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First posted on May 16th 2002, last revised on December 15th 2013






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Historical Regions of Burma : Arakan, Tenasserim, Shan States, Kachin, Pegu
see also History of Mainland Southeast Asia



For the history of Burma prior to the Konbaung Dynasty, see Toungoo Dynasty.
The Konbaung Dynasty reunified Burma (referred to as Ava by many contemporary sources) in 1752. Pursuing a policy of military expansion, the Burmese temporarily held Ayutthaya, the capital of Siam (1767), but a series of Chinese invasions forced Burma to recognize the suzerainty of Qing China (1769). Arakan was conquered in 1784.
After the First Anglo-Burmese War 1824-1826, Burma ceded Arakan and Tenasserim to the East India Company; after the Second Anglo-Burmese War 1852 Lower Burma. These areas had been placed under Bengal Presidency. In 1858 the E.I.C. went bankrupt and her possessions in India were taken over by the British government. In the Third Anglo-Burmese War 1886, Upper Burma was conquered by the British. Upper Burma, Lower Burma, Arakan and Tenasserim were now merged to form Burma Province, as part of British India. In 1937, Burma was separated from British India and established as a separate crown colony. Under British administration, rice cultivation in the Irawaddy Delta was greatly expanded; the country became an important exporter of Teak and of precious stones.
Occupied by the Japanese from 1942 to 1944, Burma was granted independence in 1948, based on federalism. The Union of Burma actively engaged in international affairs. A coup d'etat in 1962 began military dictatorship, which is still ongoing. Federalism was abolished, socialism was proclaimed as official ideology. After an experiment, the holding of elections, went "wrong" (1988), the government which lost the election renamed the country Myanmar (1989), forgot about the election and arrested the politicians who won it.
Burma since 1962 has pursued a policy of isolation. Once one of the wealthier countries in Asia, its economy has deteriorated.

Myanmar, since 1989 . Burma 1974-1989 . Burma 1962-1974 . Burma 1948-1962
Burma 1945-1948 . Burma 1942-1945 . Burma 1937-1942 . Burma 1919-1937 . Burma 1886-1918
Lower Burma 1852-1886 .. Upper Burma 1852-1886
British Arakan, Tenasserim 1824-1852 . Burma 1824-1852
Burma before 1824
Historical Atlas : Burma Page








Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Index Mundi; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook, Countries : Burma
from World Wide Gazetteer
Historic Burma, pre 1852
Ava, pp.5-8, Pegu pp.8-16 in Th. Pennant, The view of India extra Gangem, China, and Japan , 1800, GB
W. Francklin, Tracts, political, geographical, and commercial on the dominions of Ava, 1811, GB
Rücker, August, Das Reich der Birmanen ein geographischer Versuch, 1824, in German, SBB
Zschokke, Heinrich, Die Burmanen oder Nachrichten über ihre Geschichte, Religion, Sitten, Gebräuche und die Ursachen des gegenwärtigen Krieges mit der englisch-ostindischen Compagnie zum Theil aus authentischen Quellen, 1826, in German, SBB
Sangermano, Vincentius, A Description of the Burmese Empire, 1833, SBB
Lower Burma, 1852-1886
Mackenzie, Kenneth R. H., Burmah and the Burmese in two books, 1853, SBB
G.E. Fryer, Hand-Book for British Burma (1867), IA
Ch.J.F. Smith-Forbes, British Burma and its People (1878), IA
Burma since 1886
Geary, Grattan, Burma, after the conquest, viewed in its political, social, and commercial aspects, from Mandalay, 1886, SBB
Hart, Alice Marion Rowlands, Picturesque Burma past & present, 1897, SBB
A. Ireland, The Province of Burma (1907), posted on Internet Archive
R.T. Kelly, Burma (1908), posted on Internet Archive
H.Th. White, Provincial Geographies of India, vol.4 : Burma (1913), IA
D.G.E. Hall, Burma (1950), posted on Internet Archive
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World
from BUBL, from dmoz
Online Burma / Myanmar Library
List of Myanmar-related Topics, from Wikipedia
Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia
on History from Online Burma / Myanmar Library
Category History of Myanmar, from Wikipedia
Burma in the Victorian Web
Historical Dictionary BurmaWiki
