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Denmark Greenland
First posted on June 12th 2002, last revised on December 9th 2013

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

860-1262 . 1262-1541 . 1541-1602 . 1602-1662 . 1662-1789 . 1789-1815 . 1815-1874 . 1874-1918 . 1918-1939 . 1939-1944 . 1944-1969 . 1969-1990 . since 1990
see also History of Denmark, History of Norway

Iceland, first discovered by Vikings ca. 860, was settled by Norwegian Vikings in the years 870-930. Irish monks inhabiting the island have either been expelled or enslaved. The process of settlement was recorded in the Landnamabok.
In 930 the Icelanders established a constitution, with the Althingi, a combination of high court and parliament, meeting annually at Thingvellir, under open sky. The Icelandic sagas, recorded in the 13th century, are a rich and unique source on Viking era history. The country accepted christianity peacefully, by a resolution of Althingi, around 1000 A.D., bishoprics established at Skalholt in 1056 and at Holar in 1106. In 1262, Iceland had to acknowledge the sovereignty of the King of Norway.

The Icelanders suffered from a severe shortage of timber, as there were no forests on the island. As a result, they could not build or even repair ships. Iceland became dependent on Norwegian supply ships; Norway forbade any non-Norwegian to sail "beyond Bergen". However, English merchants and fishermen violated this regulation.
From 1380 onward, Norway and Denmark were connected in a dynastic union.
In the 14th century, Norway experienced a drastic population decrease, as a consequence of harvest failures, a cooling of the climate and of the plague. Due to its geographical and political isolation, the plague hit Iceland with a delay, in 1402 and 1494.
The annual supply ship from Norway stopped coming; Denmark took over responsibility for the North Atlantic outposts.

In 1537 King Christian III. of Denmark decreed the Church Ordinnance, which introduced Lutheranism. In the Danish realm, the bishops were to be replaced by superintendents; a part of church property was to be confiscated, monasteries to be dissolved, a part of regular church revenues trandferred to the state. The church were to use remaining revenues and property in order to establish schools. Also, church authority (jurisdiction) was to be transferred to the state. The reformation thus clearly served to answer the monetary demands of the Danish crown (after decades of civil war).
The Icelandic bishops (of Skalholt and Holar) rejected the church ordinnance altogether. Few in Iceland saw the necessity of a reformation from a religious point of view. Bishop Jon Arason of Holar had six children, but that was regarded as conforming with Icelandic tradition. The then planned dissolution of the monasteries, the planned reduction of the economic and political foundation of the bishops were rather seen as an attempt of the Danish administration to cut down on the autonomy of the Icelandic community.
Only a few Icelanders, priests at the bishop's court at Skalholt, who had studied in Germany, were aware of the issues on which the reformation was grounded, and one of them, Oddur Gottskalksson, translated the Gospel of St. Matthew into Icelandic (1541).
In 1539 the Danish bailiff, from his residence at Bessastadir, with an armed force rode to the nearby convent of Videy, declared it dissolved and appropriated its holdings in the name of the Danish crown. On his way to repeat the same procedure at another convent, the bailiff and his party was murdered. All Danish representatives on the island (they were few) met a violent death. In 1540 a protestant superintendent (bishop) was appointed for Skalholt, who gradually and very carefully introduced Lutheran practices; after his early death, bishop Jon Arason of Holar, an outspoken opponent of the reformation, took control of the diocese of Skalholt as well. Only after his assassination (1550) could the reformation be introduced on Iceland.
Lutheranism did not have a firm hold in the Icelandic community, and changes were gradually introduced by a church administration operating carefully. A few Latin schools (priest seminars) were created, financed by the revenues of earlier convents or monasteries. The bishoprics continued into the 18th century.
The Althing passed a moral code called the Great Verdict (1564) - legislation in an effort to replace the church jurisdiction which had been abolished.
Communication with Denmark was poor (one ship per year), and the revenue of the Danish bailiff rather limited. So Denmark relied on the cooperation of Icelanders when it came to the administration of the island. The island parliament - the Althing, meeting annually under open sky at Thingvellir, functioned as the legislative (decisions had to be approved by the Danish king). The bishops (superintendents) were the other local administrative institution cooperating with the Danish monarchy. Only Icelanders were appointed to the position.
Iceland had a population of roughly 50,000 inhabitants, spread all over the islands in isolated farms and clusters of farms. The largest such clusters were at Skalholt and Holar, numbering over a hundred farms each. The Icelanders lived of agriculture (livestock breeding, for instance the famous Icelandic ponies) and of fishing.
For centuries, Norwegian law had forbidden any foreign ship to sail to Iceland. In the 15th century English fishing boats had appeared off Iceland, in the 16th century German fishing vessels, mostly from Hamburg, had taken their place. For the Icelanders they were both competition and a source of trouble, as armed parties of sailors occasionally caused harm.
The English also had established an illegal trade; in order to dislodge the English, the Danish government permitted the Hamburgers to trade with Iceland (1530es). In 1542, foreigners were forbidden to stay over winter. The Danish crown made repeated attempts to hand over a trade monopoly with Iceland to Danish merchants, but, during the 16th century, failed to dislodge the Hamburgers.

In 1602 the Danish crown granted a monopoly over the Iceland trade to a consortium of merchants from Copenhagen, Helsingør (Elsinore) and Malmö. This time, competition both domestic and foreign was excluded. Prices, calculated in stockfish or homespun, were fixed according to Icelandic traditional standards. The holder of the monopoly was required to import the basic needs of the Icelandic community, most importantly a certain amount of unspoiled grain.
In the 17th century, Iceland experienced a raid by Barbary Coast pirates from Algiers, which killed some and abducted others (1627), and the emergence of witch trials and burnings (since 1625). About 80 % of the persons tried as witches on Iceland were men.

