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Literature on the History of South America
St. Helena South Africa
First posted on May 13th 2002, last revised on December 2nd 2013

History of the Falkland Islands : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

1763-1833 . 1833-1918 . 1918-1982 . Since 1982

Islands of the South Atlantic
name size (km2) discovered history of ownership
St. Helena
Tristan da Cunha
Fernando de Noronha
Falkland Islands
South Georgia
South Orkney Islands
South Shetland Islands




1501 Portuguese
1502 Portuguese, 1651 British
1506 Portuguese
1763 British
1775 British

1763-1833 . The Falkland Islands had been claimed by Britain since 1763, but not settled. When the British established the settlement of Port Stanley in 1833, they found a Spanish-speaking population, which was forcefully evacuated (to Argentina, which was in disarray; Argentina would continue to claim the islands).

1833-1918 . In 1908 South Georgia and the South Shetland Islands were placed under the Falkland Islands.
In World War I, the sea off the Falkland Islands on Dec. 8th 1914 became the scene of a naval battle between a British and a German naval squadron, the German, commanded by Admiral Graf Spee, coming from the Pacific, attempting to break through to blockaded Germany. The British, commanded by Frederick Sturdee, suffering heavy losses, were victorious.

1918-1982 . In 1947-1948 - Britain being in the process of releasing India, Pakistan, Ceylon and Burma into independence - Argentina and Chile challenged Britain's claim on the Falkland Islands and sent a naval expedition; it took diplomatic pressure to avert a crisis. The British flag kept waiving on the Falkland Islands.
After World War I, some nations unilaterally extended their sovereignty over segments of sea (fishery) / ocean floor (mineral deposits) within a distance of 200 nautical miles from the coast. This highly increased the strategic value of islands located far from any coast, such as it was the case with the South Atlantic islands.
Britain, in the process of decolonization and economic decline, had lost much of her reputation as a Great Power; what once was a mighty empire covering a quarter of the world's land surface by 1965 was reduced to an empire still spanning the globe, but outside the British isles, consisting of a number of strategic possessions with mostly small populations, often speaking English and identifying themselves as British, as in the case of Gibraltar and the Falkland Islands.
Argentina still claimed the islands in Argentina called Islas Malvinas, less important for the revenue the c.2,000 settlers generated, but rather for the prospective mineral deposits on the sea floor surrounding the islands. The Argentine military dictatorship (Gen. Galtieri), in an attempt to distract from failed domestic policies, ordered the invasion of the Falkland Islands and the Falkland dependency of South Georgia (Operation Rosario, April 1982). The islands of 12,000 square km and a population of then under 2,000 were inadequately defended; the Argentinian occupation a fait accompli. The Argentinian leadership gambled, hoping that Britain would regard the option of war as too costly.
British PM Margaret Thatcher was resolved to retaliate; a British fleet was sent into the South Atlantic, the islands liberated in June 1982. War had not been declared by either side. Total casualties were 258 British and 649 Argentinians killed. The liberation of the Falkland Islands had cost Britain 700 million Pound Sterling (NYT Oct. 27th 1982; then 1.19 billion US Dollars).

since 1982 . In 1983 the military dictatorship in Argentina returned power to a democratically elected government, and ever since Argentina is a functioning democracy. While Argentina continues to claim the Falkland Islands, it does not pursue a military option, and relations with Britain have improved.
Compared to the days prior to the Argentine invasion of 1982, Britain has increased its military presence on the islands. Maintaining such a military presence is a continuing burden on the British taxpayer. In recent years the population has increased from c.1,800 prior to the 1982 war to c.3,000 as of 2005; the population now, to a greater extent than before, is concentrated in the capital Stanley. The 1985 constitution introduced democratically elected self-government. The exploitation of the islands' natural resources, long neglected, has begun; the licensing of fishery rights in the seas off the Falklands brings additional revenue.