Organizations International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies (JSSEAS)
The International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History (ICEAACH)
Finnish University Network for East and Southeast Asian Studies
Article : Burma Research Society, from Wikipedia
Center for Burma Studies, Northern Illinois University
Burma Studies Group
Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog
Association of Myanmar Archaeologists
Timelines from timelines.ws, a website exploiting US newspaper articles, very detailed on the 20th century; from BBC News, from Travel Burma
Accounts of History General, Modern from Lonely Planet, from Asia Tours, 7 chapters; from geographia.com, scroll down for history and culture; from World Travel Guide; from Myanmar - Golden Land
History of Myanmar, from Myanmar Travel Information; from Wikipedia; from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World (Robert Winslow)
General, Historic A. Fytche, Burma Past and Present (1878), posted on IA
Ch.J. Smith-Forbes, Legendary History of Burma and Arakan (1882), IA
J.G. Scott, Burma as it was, as it is, and as it will be (1886), IA
E.G. Harmer, The Story of Burma (1900), posted on IA
J. Stuart, Burma through the centuries; being a short account of the leading races of Burma, of their origin, and of their struggles for supremacy throughout past centuries; also of the three Burmese wars and of the annexation of the country by the British government (1910), IA
Specific Periods C.M. Enriquez, Pagan; being the first connected account in English of the 11th century capital of Burma, with the history of a few of its most important pagodas (1914), IA
Father Sangermann, The Burmese empire a hundred years ago (1893), posted on Internet Archive
J. Nisbet, Burma under British Rule - and before (1901), vol.1, vol.2, IA
J. Dautremer, Burma under British Rule (1913), IA
Thankin Nu, Burma under the Japanese, Pictures and Portraits (1954), IA
The Burmese Road to Socialism (1962), posted on Internet Archive
Sanderson Beck, Burma, Malaya and the British 1800-1950
Articles : Konbaung Dynasty, British Rule in Burma, Dobama Asiayone (Nationalist Movement, 1886-1948), Japanese Occupation of Burma, Union of Burma, Burmese Way to Socialism, Union of Myanmar, from Wikipedia
Historiography
Politics Links Political Resources on the Net : Burma; Governments on the WWW : Myanmar;
General Article Politics of Myanmar, from Wikipedia
Burma/Myanmar Profile, from International Crisis Group
Foreign Relations Arnold van Wickeren, Geschiedenis van Portugal en de Portugezen, Deel 12 Chapter 4 subch.0, De unificatie van Birma, in Dutch, posted on Colonial Voyage
The Implications of Japanese Engagement Policy towards Myanmar : 1988 to Present, by Suppakarn Pongyelar; Union of Myanmar, History of Relations, from DFA, South Africa
Article Foreign Relations of Burma, Burma-France Relations, Burma - PRC Relations, Burma - India Relations, Burma - U.S. Relations, Burma-Russia Relations, from Wikipedia
India-Burma Relations, Bangladesh-Burma Relations, China-Burma Relations, Thai-Burma Relations, from Arakan Rivers Network
Poon Kim Shee, The Political Economy of China-Myanmar Relations : Strategic and Economic Dimensions, Ritsumeikan Annual Review of International Studies 2002
E.H. Parker, Burma, with special reference to her relations with China (1893), IA
Military Wars of Burma, from ACED
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Myanmar, from ODM
Armed Conflicts Report - Burma (Myanmar), from Ploughshares
Category Military History of Burma during WW II, from Wikipedia
A Forgotten Invasion : Thailand in Shan State, 1941-1945, from CPA Media
Chronological Index : Burma (Myanmar) 1930-2007, from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Renaud Egreteau, Case Studies : The repression of the August 8-12, 1988 (8-8-88) uprising in Burma/Myanmar , from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Th.C. Robertson, Political Incidents of the First Burmese War (1853), IA
Ch. Crosthwaite, The Pacification of Burma (1902), IA
W.F.B. Laurie, Our Burmese Wars and Relations with Burma (1885), IA
Laurie, William F. B., The second Burmese war a narrative of the operations at Rangoon in 1852 ; with illustrations by officeers of the force serving in Burmah, 1853, SBB