Denmark had adopted absolutism in 1660; Norway - in Dynastic Union with Denmark, in 1661. In 1662, the office of Danish bailiff on Iceland was replaced by that of a governor, and the oath formula by which the Icelanders were to swear their allegiance to the king was altered by the Danish administration, in order to have absolute rule recognized. The institutions of Icelandic administration, especially the Althing, continued to function; changes were introduced gradually.
In 1662 the bishops and lagmen ("law-men") were compelled to sign a document in which they, in the name of the Icelanders, agreed to the cancellation of the Island's old privileges, the Old Covenant granted to them by Norway's king in 1262.
In 1683 the administration was reorganized; the position as governor ("stiftsamtmand") was treated as a benefice and bestowed to persons at the Danish court; the holders, until 1770, resided in Copenhagen. At the head of the practical Danish administration on Iceland stood the amtmand. The Danish administration took over most of the Althing's competence and then interfered in its composition.
The last witchcraft trial and execution on Iceland took place in 1685; in 1692 the Danish supreme court overruled an Icelandic court, thus saving the life of a convicted 'witch'. The Gregorian Calendar was introduced in 1700.
With the various holders of the trading monopoly repeatedly failing in their obligation to supply Iceland with the necessary amount of unspoiled grain and thus, at least partially, being responsible for famines which caused a significant fall in the island's population, the Danish administration developed an increased interest in the island. In 1703 a census was carried out - the island population was established at 50,358.
Among those who were entrusted with the census was Arni Magnusson, a collector and student of Icelandic manuscripts who took up residence in Copenhagen. He later bequeathed his collection to the University of Copenhagen, where it became the Arnamagnaean Institute. In 1971 its library was transferred to Reykjavik.
Iceland had had printing press since 1578, owned by the bishop of Holar; when a private printing press was established in 1773, the printing of secular texts took off. Around 1770 the island's first prison, and at that time the only stone house, was built in Reykjavik, later to be transformed into the governor's residence (in 1810), a place which was also the site of attempts to establish a primitive industry (aimed at the export of sulphur and the processing of wool). Although these attempts failed, Reykjavik developed into Iceland's oldest township. From 1770 onward the governors resided, on Iceland. The old residence of Bessastadir was given up in favour of Reykjavik. In 1786 Reykjavik was elevated to a township. In 1780, Islenzka Laerdoms-Lista Felag (Icelandic Scholarly Society) had been founded. In the 1780es, the Danish government abolished the trade monopoly with Iceland a Danish company enjoyed. The two bishoprics finally were abolished, the two Latin schools merged into one.

For centuries, the affairs concerning Iceland had mainly been decided in Copenhagen. The most important Icelandic political institution, the Althingi - a parliament dating back into the 10th century - was abolished in 1800.
With Denmark pursuing a foreign policy staunchly opposing Britain in the Napoleonic years - Copenhagen was attacked by the British Navy twice, in 1801 and 1807 and following - communication with Iceland was cut off.
In summer 1809, the Danish adventurer Jørgen Jørgensen assumed the title of sovereign and protector of Iceland, claiming to act under British protection, declaring Danish rule to have ended and Iceland to become independent, under British protection; when it turned out that Britain was not involved, he was removed by the captain of a British ship, and after only two months Governor Greve af Trampe resumed the administration. From 1810 to 1813 the island was without a governor.
The short-lived coup of 1809 was an affair in which foreigners were involved - Danish officials as victims, Dane Jørgensen and his English associates as actors. Icelanders have taken mainly a passive position.

In 1816 the Islenska Bokmenntafelag (Icelandic Literary Society) was founded by a Danish linguist, Rasmus Christian Rask, its seats were Reyklavik and Copenhagen. Demands for the reestablishment of the Althing were first raised in 1831. In 1838 a Committee of Officials (a kind of Icelandic cabinet) was created, consisting of 10 Icelanders. In 1843, the Althingi (abolished in 1800) was restored. Jon Sigurdsson emerged as the leader of the Icelanders supporting and shaping the new constitution. Reykjavik was selected as the new site of the Althing. The franchise was limited to men over 25 years old who fulfilled certain property or education qualifications.
When absolutism was abolished in Denmark and a democratic constitution was adopted in 1848, Jon Sigurdsson proposed a constitution for Iceland which foresaw a maximum of autonomy, virtual independence with only the dynasty binding Denmark to Iceland; the 1849 proposal was rejected by the Danish parliament in 1851.
From 1860 to 1865 Porour Jonassen was the first Icelander in centuries to govern the island, albeit as acting governor. The position of Minister for Iceland was established in 1855, the ministers residing in Copenhagen until 1904; until the end of the century, Danes were exclusively appointed to the post. The Danish administration's revenues from Iceland covered roughly half the expenses, the island thus was subsidized by the Danish state. In 1874 a new constitution for Iceland was proclaimed.
In 1815 Iceland's population was c. 48,000; until 1855 it rose to c. 65,000. Emigration to America began in 1855; overall, c. 15,000 Icelanders emigrated, mostly to Canada and the USA. The stocks of sheep and cattle also expanded considerably; after centuries of stagnation, Iceland experienced sustained demographic and economic expansion. Medical progress, with the assistance of Danish veterinarians, permitted the extermination of the scab, an infectious disease afflicting sheep.
In 1855 the Danish parliament had enected free trade for Iceland, ending the exclusion of foreigners from Iceland trade that had lasted since 1602. In 1869 a group of Icelandic farmers purchased a sailing ship (hitherto Icelanders only owned fishing boats), thus beginning an Icelandic merchant fleet. The export of live ponies and sheep, primarily to Britain, was begun.
Because of the extremely low population density, Iceland, despite it's Lutheran tradition, had no elementary schools until into the 19th century, the Latin school(s), designed for the education of priests, being the only school in the country. Basic education took place at home on the farms; a significant proportion of the population could read, a smaller share could write.In the 1850es and 1860es, permanent schools were established in larger villages, while itinerant schools (i.e. teachers moving from farm to farm) became popular.
In 1861 a law was enacted according to which single women 25 years or older were permitted to rule their property, a first step toward the emancipation of women.
In 1872 an exclusive fishery zone was established, within a line 10 miles from the Icelandic coast; it was recognized by the British in a treaty of 1901.