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; Index Mundi, Article : Falkland Islands, from Wikipedia
Falkland Islands Government Website
Historical W. Clayton, An Account of Falkland Islands, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 1776, IA
Falkland's Islands pp.59-143 in S. Johnson, Political tracts 1776, IA
M.G. Mulhall, Handbook of the river Plate, comprising the Argentine Republic, Uruguay and Paraguay 1875 ed., IA; on Falkland Islands pp.401-404
G.C. Hurlbut, The Falkland Islands Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York 19, 1887, IA
Links General Category : Falkland Islands, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of the Falkland Islands, from Wikipedia
Organizations Falkland Islands Museum and National Trust
Falkland Islands Philatelic Study Group
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines Chronicle of the Falklands / Malvinas, History and War of 1982, long timeline, from The Vanished Gallery; Falklands Timeline by Chris Harris
Accounts of History Modern from Wikipedia; from falklands.info
no author no title thesis on the history of the Falkland Islands, Aarhus Univ. (Andrej Engelhardt ?)
Falklands History
Historical R.M. Martin, History of the British possessions in the Indian & Atlantic Oceans; comprising Ceylon, Penang, Malacca, Sincapore, the Falkland Islands, St. Helena, Ascension, Sierra Leone, the Gambia, Cape Coast Castle 1837; The Falkland Islands pp.171-184
Specific Periods G.B. Hertz, British imperialism in the eighteenth century, 1908, IA; ch.IV. The winning of the Falkland Islands. A war panic of 1770 pp.110-150
S. Warnick, The Reluctant Colonization of the Falkland Islands 1833-1851: A Study of British Imperialism in the Southwest Atlantic, thesis Richmond 2008
Historiography L.L. Williams, Malvinas Myths, Falklands Fictions: Cultural Responses to War from both Sides of the Atlantic thesis Florida State 2005
M. Walker, Framing the Falklands/Malvinas War. National interest in the coverage of The London Times, La Nación (Argentina) and El Mercurio (Chile), Revista Universum no.19 vol.1 pp.198-219, 2004
Politics Politics of the Falkland Islands, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Falkland Islands; Governments on the WWW : Falkland Islands
D. Katter, The Sovereignty of Islands : A Contemporary Methodology for the Determination of Rights over Natural Maritime Resources, thesis Queensland Univ. of Technology 2003
Do the Falklands really belong to Uruguay? Authors claim Spain signed them away to South American country 172 years ago, Mail Online (UK) Jan 31 2013
B. Masson, La Guerre des Malouines dans les Relations Internationales, thesis Sorbonne 2009
CASCON Case FAM : Falklands (Malvinas) 1982-, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
Military Falkland Islands, from Land Forces of Britain, the Empire and Commonwealth; Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Falklands War 1982, from Britain's Small Wars
Category : Falklands War, from Wikipedia
H.E.H. Spencer-Cooper, The battle of the Falkland Islands 1919, IA
J. Knapp, Aviation Matters : The Falkland Islands War, thesis Utah Valley Univ. 2003
C.A. Snyder, The Falkland Islands War of 1982: a legal, diplomatic and strategic evaluation , thesis Brock 1989
R.M. Meunier, War in the South Atlantic : the mythology of the Monroe Doctrine and the Western Hemisphere idea : the Falkland Islands : a case study, thesis Central Connecticut State 1999
A.A. King, The Falkland Islands Campaign of 1982: A Case Study and Lessons for the United States Today, Global Security 1995
G. Smith, Battle Atlas of the Falklands War 1982 (1989) 2006
Economy & Finances Entry Falkland Islands, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Article Economy of the Falkland Islands, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of the Falkland Islands, from Wikipedia
Falkland Islands Government : The Economy
A.B. Dickinson, Early Nineteenth-Century Sealing on the Falkland Islands: Attempts to Develop a Regulated Industry, 1820-1834, Northern Mariner 4 1994 pp.39-49
G.A. Bisbal, Problems of fisheries management on the Patagonian shelf: A Decade After the 1982 Falklands (Malvinas) Conflict, thesis Rhode Island 1992
Social History
Ethnography Languages of the Falkland Islands (1), from Ethnologue
Exile Destinations : Falkland Islands, from Acadian-Cajun Genealogy & History
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Falkland Islands, from Kirken i Norge
Category : Religion in the Falkland Islands, from Wikipedia
Article : Parish of the Falkland Islands (Anglican), Wikipedia
Article : Apostolic Prefecture of the Falkland Islands
Anglican History : The Bishopric of the Falkland Islands, 1872, Project Canterbury
E.F. Every, The Anglican Church in South America 1915; Chapter II. Diocese of the Falkland Islands
History of Regions J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : British Crown Colony of the Falkland Islands 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
History of Cities Stanley, Falkland Islands, from Wikipedia
Institutions Falkland Islands, from Airline History
Environmental History S. Palmer, 'Far from Moderate'. An account and appraisal of some aspects of the human involvement with the natural environment of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, thesis Portsmouth 2004
Falkland Islands State of the Environment Report 2008