W. White, A political history of the extraordinary events which led to the Burmese war, 1827, GB
J. Marshall, Narrative of the naval operations in Ava, during the Burmese war, 1830, GB
H. Havelock, Memoir of the three campaigns of major-general sir Archibald Campbell's army in Ava, 1828, GB
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Myanmar
Article Economy of Myanmar, from Wikipedia
Political and Economic History of Myanmar (Burma), by Thayer Watkins
Mines and Communities : Burma
Burma's Poppy Trail, from CPA Media
Sean Turnell, Parching the Land ? The Chettiars in Burma 2008
Search Company History, Funding Universe : Company Histories for Burma, Myanmar
L. Dawson, H. Clayton, Proposals for the extension of agricultural banking in the delta of Burma (1918), posted on Internet Archive
W.F.B. Laurie, Ashe Pyee, the superior country : or, the Great attractions of Burma to British enterprise and commerce (1882), posted on Internet Archive
Le Commerce de Bhamo (Birmanie Superieure) avec la Chine, in pp.90-95 in Bulletin consulaire français 1889, in French, GB
L. Simonin, Underground Life: or, Mines and miners, 1869, GB; p.256 lists Rangoon as a coaling station
Social History Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Myanmar
Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Myanmar
H. Fielding, A People at School (1906), IA
Ethnography Languages of Myanmar (109), from Ethnologue
Minorities at Risk, scroll down for Burma; entries for Kachins, Karens, Mons, Rohingya (Arakanese), Shans, Zomis (Chins)
Minorities at Risk, Group Chronologies for Asia; for Burma, entries for Kachins, Karens, Mons, Rohingya (Arakanese), Skans, Zomis (Chins)
Country Report : Myanmar (Burma), from U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (Reports 1997-2003)
FMO Research Guide : Burma, from FMO (2003)
Myanmar (Burma), from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
Human Rights Yearbook 2005, from National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (exile govt.)
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Myanmar/Burma
Refugee Studies Centre : Burma : The Changing Nature of Displacement Crises, 2007, from Forced Migration Online
L. Milne, Shans at home. With two chapters on Shan history and literature (1910), posted on Internet Archive
O. Hanson, The Kachins, their customs and traditions (1913), posted on Internet Archive
H.I. Marshall, The Karen People of Burma: A Study in Anthropology and Ethnology (1922), posted on Internet Archive
F. Fryer, Tribes on the frontier of Burma (1907), posted on Internet Archive
D. MacKenzie Smeaton (1887), The Loyal Karens of Burma (1887), posted on Internet Archive
R. Halliday, The Talaings (1917), posted on Internet Archive (on the Mon)
Mason, Francis, The Karens, or memoir of Ko Thah-Byu The first Karen convert, 1843, SBB
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Myanmar
Category Religion in Myanmar, from Wikipedia
Myanmar, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Shwegyin Nikaya, Thuddama Nikaya, Dwara Nikaya, Hngettwin Nikaya, from Overview of World Religions
Catholic Church in Union of Myanmar, from GCatholic
History of Regions see History of Arakan, History of Chin, History of Kachin, History of Karen, History of Shan, History of Tenasserim at this site
Divisions of Myanmar, Districts of Myanmar, from www.statoids.com
Sai Wansai, Shan-Burmese Relation : Historical Account and Contemporary Politics, posted by Shanland
L.W. Shakespear, History of Upper Assam, Upper Burmah and north-eastern frontier (1914), IA
Merriam, E. F., The Burman Mission, 1885, SBB; The Karen Mission, 1885, SBB
Local History History of Rangoon (Yangon), from Wikipedia
History of Mandalay, from Wikipedia
V.C. Scott O'Connor, Mandalay and Other Cities of the Past in Burma (1907), IA
Institutions History of Broadcasting in Burma, from The Broadcast Archive
History of Yangon University of Medicine, from Wikipedia; History of Yangon Technological University, from Wikipedia
Burma; Myanmar, from Airline History
Structurae : Myanmar; Search Lighthouse Depot for Myanmar
Culture Article Myanmar at the Olympics, Category Sport in Burma, from Wikipedia
Biographies Category Burmese Politicians, from Wikipedia