In 1874 a new constitution was issued for Iceland, a compromise between Icelandic demands for a maximum of political autonomy and of Danish interest in maintaining the monarchy; the Danish state still subsidized the Icelandic budget regularly. Legislative power lay with the Althing, the decisions of which required approval by the Danish king, who was served by a minister for Iceland. National defense and diplomatic representation still were Danish prerogatives. On the occasion of the Icelandic millennium, King Christian IX. visited Iceland , the first royal visit ever. Iceland since 1684 had been administrated by governors, who until 1770 resided in Copenhagen. In 1904 Governor Magnus Sthephensen (gov. since 1886) was promoted governor-general. At the same time the residence of the minister for Iceland was moved from Copenhagen to Reyklavik, and, for the first time, an Icelander was appointed to the office : Hannes Hafstein.
In 1917, the position of Minister for Iceland was elevated to prime minister, the first being Jon Magnusson.
In 1882 farm-owning widows were granted the right to vote in local elections. The franchise was still tied to property, since 1857, until the electoral reform of 1915 which introduced universal suffrage, both for men and women. Womanhood suffrage and full legal equality had been demanded since 1888. In the early 1880es the Temperance Movement began its activities on Iceland. The first trade union was formed in 1897. The Icelandic Labour Party was established in 1916, the agrarian-liberal Progressive Party in 1916-1917.
Since the 1890es, the Icelandic fishermen found themselves in competition with foreign, mostly English, trawlers, technically much better equipped than the traditional Icelandic rowboats. The mechanization of fishing boats began in 1902.
In 1886, an Icelandic National Bank was established, issuing paper money, a right also granted to the Bank of Iceland founded in 1904. Credit from these banks was necessary in order for Icelandic fishermen to acquire modern fishing vessels (trawlers).

In 1918 Denmark recognized Iceland beign a sovereign state, with Christian I. (Christian X. of Denmark) as first (and only) king of Iceland, the country thus remaining in dynastic union with Denmark. Iceland thus gained formal recognition of self-government. Capital was Reykjavik, the Althingi Iceland's parliament. In 1919 universal womanhood suffrage was introduced. Iceland was one of the first countries to abolish the death penalty in 1928. In 1930 Iceland celebrated the millennium of the Althing.
Until 1916 there had been several political parties, which advocated various degrees of political autonomy/independence and were all more or less moderately liberal. In 1916 the Labour Party and the Progressive Party were founded. The right wing of the older Home Rule Party reorganized itself as the Independence Party (c. 1918). In 1930, the left wing of the Labour Party split off to form the Communist Party; in 1938 they were joined by another breakaway Labour faction, and renamed themselves the Socialist Party.
An insurance for work-related invalidity was introduced in 1925; in 1936 the State Social Security Institute was established, taking care of retirement, invalidity and health insurances.
The island's economy depended almost entirely on fishery, almost all other articles of daily consumption having to be imported.
After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, Iceland's exports sank, as did prices for export products (mainly fishery and agricultural products). Unemployment rose, and among those who depended on employment, desperate situations occurred; farmers and cottage owners were less affected. The state introduced a public works program, offering employment to some. An attempted cut in wages did not take place, due to the threat of violence on the side of the workers. During the depression, protectionist measures such as the regulation of imports, the monopolization of trade with foreign currency by state-owned banks etc. were implemented; they were to last throughout World War II.
Among right-wing Icelanders, the idea of reclaiming Greenland gained some support during the 1930es; fascist organizations, however, failed to establish themselves on Iceland.

When World War II broke out, the Icelanders sympathized with Britain, France and soon-occupied Poland, and then with Finland which found itself under attack from the Soviet Red Army. The Icelandic government, although not responsible for foreign policy (a prerogative of the Danish government) pursued a policy of neutrality.
On April 9th 1940, German troops occupied Denmark; the British occupied the Faroes and Iceland (May 1940, c. 25,000 troops) to make sure the Germans would not establish footholds there. Just after the Atlantic Conference, US forces established an airbase on Greenland (1941) and took over the task of occupying Iceland from the British (60,000 troops); they established a base there at Keflavik.
A few Icelandic cargo or fishing vessels were sunk by German u-boats, aircraft or sea mines. German airforce planes repeatedly flew over Iceland, but caused little damage.
In 1944, the Icelanders met at Thingvellir, where they declared full independence from Denmark. As first president, they elected Sveinn Bjoernsson, who had acted as regent since 1941.

In 1946 a social secirity law uplifted Iceland's social security network to the level of the best in the world; retirement pensions were guaranteed to persond 67 and over; family benefits to families with 4 and more children; universal insurance was granted. Social security quickly grew to make up a considerable part of state expenses; Iceland joined the ranks of the welfare states. Unemployment insurance was introduced in 1956.
Iceland received Marshall Plan aid. The country experienced a considerable inflation. In 1952, the exchlusive fishery zone around Iceland was extended, unilaterally, by the Icelandic government, to 4, in 1958 to 12 nautical miles. In 1958, Britain refused to accept this, and the confrontation - the arrest of British fishermen, the liberation by the British navy - was referred to as the Cod War (1958-1961).
In 1949, Iceland joined NATO. In 1951 a treaty was signed with the US, providing the legal basis for renewed US military presence on the island (at Keflavik). In 1963 an underwater volcano erupted, creating the new island of Surtsey.

In 1972, Iceland unilaterally extended its Exclusive Fishery Zone to 50, in 1975 to 200 nautical miles around Iceland; this lead to the (second) Cod War with Britain (1975-1976; a trade conflict). In 1980, Iceland was the first republic to elect a woman, Vigdis Finnbogadottir, president.
Iceland was one of the few western countries that imported cars made in East Germany.
Iceland's economy depended heavily on fishery anf agriculture; almost everything had to be imported. The welfare state was costly; one consequence was a relative high level of inflation, which again resulted in a fall of the foreign exchange rate, to US Dollar, Pound Sterling or DM. The annual inflation rate peaked in 1983 at 85 %. In 1938 one US Dollar had the value of 4.77 Kronur, in 1990 5.547 (old) Kronur. In 1981 a currency reform was conducted, 1 new krona equivalent to 100 old kronur.
In 1985, US President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev met in Reykjavik.

since 1990
Iceland, desiring to resume commercial whaling, left the International Whaling Commission in 1992. It rejoined in 2002; whaling (on which the IWC had placed a moratorium in 1986), under the pretext of being conducted for scientific purpose, was resumed in 2003. The Icelandic economy has always heavily depended on fishery.
In 2006 the US airbase at Keflavik was closed.

