, lentals, linen, flax, forest products, mllstones, sapetre, glass, livestock, wool, horns, bristles, wax etc. Divided in 12 districts : Dubno, Kowel, Kremenez, Luzk, Nowgrad-Wolynsk, Ostrog, Owrutsch, Rowno, Sasslawl, Shitomir, Staro-Konstantinow and Wladimir). Coat of arms : a white cross in a blue shield; on cross a small red shield with a golden cross. Capital Shitomir.
In the earliest days Volhynia was part of Red Russia. In 1074 it was conquered by Boleslaw II. for Poland. Gedimin, Grand Duke of Lithuania, at the beginning of the 14th century tore it away from Poland and annexed it into Lithuania. King Casimir II. of Poland retook it in 1365. Jagiello, when he became King of Poland, enfieffed Prince Sigismund, the brother of Grand Duke Witold of Lithuania, with Volhynia; after the death of the prince it fell back to Poland. King Casimir IV. granted Volhynia to his uncle Suidrygallo. When all of Lihuania in 1569 was annexed into Poland, Volhynia too became part of it and shared its fate until the Polish partitions. 1796 after the third Polish Partition Volhynia became a Russian government.

source in German, posted by Zeno

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article : Wolhynien
Volhynia, government in southwestern Russia, between 49 degrees 30 minutes and 52 degrees northern latitude and surrounded by Austria (Galicia), the Polish government Ljublin and the Russian governments Grodno, Minsk, Kiev and Podolia. 1,287 square miles, 1,498,387 inhabitants (1856). The land is the highest in the south and southwest, where a ridge is found which forms an extension of the Carpathians, and of which the highest point reaches 1,000 feet. The main feature in the north are extended swamps which belong to the river Pripet in the Minsk government. The higher parts of the counry are covered with exceptionally beautiful forests consisting of coniferous trees, oaks and beeches. The rivers are all small and without importance. The Bug for a stretch forms the border to Poland. Volhynia is one of Rusia's most fertile provinces; its agriculture produces a surplus for the export of wheat, rye, rapeseed, hemp and flax. Further a large number of other traded plants, of which safran, hop and tobacco are th most important, are grown. Further cattle breeding is of importance, as especially the north of the government provides excellent pastures. A not small part of the population finds emloyment in the extended forests, the various products of which provide important export articles. Industry has made considerable progress in recent years. The government is divided in 12 districts, capital Shitomir.
source in Danish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article : Wolhynien
Volhynia, Russian government, borders on the governments Grodno, Minsk, Kiev, Podolia, Lublin and Sjedlez, and on Austrian Galicia. 71,737 square km (according to Strelbitsky 71,851 square km) [1304.9 square miles]. The counry in the north and in a few other spots is swampy, in he south in various directions it is traversed by extensions of the Carpathians, the tips of which reach 370 - 400 m. Here many rivers have their springs, namely the Turia, Stur, Goryn, Teterew and the Sbrutsch. In the northern, densely forested part, between the swamps sandy stretches rise in the shape of barren lengthy hills. The largest uninterrepted swamp stretches along he border to Grodno government until the Pripet river, with a size of 1000 square km, it is completely inaccessible. Large rivers lack completely. The northern part of the government is called Polesje and contains small lakes, In the southern, higher stretches of Volhynia granite dominates, in the lower parts formations of the crestacian. Among the minerals are produced : kaolin, pottery clay, bog iron, good stones for construction, yellow amber which is found on Dombrowsky Estate near Dubno. The climate is moderate and mild. 37.5 % of the land is farmland, 32 % forest, 18.2 % meadow and pasturage, 12.3 % barren land. Flora delivers the usual grains, beets, tobacco, oil plants, hop. legumes and fruit. In 1887 were harvested : 5.4 million hl rye, 4.1 million hl oats, 3 million hl potatos, 2 million hl wheat, 1.4 million hl barley, 0.6 million hl buckwheat, other cereals and legumes in lesser quantity. The forests are composed more of coniferous trees than of foliferous ones (many asks which produce nice timber for shipbuilding). Fauna, except for the usual livestock, provides a lot of game, fowl, bees and fish. Livestock in 1883 numbered 655,039 head of cattle, 506,063 horses, 571,484 sheep with coarse wool, 123,350 sheep with fine wool, 481,713 hogs. The population, in 1885 2,196,049 inhabitants (30 per square km) is a mixed one and consists of Ukrainians (Ruthenians), Poles, Russians, Jews, Lithuanians and a few Tatars. In 1885 21,736 marriages were concluded, 109,641 children born, the number of deaths was 72,860. By faith most belong to the Greek Orthodox Church, further there are 200,000 Catholics, he same number of Jews, as well as a few Lutherans and Muslims. The majoriy of the nobiliy and a part of the burghers are Poles. Main sources of revenue are agriculture, especially in the south, livestock keeping (currently declining), forestry in the north (significant production of timber, pitch, tar, pottash), beekeeping, fishery and hunt (among others for bears, who live in large numbers in the extensive forests. The industry is still of a low level. In 1884 there were 806 factories with a combined workforce of 10,118 who produced a combined value of 18.8 Roubles. The leading industries are distillery (7.6 million Roubles), sugar production (5.3 million R.) and refinery (2.6 million R.). In the campaign 1886-1887 10 factories produced 32,760 double ctr. refined sugar and 271,600 double ctr. white sandy sugar. Trade exports mainly grain (to Odessa, Galicia, Poland, and via Pinsk to Prussia), livestock, skins, horns, wool (to Galicia and Poland), honey, wax, wagons and timber, which is rafted to Warschau and Danzig. The leading trading places are Dubno, Shitomir, Ostrog and Radziwilow. The lack of good chaussess, especially in he north of Volhynia, is noticeable; now the railroad from Brest-Litowsk crosses the government to Berditschew, with a trunc line via Radzywilow to Brody in Austria. The government is divided in 12 districts : Dubno, Kowel, Kremenez, Luzk, Nowgorod Wolynsk, Ostrog, Owrutsch, Rowno, Sasslawl, Shitomir, Staro-Konstantinow u. Wladimir-Wolynsk. Volhynia in 1885 had 1157 elementary schools with 40,088 students, 12 middle schools with 2864 students and 6 vocational schools with 653 students.
Since the 9th century Volhynia belonged to the House of Rurik, in the oldest days it formed part of Red Russia, was annexed into Poland in 1074. In 1320 the rule of Lithuanian princes over Volhynia began,and it was confirmed by the marriage between Ljubart, the son of Gedimin, with the daughter of Jurij Danilowitsch in 1335.In 1569 Volhynia, with all of Lithuania, fell back to Poland. In the second and third Polish Partition, Volhynia (with the exception of a few places which became part of Galicia respectively Austria) came to Russia. In 1797 Russia formed Volhynia government out of the hitherto Polish Voievodate Volhynia and parts of the old Voievodate of Kiev.