Personality Profile : General Ne Win, from Pointer, Journal of the Singapore Armed Forces, Oct. 2002
Brief Biography of Aung San Suu Kyi, from U.S. Campaign for Burma
Adoniram Judson, 1788-1850, Missionary to Burma, from Believers Web
U Thant, from UN
Biography of Than Shwe, by Kallie Szczepanski
Bio on Shan Hero Turned down by Censors : Tin Aye, from Shanland
Environmental History Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
Disaster History by Country : Myanmar, from Relief Web
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Burma, Myanmar
Burma (Myanmar), from UK Food Online, a culinary history of Burma

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors Liste Chronologique des Ambassadeurs (de France en Birmanie), from Ambafrance; U.S. Ambassadors o Burma, from NNDB; Chinese Ambassadors to Myanmar, from PRC MOFA
List of Canadian Heads of Post, click Burma / Myanmar
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Central Statistical Organization, Myanmar
Population Figures Myanmar, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
City Population : Myanmar, from City Population
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Election Results from Psephos (of 1991); from IFES Election Guide (no data)
Documents Historical Newspapers
Historical Newspaper /
Magazine Articles
History of Myanmar, from World History Archives
Life Magazine 1936-1972, 1180 articles on Burma
Modern Newspapers links from World Newspapers
Online Yearbooks
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Myanmar Photo Exhibition
Asterism Travel & Tours, Old and rare photos taken in Myanmar (Burma) from 1923 to 1960
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Oriental Collections
Items on Burma
Trolleys in Burma : Mandalay, Rangoon, from Tram Views of Asia
Myanmar, from Images of Asia
Asian Historical Architecture, a Photographic Survey
Digital South Asia Library, Bond Photograph Collection, 1944-1945
DSAL, Keagle Photograph Library WW II
Universal Collections
Items on Burma
License Plate, from pl8s
Passport, from World Passports
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Airline Timetable Images : Myanmar
Archival Deposits Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken (Mofa, NL ; enter "Myanmar" in field : "Lijst samenstellen op land of regio", 2 entries; sources posted in Dutch language
Search CIA Released Documents for Burma
U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian, search Burma / Myanmar
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for Burma
Burma Collection, at IISG, here Description of Collection
A Birth and Death Register from Rangoon 1893-1970, at Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Constitutions, Laws The Constitution of the Burma Socialist Programme Party for the transitional period of its construct (1962), posted on Internet Archive
Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Myanmar, from ILO, 21 docs. since 1948
Internet Law Library : Burma
Treaties Documents : Australian Treaty Series, Bilateral Treaties - Burma
Treaties and Agreements relating to Burma, 1795-1826 (3), from South Asia Project
Burma, pp.1108-1121 in vol.5 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1976, GB
Historiography
Document Collections Documents of Myanmar Socio-Economic History, from Aichi University
Foreign Office (British) : Peace Handbooks (1919-1920), posted on Internet Archive; v. 14. Dutch and British possessions in Asia, no. 82-88
Search Hansard for Burma
On Pakistan-Burma Relations, 1948 Speech by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, posted on Quaid-e-Azam Blog
Historical Maps responsible institutions
collections WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Burma Page
Atlas of Myanmar, from Wikimedia Commons
Search Atlas of Mutual Heritage for Ava, Martaban, Pegu, Syriam
Maps of Burma, posted by Mapas Imperiales, scans, scroll down for Birmania
Burma, modern Map of Ethnic Groups in Myanmar, from IKAP - MMSEA
Map : Myanmar Refugees in Southeast Asia, from UNHCR
Talessman's Atlas, series of maps of the Eastern Hemisphere 1300 BC - 1500 AD