Historical Atlas, Iceland Page
Demographic History : Iceland

Students' Papers : Kim Shin, Early Years of the Little Ice Age in Northern Europe 1300-1500 (KMLA 2007), on Iceland : Chapter III, Cod Migration and the Discovery of the New World

Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia
Country Profile : Iceland, from Index Mundi
historical Uno von Troil, Letters on Iceland, 1780, GB
Elise C. Otte, Denmark and Iceland (1881), posted on Internet Archive
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from Iceland Worldwide, from Cyndi's List
on History from Virtual Library History
Organizations Association of Islandic Historians, from Euroclio
The History Teachers Association of Iceland, from Euroclio
Institute of Archaeology, Iceland
Viking Society for Northern Research UK
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from BBC News
from timelines.ws, based mainly on US newspaper articles; from EFTA Secretariat; from Iceland on the Web
Timeline of Icelandic History, from Wikipedia
Category : Years in Iceland, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History General, Modern Article History if Iceland, from Wikipedia; Iceland, a brief history, from Scantours
General, Historical A.L. von Schlözer, Isländische Litteratur und Geschichte, vol.1, 1773, in German, GB
J. Nicoll, An historical and descriptive account of Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands (1840), IA
L. MacColl Elton, The Story of Iceland 1887, IA
B. Melsted, Concise history of Iceland 1906, IA
Specific Periods M. Stephensen, Island i det attende aarhundrede, 1808, in Danish, GB
Articles Settlement of Iceland, Icelandic Commonwealth (930-1262), Christianization of Iceland, Age of the Sturlungs, The Turkish Abductions (1627), Jørgen Jørgensen (1809), Icelandic Independence Movement, Invasion of Iceland (1940), Iceland during World War II, Cod Wars, 2008-2010 Icelandic Financial Crisis, from Wikipedia
Christianisation of Iceland, from Kristni
J.F. Hogan, The convict king. Being the life and adventures of Jorgen Jorgenson, monarch of Iceland, naval captain, revolutionist, British diplomatic agent, author, dramatist, preacher, political prisoner, gambler, hospital dispenser, continental traveller, explorer, editor, expatriated exile, and colonial constable 1891, IA
J.L. Byock, The Age of the Sturlungs, Continuity and Change: Political Institutions and Literary Monuments in the Middle Ages, ed. Elisabeth Vestergaard (Odense: Odense University Press, 1986)
Historiography S. Oskarsdottir, Universal history in fourteenth-century Iceland: studies in AM 764 4to, thesis UCL 2000
J.P. Mulvey, The Saga of the Confederates: Historical Truth in an Icelandic Saga, thesis North Carolina State 2006
L. Guttormsson, The breakthrough of social history in Icelandic historiography , Nordic Historiography in the 20th Century, 2000, pp.265-279
O.R. Grimsson, Pioneering Political Science The Case of Iceland, Scandinavian Political Studies, vol.12 (1977) pp.47-61
W.R. Short, The Sagas of Icelanders as a Historical Source, Hurstwic 2005
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Iceland; Article Politics of Iceland, from Wikipedia; For the Record 2000 : Iceland, from UN Human Rights System
Article Elections in Iceland, from Wikipedia
History of Althingi, by Althingi
Iceland, in : Kenneth Janda, Political Parties : A Cross-National Survey
B. Thorhallsson, Iceland's external affairs in the Middle Ages: The shelter of Norwegian sea power, Stjornmal og stjornsysla, Vol.1:8 (2012)
J. Byock, The Icelandic Althing: Dawn of Parliamentary Democracy, Heritage and Identity: Shaping the Nations of the North, ed. J. M. Fladmark, 2002
J.V. Sigurdsson, Making and Using the Law in the North, c. 900-1350, Communities in European History: Representations, Jurisdictions, Conflicts, edited by G. Lottes et al. (Cliohres.net, 2008)
Economy & Finances General The Icelandic Economy, from Glitnir
B.M. Peirce, A Report on the Resources of Iceland and Greenland, 1868, IA
H. Sigurdardottir, Iceland's Optimum. Monetary Policy and the Economic History of Iceland, thesis Aarhus 2012
Currency and Finances A Global History of Currencies : Iceland
H. Einarsson, Om værdie-beregning paa landsviis og tiende-ydelsen i island, 1833, on Danish, GB
Institutions Stock Market in Iceland, from Gateway to Iceland
Trade J.S. Plum, Historien om min Handel paa Island: mine Søereiser og Hendelser i Anledning af Islands almindelige Ansøgning til Kongen om udvidende Handelsfriheder m. fl. 1799, in Danish, GB
Fishery Article Whaling in Iceland, Cod Wars, 2008-2010 Icelandic Financial Crisis, from Wikipedia
Iceland's History of Whaling, from WCDS
R. Edvardsson, The Role of Marine Resources in the Medieval Economy of Vestfirdir, Iceland, thesis City Univ. of New York 2010
N. Einarsson, Culture, Conflict and Crises in the Icelandic Fisheries An Anthropological Study of People, Policy and Marine Resources in the North Atlantic Arctic, thesis Uppsala 2011
F. Feeley, Medieval Fishing at Gufuskalar, Snæfellsnes, Iceland, video 2012
E. Pierce, Walrus Hunting and the Ivory Trade in Early Iceland, Archaeologia Islandica, Vol. 7 (2009)
S. Matsumoto, A link with the external world: The stockfish trade in 14th-15th century Iceland, First Finnish-Japanese workshop for doctoral students of history and economics (2010)
S. Perdicaris et al., Viking Age Economics and the Origins of Commercial Cod Fisheries in the North Atlantic, Beyond the Catch: Fisheries of the North Atlantic, the North Sea and the Baltic, 900-1850, edited by L. Sickling et al. (Brill, 2008)
Social History General
Class S. Beck, I kungens frånvaro. Formeringen av en isländsk aristokrati 1271-1387, thesis Göteborg 2011
G.A. Oddson, Class Awareness in Iceland, thesis Univ. of Missouri-Columbia 2009
M. Benjamin, Horses as Status Symbols: Medieval Icelandic horses as symbols of masculine honor in a one-sexed world, Cornell University, December 15, (2008)
G. Lucas, Hofstadir: Excavations of a Viking Age Feasting Hall in North-Eastern Iceland 2009
Feasting with Early Medieval Chiefs: Locating Political Action through Environmental Archaeology, Davide M. Zori (Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Univ. of California-Los Angeles)
Health Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Iceland
S. Kristjansdottir, The Poisoned Arrows of Amor: cases of syphilis from 16th-century Iceland, Scandinavian Journal of History, 36:4, pp.406-418 (2011)
Gender J.M. Fortney, If she says yes or stays silent : A new interpretation of female marital consent in the settlement period in Iceland as revealed through the family sagas, thesis Emory 2009
S.E. Rivenbark, "Ek Skal Her Rada": Themes of Female Honor in the Icelandic Sagas, thesis Appalachian State 2011
Center for Gender Equality Iceland, Gender Equality in Iceland
J.M. Jochens, The Church and Sexuality in Medieval Iceland, Journal of Medieval History, 6 (1999) pp.377-39
M. Hayeur-Smith, Dressing the Dead: Gender, Identity, and Adornment in Viking-Age Iceland, Vinland Revisited, the Norse World at the Turn of the First Millennium, edited by S. Lewis-Simpson, 2003