source in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek

Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, Article : Wolynien
Wolynia (incorrectly Wolhynia), giovernment in southwestern Russia, borders on the governments Grodno, Minsk, Kiev, Podolia, Austrian Galicia, Lublin and Sjedlez, contains 71,852.7 square km (1304.9 square miles). he land in the south is traversed by an exension of the Carpathians, the height of which reaches 402 m near Kremenez, and where many rivers originate. The northern section is a swampy plain and belongs to the Polessje. Larger streams are lacking; most rivers (the navigable Tura, the Stur, Goryn and Slutsch) belong to the Pripet river system. Others worthy to mention are the Bug and the Teterow (to the Dniepr). Among the minerals produced are kaolin, pottery clay, granite, graphite ant yellow amber which is found on Dombrowizy Estate near Dubno. The climate is moderate, the average annual temperature near Shitomir 7.6 degrees. Of the area 37 % is used as farmland, 32 % covered by forest, 18.2 % pastorage or meadows, 12.3 % barren land. In 1897 the population numbered 2,989,482 inhabitants (41.7 per square km) and consisted to 73.7 % of Russians (mostly 'Little Russians' [Ukrainians]), 13.2 % Jews, 6.2 % Poles, 5.7 % Germans. By faith 71 % were Greek Orthodox, 13.2 % Jewish, 9.9 % Roman Catholic, 5.8 % Lutheran. Main sources of income agriculture, specially in the south, livestock keeping, forestry in the north (rich production of timber, pitch, tar), fishery, hunting, fruit cultivation which is well developed. The harvest delivers in tons : wheat 303,728, rye 564,861, barley 133,889, buckwheat 70,897, millet 38,802, oats 341,694, potatos 968,322, further sugar beets (1904 368,302 tons) and tobacco. Livstock in 1904 numbered 700,000 horses, 1,132,000 head of cattle, 820,000 sheep wih coarse wool and 115,000 with fine wool, 1,010,000 hogs, 10,000 goats. The indusry still is on a low level. In 1900, 1827 enterprises with 19,511 workers were counted, which produced a combined value of 29.5 mllion Roubles, among them 16 beet sugar factories which produced a value of 12.2 million R. Further there were flour mills, distilleries, sawmills. Trade exports grain and timber. The main trading places are Shitomir, Dubno, Ostrog and Radsiwilow. The government is divided in 12 districts : Dubno, Kowel, Kremenez, Luzk, Nowgorod-Wolynsk, Ostrog, Owrutsch, Rowno, Sasslawl, Shitomir, Staro-Konstantinow and Wladimir-Wolynsk. In old times Volhynia formed a part of Red Russia, in the 14th century, according to certauin sources by the way of marriage (of Ljubart, the son of Gedimin, with the daughter of Jury Andrejewitsch in 1335), it came to Lithuania. With Lithuania Volhynia in 1569 came to Poland, in the second and third partition of Poland the larger part of Volhynia came to Russia. The present government of Volhynia exists since 1797.
source in German, posted by Zeno


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First posted on March 9th 2009

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