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel)
Governors of the Falkland Islands, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution
Population Figures from Population Statistics, Univ. Utrecht
Election Results from IFES Election Guide
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Selected Newspaper Articles New York Times article of Oct. 27th 1982
Guardian Archive : The Falklands, a number of articles from 1833 to 1982
Modern Newspapers Falkland Islands News Network
Newspapers and News Media : the Falkland Islands, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Online Yearbooks - Falkland Islands Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Falkland Islands 1890, pp.209-210, IA, 1891, pp.215-216, IA, 1892, pp.222-223, IA, 1894, pp.222-223, IA, 1895, pp.221-222, IA, 1896, pp.221-222, IA, 1898, pp.221-222, IA, 1899, pp.238-239, IA, 1903, pp.272-273, IA, 1913, pp.275-276, IA, 1919, pp.316-318, IA, 1921, pp.328-330, IA
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Falkland Islands
License Plates, from Francoplaque
Archival Deposits British Library, Falkland Islands Collection
Historiography G. Pascoe et al., False Falklands History at the United Nations How Argentina misled the UN in 1964 - and still does 2012
Document Collections National Archives (UK) : Newly released files from 1982 include Falklands War papers
Documents from the 1982 Falklands War, from falklands.info
Margaret Thatcher Foundation, Margaret Thatcher's files on the Falklands
National Security Archive (U.S.), Electronic Briefing Books, EBB 374 : Reagan On The Falkland/Malvinas: "Give Maggie enough to carry on..."
Individual Documents 1948 Document, from Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Canada
Historical Maps Responsible Authority British Antarctic Survey, Mapping and Geographic Information Centre
collections Images of the Falkland Islands, from David Rumsey Map Collection
Category : Ols Maps of the Falkland Islands, from Wikimedia Commons
South America, Modern Languages of South America, from TITUS
South America 1800, 1816, 1827, 1900, 1901-2010, by J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Map : America del Sur, 1799, from Historical and Political Maps of the Modern Age, administrative regions, in Spanish
South America, Contemporary South America 1826, from World Maps Online
South America 1905, from Zonu
Falklands, Modern Falklands War 1982 Map, Mappery
Falklands, Contemporary Plano de Islas Malvinas 18th C., Casa Historia
Falkland Islands 1760, Mappery
French Map of the Falklands, 1826, britishempire.co.uk
Map of the Falklands, 1838, britishempire.co.uk
Map Falklands 1850-1855, Digital NLS
Falkland Islands 1898, Digital NLS
Mapo : Battle of Falkland 1914, 1922, Probert Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article Falkland Islands, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Article Falklandinseln, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th ed. 1885-1892, in German; Retro Bibliothek
Article Falklandinseln, from Brockhaus Konversationslexikon 14th ed. 1894-1896, in German; Retro Bibliothek
Geographical The American gazetteer, 1810, GB, not paginated; entries : Meredith, Cape; Orford, Cape, Pepy's Islands, Port Egmont, Solodad Port,
vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1827, IA contains neither reference to the Malouines nor to the Falkland Islands
Ethnological The Falkland Islands, pp.907-908 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Parliamentary Debates
Tour Guides, Travelogues A.J. Pernety, The History of a Voyage to the Malouine (or Falkland) Islands, Made in 1763 and 1764, 1771, IA
T. Falkner, A description of Patagonia, and the adjoining parts of South America : containing an account of the soil, produce, animals, vales, mountains, rivers, lakes, &c. of those countries; the religion, government, policy, customs, dress, arms, and language of the Indian inhabitants; and some particulars relating to Falkland's Islands 1774, IA
W. Hadfield, Brazil, the River Plate, and the Falkland Islands: With the Cape Horn Route to Australia 1854, IA
W.P. Snow, A two years' cruise off Tierra del Fuego, the Falkland islands,Patagonia, and in the River Plate; a narrative of life in the Southern Seas vol.1 1857, vol.2 1857, IA
C. Scottsberg, The wilds of Patagonia; a narrative of the Swedish expedition to Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands in 1907-1909 1911, IA