M. Hayeur-Smith, Life, Death, Fate and Female Embodiment: Weaving in Viking Age and Medieval Iceland, video 2012
A.S. Arnorsdottir, Changing Gender Relation in Medieval and Early Modern Iceland: The Role of Canon Law According to Court Case Narratives, Less Favored - More Favored: Proceedings from a Conference on Gender in European Legal History, 12th - 19th Centuries (2004)
A. Gudmundsdottir, How Icelandic Legends Reflect the Prohibition on Dancing, ARV - Nordic Yearbook of Folklore, Vol. 61 (2005)
Slavery/Serfdom A.C. Humphrey, "They Accuse Us of Being Descended from Slaves". Settlement History, Cultural Syncretism, and the Foundation of Medieval Icelandic Identity, thesis Rutgers 2009
J.H. Adalsteinsson, The position of freed slaves in medieval Iceland, Saga Book, Vol.22 (1986)
Crime, Outlaws M.A. Marion Poilvez, Access to the Margins: Outlawry and Narrative spaces in medieval Icelandic outlaw sagas, Brathair, Vol.12:1 (2012)
Conflict J.L. Byock, Feuding in Viking Age Iceland's Great Village, Conflict in Medieval Europe : Changing Perspective on Society and Culture. 2003
V.A. Pakis, Honor, Verbal Duels, and the New Testament in Medieval Iceland, Tijdschrift voor Skandinavistiek, Vol. 26 (2005)
S. Jakobsson, The Peace of God in Iceland in the 12th and 13th centuries, Sacri canones servandi sunt: Ius canonicum et status ecclesiae saeculis XIII-XV, curavit Pavel Krafl; Praha: Historicky ustav AV CR, v. v. i., 2008
S. Matsumoto, No Longer a Feuding Society? Legal Practice and Kingship in Late 13th-Century Iceland, thesis Univ. of Iceland 2012
Ethnography Languages of Iceland, from Ethnologue
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Iceland
Iceland, pp.2689-2704 in vol.4A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Native American came to Iceland over a thousand years ago, research finds, Medievalists.Net 2010
Did the Scots visit Iceland? New research reveals island inhabited 70 years before Vikings thought to have arrived, Medievalists.Net 2010
H. Gestsdottir, The first settlers of Iceland: an isotopic approach to colonisation, Antiquity, Vol. 80 (2006)
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Iceland, from Kirken i Norge; Article Religion in Iceland, from Wikipedia
History of the Jews in Iceland, from Wikipedia; Iceland and the Jewish Question until 1940, by Snorri G. Bergsson; Iceland, the Jews and Anti-Semitism 1625-2004, by Vilhjalmur Örn Vilhjalmsson; The Virtual Jewish History Tour : Iceland; Iceland, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Iceland, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy
Patron Saint Index : Iceland
E.R. Sigurdsson, The Church in Fourteenth-Century Iceland, thesis Leeds 2011
A. Zugaiar, The orientation of pagan graves in Viking Age Iceland, thesis Reykjavik 2012
B. McCreesh, Saint-Making in Early Iceland, Scandinavian-Canadian Studies, Vol.17 (2006-7)
G. Lucas, Bloody Slaughter: Ritual Decapitation and Display At the Viking Settlement of Hofstadir, Iceland, European Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 10, No. 1 (2007)
J. Anderson, The miraculuous water of Guğmundr Arason and the limits of holiness in medieval Iceland, thesis Univ. of Iceland 2008
C.M. Wood, Charity On The Fringes Of The Medieval World: Skriğuklaustur, A Late Medieval Priory-Hospital In Eastern Iceland, thesis Univ. of Iceland 2013
Local History History of Reykjavik, from Visit Reykjavik; from Wikipedia
I.C. Hannah, Capitals of the northlands, tales of ten cities (1914), posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Iceland, from Airline History
History of RUV (Radio Iceland)
Structurae : Iceland
Search Lighthouse Explorer for Iceland
Culture Articles : Iceland at the Olympics, Categories : Sport in Iceland, Handball in Iceland, from Wikipedia
The Icelandic National Costume Board
F. Tenney, Classical Scholarship in Medieval Iceland, The American Journal of Philology 30 1909, IA
C. Holme, Peasant art in Sweden, Lapland and Iceland 1910, IA
W. Fiske, Chess in Iceland and in Icelandie Literature, with Historical Notes on Other Table-games, 1905, IA
S.C. Meyer, Icelandic Culture From the Perspective of Foreigners, thesis Univ. of Iceland 2012
G. Nordal, Why skaldic verse ? Fashion and cultural politics in thirteenth-century Iceland, Sagas and Society, No.6 (2004)
R.E. Cutrer, The Wilderness of Dragons: The reception of dragons in thirteenth century Iceland, thesis Univ. of Iceland 2012
M.C.C. Wintour, Remnants of Revenants: The Role of the Dreaded Draugr in Medieval Iceland, Caitlin's Crossroads (2011)
J. Knitt, Preservation and Immortatlity: The Transition From Oral to Written Culture in Iceland, Oshkosh Scholar, Volume 2 (2007)
T.J. Stephany, Ancient Skies of Northern Europe: Stars, Constellations, and the Moon in Nordic Mythology 2006
A. Gudmundsdottir, The Werewolf in Medieval Icelandic Literature, Journal of English and Germanic Philology, Vol.106:3 (2007)
Biographies Standard Works of Reference
Web Compilations, General List of Icelanders, from Wikipedia
Specialized Compilations Biographies of Icelandic Saints, from Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon (Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints, in German)
Environmental History Disaster History by Country : Iceland, from Relief Web
J.E. Cussans, Changes in the size and shape of domestic mammals across the North Atlantic region over time. The effects of environment and economy on bone growth of livestock from the Neolithic to the Post Medieval period with particular reference to the Scandinavian expansion westwards, thesis Bradford 2010
Fighting cod war taught Icelanders the lesson of conservation, 2000 article from the Guardian
A. Stubbing, Polar Bears and Iceland : an overview, history and proposed response plan, thesis Akureyri 2011
A.E.J. Ogilvie et al., Sea Ice, Climate, and Icelandic Fisheries in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, Arctic vol.53 no.4 (Dec. 2000) pp.383-394
G. Hambrecht, Faunal Analysis of the Early Modern Bishop's Farm at Skalholt, Arnessysla Iceland, thesis Univ. of Michigan 2011
T. Thordarson et al., Volcanism in Iceland in historical time: Volcano types, eruption styles and eruptive history, Journal of Geodynamics 43 (2007) pp.118-152
C.L. Walker, The volcanic history and geochemical evolution of the Hveragerdi Region, S. W. Iceland, thesis Durham 1992
U. Hellden et al., Desertification and Global Climate Change - Little Ice Age Desertification in Iceland ? -, Lund n.d.
A. Dugmore et al., Black Sun, High Flame, and Flood: Volcanic Hazards in Iceland, Surviving Sudden Environmental Change Answers from Archaeology, eds. Jago Cooper and Payson Sheets, 2012
O. Vesteinsson et al., Enduring Impacts: Social and Environmental Aspects of Viking Age Settlement in Iceland and Greenland, Archaeologia Islandica Vol.2 (2002)
Vikings not alone when they crossed the North Atlantic - mice hitched a ride too, Medievalists.Net 2012
F. Goldberg, Climate Change in the Recent Past: Selected Climate Events from Historical Records, Frontier Centre for Public Policy Backgrounder (April 2007)
Others D.B. Heidarsson, Roman coins in Iceland: Roman remnants or Viking exotica, 2010

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated); Political Leaders of Iceland, from ZPC, including party leaders
Lists of Bishops List of Holar Bishops, List of Skalholt Bishops, from Wikipedia
Lists of Ambassadors Heads of Canadian Legation / Embassy in Reykjavik (since 1949), from MOFA Canada
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Statistics Iceland
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Iceland, from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
Iceland, from City Population
Historical Abortion Statistics - Iceland, from Johnston's Archive
Inflation Rates Historical Inflation Rates, from Index Mundi, since 2000
Election Results from Psephos (since 1996); from IFES Election Guide (since 1999)
Lijphart's Elections Archive : Iceland
Documents Historical Newspapers Overview H. Hermannsson, The periodical literature of Iceland down to the year 1874; an historical sketch, 1918, IA
Official Gazette Flare, Union List of Official Gazettes : Iceland
Hemerotheques Timarit, Icelandic Server of Historical Newspapers, 1773-2001
Specific Newspapers Life Magazine, 1936-1972, Search for "Iceland", search all issues; 500 Iceland articles, GB
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Universal Collections
Items on Iceland
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Passport, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Iceland
Archival Deposits
Constitutions Verfassungen Islands (Constitutions of Iceland), from verfassungen.eu, in German
A collection of royal ordinances, etc., concerning Iceland, 1828-1847, in Danish, GB
Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Iceland, from ILO, 22 docs. since 1945
Free Trade Agreements signed by Iceland, from Icelandic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in Icelandic; list of treaties, some linked
Internet Law Library : Iceland
Codex juris Islandorum antiqvissimus vol.1, 1829, vol.2, 1829, GB
Magnus Ketilsson, Kongelige allernaadigste Forordninger og aabne Breve som til Island ere udgivne af de Hoist-priselige Konger af den Oldenborgiske Stamme, part 1, 1776, part 2, 1778, part 3, 1787, in Danish, GB
Cartularia Diplomatarium Arna-Magnaenum vol.1, 1786, vol.2, 1786, in Latin, GB
Diplomatarium Islandicum vol.1 : 834-1364, 1857-1876, IA, vol.2 : 1250-1350, 1893, IA, vol.3 : 1269-1415, 1896, IA, vol.4 : 1265-1449, 1897, IA, vol.5 : 1330-1476, 1902, IA, vol.6 : 1245-1491, 1904, IA, vol.7 : 1170-1505, 1907, IA, vol.8 : 1261-1521, 1905-1913, IA, vol.9 : 1242-1536, 1909-1913, IA, vol.10.3 : 1538-1542, 1914, IA, vol.11.1 : 1310-1544, 1915, IA
Treaties Iceland, pp.1149-1208 in vol.8 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1971, GB
Historiography Snorri Sturlosson, Heimskringla: The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway , 1978, GB
M. Stephenson, Forvar for Islands fornærmede Øvrighed : samt for dets almindelige Ansøgning om udvidede Handels-Friheder, 1798, in Danish, GB
The Story of Burnt Njal: Or, Life in Iceland at the End of the Tenth Century, trsl. by G.W. Dasent 1861, IA
The life of Laurence, Bishop of Hólar in Iceland (Laurentius saga), trsl. by O. Elton 1890, IA; L. lived 1267-1331
Origines islandicae; a collection of the more important sagas and other native writings relating to the settlement and early history of Iceland vol.1 1905, IA, vol.2 1905, IA
Medievalists.Net : Ten Icelandic Sagas you may not have heard of, 2013
Document Surveys Ch.13 Par.10 : In Rebus Islandiae, pp.1588-1590 in vol.2 of B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Document Collections European History Primary Sources : Iceland
Primary Documents of the History of Iceland, from Eurodocs
Individual Documents 1789 letter granting citizenship of Reykjavik, from EuArchives Reykjavik
Running Water replaces water carriers, Reykjavik 1904/1907, from EuArchives Reykjavik
Documents pertaining to the Theatre in Reykjavik 1897ff., from EuArchives Reykjavik
Documents relating to the evacuation of children of Reykjavik 1940, from EuArchiv Reykjavik
Message of President Roosevelt to the Congress on Iceland, July 7, 1941, from V. Ferraro, Mt.Holyoke, also from Public Papers of the Presidents : Franklin D. Roosevelt; from Words of Peace, Words of War; from Jewish Virtual Library
Prime Minister, Winston Churchill in House of Commons on U.S. Troops in Iceland, July 9, 1941, from Words of Peace, Words of War
UN General Assembly 1946 Resolution No.34, Admission of Afghanistan, Iceland and Sweden
Defense of Iceland: Agreement Between the United States and the Republic of Iceland, May 5, 1951, from Avalon Project
Transcripts, Reagan-Gorbachev meeting in Reykjavik 1986, from CNN Cold War Page