Residence Memoirs L.B. MacKinnon, Some account of the Falkland Islands, from a six months' residence in 1838 and 1839 1840, IA
Institutions Archives
Musea Falkland Islands Museum and National Trust
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
Coins, Banknotes Falkland Islands banknotes, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Stamps Rare Falkland Islands Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Catalogue Falkland Islands Stamps 1865-1896, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on the Falkland Islands survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database British Library, Falkland Islands Collection
general bibliographies
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Chronicle of the Falkland Islands History & the Falklands War of 1982, Bibliography
M.B. Yokota, Bibliography on the 1982 Falklands War, 1985
Naval History Homepage, Falklands War Books
Medical Front, Bibliography Battle of the Falklands 1914-1915
serial publications
general bibliographies
Falkland Islands entries
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
International Boundary Studies
on the Falkland Islands
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Full Text Online Directory of Open Access Journals
Contents Online Falkland Islands Journal 2011
General Accounts
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Falkland Islands, 1913 pp.652-653, 1950 p.274, 1951 p.276, 1952 p.273, 1953 p.270, 1954 p.268, 1955 p.315, 1956 p.252, 1957 p.315, 1958 pp.249-250, 1959 pp.245-246, 1960 p.247, 1961 pp.257-258, 1962 p.246, 1963 p.361 [G]
Colonies and Dependent Territories, 1964 pp.265-268 [G]
Colonies and Other Dependencies, 1965 p.253, 1966 p.203, 1967 p.218, 1968 p.216 [G]
Dependent States : Falkland Islands, 1969 p.277, 1970 p.277, 1971 p.267, 1972 p.244, 1973 p.235, 1974 p.251, 1976 pp.246-247, 252, 1977 pp.246, 252, 1978 p.305, 1979 p.306, 1980 pp.300, 304, 1981 pp.300-301, 304, 1982 pp.298-299, 1983 pp.295, 298-299, 1984 pp.293-294 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Falkland Islands, 1889 pp.304-305, 1895 pp.221-222, 1898 pp.221-222, 1901 pp.254-255, 1902 pp.264-265, 1905 pp.283-284, 1910 pp.257-258, 1918 pp.310-312, 1919 pp.316-318, 1924 pp.316-317, 1925 pp.320-321, 1926 pp.319-320, 1928 pp.317-319, 1929 pp.322-324, 1932 pp.325-326 [G]
Falkland Islands and Dependencies, 1937 pp.348-349, 1942 pp.271-273, 1943 pp.267-268 [G]
Falkland Islands, 1961-1962 pp.461-463, 1970-1971 pp.140-142, 1973-1974 pp.302-303, 1975-1976 p.302, 1976-1977 pp.302-303, 1978-1979 pp.440-441, 1979-1980 pp.442-444, 1980-1981 pp.441-442, 1981-1982 pp.445-447, 1982-1983 pp.451-453, 1983-1984 pp.453-454, 1984-1985 pp.450-452, 1985-1986 pp.452-454, 1986-1987 pp.456-459, 1987-1988 pp.462-464, 1988-1989 pp.464-466, 1989-1990 pp.467-469, 1990-1991 pp.466-468, 1991-1992 pp.466-468, 1992-1993 pp.535-538, 1993-1994 pp.542-544, 1994-1995 pp.532-535, 1995-1996 pp.531-533, 1996-1997 pp.470-472 [G]
United Kingdom : Falkland Islands, 1997-1998 pp.1377-1380, 1998-1999 pp.1498-1500, 2000 pp.1686-1688, 2001 pp.1650-1653, 2002 pp.1710-1712, 2003 pp.1713-1715, 2004 pp.1729-1732, 2005 pp.1743-1746, 2006 pp.1746-1749 [G]
Americana Annual Falkland Islands, 1927 p.318, 1928 p.282, 1930 p.299, 1931 p.298, 1932 pp.263-264, 1933 pp.292, 1934 p.229, 1935 p.256, 1936 p.267, 1937 p.263, 1938 pp.255-256, 1939 p.272, 1940 pp.275-276, 1943 pp.265-266, 1944 p.352, 1945 p.266, 1946 pp.268-269, 1947 pp.240-241, 1957 pp.266-267, 1958 p.259, 1959 pp.246-247, 1960 p.251, 1961 p.251, 1962 p.252, 1963 p.233, 1964 p.231 [G]
Other Article : Falkland Islands, in : International Year Book 1898 p.309, 1899 pp.311-312, 1900 p.335 [G]
Article : Falkland Islands, in : New International Year Book 1907 p.251, 1908 p.235, 1909 p.236, 1910 p.242, 1913 pp.239-240, 1914 p.237, 1916 p.212, 1917 pp.225-226, 1918 pp.199-200, 1919 p.221, 1920 pp.217-218, 1921 p.219, 1922 pp.229-230, 1923 p.223, 1924 p.231, 1925 p.226, 1926 p.254, 1928 p.246, 1929 p.276, 1930 p.256, 1931 p.296, 1932 p.268, 1933 p.252, 1934 p.222, 1935 p.230, 1938 p.242, 1939 p.254, Events of 1940 p.245, 1941 p.194, 1942 p.225, 1943 p.192, 1944 p.202 [G]
Entry : Falkland Islands, in : The Commonwealth Yearbook 1989 pp.434-437 [G]

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