Message to the Congress Transmitting the Iceland-United States Fishing Agreement May 3, 1989, posted by Bush Library, TAMU
Venona Files, U.S. built Soviet trawlers to cross Iceland from U.S. East Coast, May 9 1943, Sept. 21 1943, Soviet convoy arrives in Iceland, Oct. 6 1943, A Convoy Arrives in Iceland, Nov. 9 1943, IA
The Book of Settlement of Iceland (Landnamabok), trsl. T. Ellwood, 1898, IA
Historical Maps Responsible Institution UNESCO, National Mapping Agencies : Iceland : Landmælingar Islands (LMI), Akranes
collections click here
David Rumsey Map Collection : Iceland
Iceland Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Iceland, Maps of the History of Iceland, Wikimedia Commons
Iceland, hindsight
Iceland, contemporary Iceland 1898, 1904, 1906, 1907, 1922, 1932, 1938, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, hindsight
detail, historic
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Iceland, from EB 1911
Articles Island, Hekla, Holar, Skalholt, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892 edition, in German
Religious Articles Iceland, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Economic Iceland, pp.60-61 in vol.4 of A. Anderson, Anderson's Historical and chronological deduction of the origin of commerce 1790, GB
Political Entry : Iceland, pp.109-135, in : T.G. Smollett, The Present State of the World, vol.1 1768, posted on Google Books
Geographical L'Islande, pp.101-104 in vol.1 of J. Vaissete, Geographie historique ecclesiastique et civile 1755, in French, GB
De l'Isle d'Islande, pp.106-118 in vol.3 of J. Hübner, La Geographie Universelle, 1757, in French, GB
Iceland, pp.215-227 in vol.1 of A.F. Büsching, A new system of geography 1762, GB
L'Islande, pp.502-507 in vol.2 of N. Lenglet-Dufresnois, Methode pour etudier la geographie 1768, in French, GB
Iceland, pp.80-84 in vol.1 of W. Guthrie et al., A new system of modern geography 1794, GB
Iceland, pp.401-402 in J. Pinkerton, Modern geography, 1804, GB
Article Iceland, in W. Gracie's General Gazetteer, 1823
Iceland, pp.194-196 in vol.2 of C. Malte-Brun, A System of Universal Geography 1834, GB
Iceland, pp.91-92 in S.G. Goodrich, The Malte-Brun School Geography, 1836, GB
Iceland, pp.281-282 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Historical Iceland, pp.418-420 in vol.2 of S. Maulder, The history of the world, 1856, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides W.G. Lock, Guide to Iceland ; a Useful Handbook for Travellers and Sportsmen 1882, IA
Forenede Dampskibs-Selskab, Sportsman's and tourist's handbook to Iceland 1900 ed., 1902 ed., 1904 ed., IA
K. Baedeker, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark: with excursions to Iceland and Spitzbergen ; handbook for travellers, 1909, IA
Travelogues Travels in 19th Century Iceland, by Ed Jackson
W.J. Hooker, Journal of a tour in Iceland in the summer of 1809, 1811, GB
J.St. MacKenzie, Travels in the island of Iceland: during the summer of the year MDCCCX , 1811, GB
J. Barrow, A visit to Iceland : by way of Tronyem, in the "Flower of Yarrow" yacht, 1835, GB
J.E. Cross, A yacht voyage to Iceland, in 1853, 1854, GB
I. Pfeiffer, Visit to Iceland and the Scandinavian North 1853, GB
A. Bryson, Notes of a trip to Iceland in 1862, 1864, GB
C.W. Paijkull, A summer in Iceland , 1868, GB
Residence Memoirs E. Henderson, Iceland: or, The journal of a residence in that island, during the years 1814 and 1815, vol.1, 1818, vol.2, 1818, GB
Institutions Archives Repositories of Primary Sources : Europe : Iceland, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 5 entries
Historical Research in Europe, listing of archives; click Atlas Search, Iceland, 16 entries
Musea National Museum of Iceland; Saga Museum, from Randburg
Monuments Tentative List : Iceland, World Heritage List, scroll down for Iceland; from UNESCO World Heritage
Iceland Index, from Showcaves
Libraries Libraries on Iceland, from LibDex, 14 entries
History of the Icelandic National Library, from The European Library
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Icelandic Coins, from Ilmarengo
Stamps Rare Icelandic Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Iceland survey of bibliographies
bibliographic databanks The Icelandic National Bibliography
general bibliographies T.W. Lidderdale, Catalogue of the Books Printed in Iceland, from A. D. 1578 to 1880, in the Library of the British Museum 1885, IA
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies H. Hermannsson, The Ancient Laws of Norway and Iceland : a Bibliography 1911, IA
serial publications
general bibliographies
Iceland entries
Historia Islandiae, pp.467-469 in vol.8 of J.D. Reuss, Repertorium commentationum a societatibus litterariis editarum, 1810, GB
booksellers University of Iceland Press
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Scandinavia National and University Library of Iceland : e-Resources
Scandinavian Digital Libraries and Projects, from Wess Web
Electronic Resources of the Royal Library (Copenhagen); Project Runeberg
Viking Society for Northern Research Text Series
Academia : Documents in Icelandic History
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories, Denmark, Norway
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals full text online Directory of Open Access Journals
Timarit, Icelandic Server of Historical Newspapers (also for Greenland, Faroe Islands, 1773-2001)
Archaeologia Islandica
Contents Online Scandinavian Journal of History Index 1985-1995, from H-net
Scandinavian Journal of History, Contents of all volumes, from Taylor and Francis
Registre for Handels- og Søfartsmuseets årbøger
General Accounts Gunnar Karlsson, The History of Iceland, Univ. of Minnesota Press 2000, 384 pp.; KMLA Lib. Sign. 949.12 K18h
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia : Iceland, Vol.20 pp.760-768; KMLA Lib. Sign. R 032 B862n v.17
Specific Topics Svend Gissel e.a. (ed.), Desertion and Land Colonization in the Nordic Countries c. 1300-1600, Stockholm : Almqvist & Wiksell 1981 [G]
The North Atlantic Saga, in : Historical Atlas of the Vikings, by John Haywood, London : Penguins 1995, pp.86-99, illustrated, concise, scholarly
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Europe 1750-1988, London : Palgrave 2000 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Iceland, 1944 pp.345-346, 1945 pp.349-350, 1946 pp.379-380, 1947 pp.394-395, 1948 pp.376-377, 1949 pp.335-336, 1950 pp.351-352, 1951 pp.353-354, 1952 pp.346-347, 1953 p.345, 1954 p.345, 1955 p.394, 1956 p.335, 1957 pp.397-398, 1958 pp.330-331, 1959 pp.327-328, 1960 pp.326-327, 1961 pp.332-333, 1962 p.324, 1963 p.441, 1964 p.418, 1965 pp.413-414, 1966 pp.366-367, 1967 pp.399-400, 1968 pp.402-403, 1969 pp.395-396, 1970 p.404, 1971 p.384, 1972 pp.351-352, 1973 pp.349-350, 1974 pp.357-358, 1975 pp.375-376, 1976 pp.402-403, 1977 pp.401-402, 1978 pp.433-434, 1979 p.425, 1980 pp.430-431, 1981 pp.429-430, 1982 pp.427-428, 1983 pp.422-423, 1984 p.425, 1985 pp.533, 700, 1986 pp.527, 697, 1987 pp.498-499, 666, 1988 pp.454, 618, 1989 pp.455, 619, 1990 pp.471, 634, 1991 pp.454-455, 619, 1992 pp.431-432, 618, 1993 pp.442, 626, 1994 pp.440, 627, 1995 pp.417, 419, 627, 1996 pp.415-416, 627, 1997 pp.430, 625, 2002 pp.436-437, 629 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Iceland, 1919 pp.797-804, 1924 pp.803-810, 1925 pp.814-821, 1926 pp.790-797, 1928 pp.802-809, 1929 pp.793-799, 1932 pp.1008-1014, 1937 pp.1040-1046, 1943 pp.1009-1015, 1970-1971 pp.1024-1029, 1975-1976 pp.1018-1023, 1976-1977 pp.1025-1031, 1978-1979 pp.592-598, 1979-1980 pp.596-602, 1980-1981 pp.594-600, 1981-1982 pp.597-603, 1983-1984 pp.602-608, 1984-1985 pp.603-609, 1985-1986 pp.606-612, 1986-1987 pp.609-615, 1987-1988 pp.615-621, 1988-1989 pp.617-623, 1989-1990 pp.623-629, 1990-1991 pp.623-630, 1991-1992 pp.620-627, 1992-1993 pp.693-700, 1993-1994 pp.698-703, 1994-1995 pp.690-695, 1995-1996 pp.687-692, 1996-1997 pp.629-634, 1997-1998 pp.633-639, 1998-1999 pp.684-689, 2000 pp.789-795, 2001 pp.766-773, 2002 pp.797-804, 2003 pp.799-806, 2004 pp.802-809, 2005 pp.803-810, 2006 pp.800-807 [G]
Americana Annual Iceland, 1927 pp.422-423, 1928 pp.375-376, 1930 pp.385-386, 1931 pp.385-386, 1932 p.347, 1933 pp.379-380, 1934 p.297, 1935 p.354, 1936 pp.350-351, 1937 pp.343-344, 1938 pp.331-332, 1939 p.366, 1940 pp.373-374, 1943 pp.354-355, 1944 pp.330-331, 1945 pp.350-351, 1946 pp.356-357, 1947 pp.332-333, 1957 pp.363-364, 1961 p.341, 1962 pp.346-347, 1963 p.314, 1964 p.312, 1965 p.322, 1967 p.341, 1968 p.334, 1969 pp.343-344, 1970 p.346, 1971 pp.338-339, 1972 p.333, 1973 p.340, 1974 pp.286-287, 1976 p.286, 1988 pp.270-271, 1989 p.270, 1990 p.264, 1992 p.273, 1993 p.273, 1994 p.272, 1998 p.270 [G]
Other Article : Iceland, in : International Year Book 1898 p.404, 1899 p.421, 1900 pp.455-456 [G]
Article : Iceland, in : New International Year Book 1909 p.353, 1913 p.341, 1914 p.348, 1916 pp.318-319, 1918 p.303, 1919 pp.337-338, 1920 p.333, 1921 p.333, 1923 pp.337-338, 1925 p.318, 1928 pp.338-339, 1930 pp.355-356, 1932 pp.365-366, 1933 pp.351-352, 1934 p.303, 1935 p.313, 1938 p.325, 1939 pp.350-351, Events of 1940 p.344, 1941 pp.268-271, 1942 pp.312-313, 1943 pp.273-274, 1944 pp.283-284, 1945 pp.263-264 [G]
Article : Iceland, in : Yearbook on International Communist Affairs 1976 pp.172-175, 1980 pp.171-176 (Eric S. Einhorn) [G]