Burma, contemporary An atlas of the southern part of India, including plans of all the principal towns & cantonments, reduced from the grand trigonometrical survey of India, shewing also the Tenasserim provinces, 1854, posted on Internet Archive
Detail, modern
Detail, contemporary U.S. Army Map Service, Burma, 1:250,000, 1955-, PCL, UTexas
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Burma, Amherst, Arakan, Bhamo District, Kachin Hills, Karen, Karen-Ni, Kyaukpyu, Mandalay, Martaban, Mergui, Moulmein, Myitkyina District, Pegu, Rangoon, Sandoway, Shan States, Talaing, Tavoy, Tenasserim, Thaton, from EB 1911
Articles Birma, Arakan, Karen, Mandalai, Rangun, Schan, Tenasserim, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Burma from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914
Burma, from New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
Economic Handelsverkehr zu Aracan und Pegu, pp.47-49 in Fr.L. Langstedt, Geschichte des asiatischen Handels, 1803, in German
Cheduba, Negrais, Pegu, Rangoon, Martaban, Tavay, Mergui, Tenasserim, pp.282-291 in vol.2 of W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Pegu, Rangon oder Ranguhn, posted by DTBSWS
Birmah, pp.1008-1009 in Handels-Almanach oder Uebersicht des in den verschiedenen Ländern der Erde Wissenswürdigsten für den Handel, 1838, in German, GB
E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Burma
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Birma, Siam und Cochinchina, vol.4 1844 pp.236-238, in German, posted by DTBSWS
Geographical J.C.M.R., Korte Schets van den tegenwoordigen staat van het Half-Eiland beoosten de Ganges, pp.317-347 in : vol.4 of Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap der Kunsten en Weetenschappen, 1786, in Dutch, GB, on Ava, Pegu pp.319-321
Article : Ava, in : J. Morse, A new gazetteer of the Eastern continent: or, A geographical dictionary, 1808, GB
The Birman Empire, pp.267-277 in vol.2 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography, 1827, GB
Article Burma, from Imperial Gazetteer of India, posted by DSAL
Entry : The Kingdom of Pegu, pp.95-103, The Kingdom of Ava pp.103-106, The Kingdom of Jangoma p.106, in : T.G. Smollett, The Present State of the World, vol.7 1768, posted on Google Books
G.Th. Landmann, A universal gazetteer; or, Geographical dictionary of the world (1835), posted on Internet Archive; search for Burma
Empire Birman, pp.69-82 in E.F.P.H. Breton, Monuments de tous les peuples, 1843, in French, GB
J.G. Scott, J.P. Hardiman, Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (1901), posted on Internet Archive
Lloyd, Malcolm B. S., Gazetteer of the District of Rangoon, Pegu Province, British Burma together with an historical account of that portion of the province which was formerly known as Han-Tha-Wa-Dee, 1868, SBB
Birmah, pp.377-378 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Ethnographical Entry : Imperio dei Birmani, pp.66-107, in vol.4 of D. G. Ferrario, Il Costume Antico e Moderno di Tutti i Popoli, 1824, in Italian, GB
Birma pp.174-176 in S. Morewood, A Philosophical and Statistical History of the Inventions and Customs of Ancient and Modern Nations in the Manufacture and Use of Inebriating Liquors, 1838, GB
Empire Birman, pp.386-387 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Burma, pp.511-515 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
The Burmese pp.198-202 in A.H. Keane, The World's Peoples: A Popular Account of Their Bodily & Mental Characters , 1908, GB
Burma, pp.1045-1092 in vol.2A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Historical Empire of Ava, pp.120-134 in vol.7 of G. Sale et al., An universal history: from the earliest accounts to the present time, 1759, GB
P.J.A. Roubaud, Histoire generale de l'Asie, de l'Afrique, de l'Amerique, vol.1, 1770, vol.2, 1770, vol.3, 1770, vol.4, 1770, vol.5, 1770, vol.6, 1770, vol.8, 1771, vol.9, 1771, vol.10, 1771, vol.11, 1771, vol.12, 1771, vol.13, 1775, vol.14, 1775, vol.15, 1775, in French, GB; search for Ava, Brama, Pegu
Chapters CCLXVII-CCLXX : Burmah, pp.540-548 in vol.2 of S.G. Goodrich, A history of all nations, from the earliest periods to the present , 1856, GB
Historical Yearbook
Entries
Genealogisches Staats-Handbuch, vol.65 1827 pp.316-317, vol.66 1835 pp.365-366, vol.67 1839 pp.391-392, in German, GB
Whitaker's Almanack, The British Empire in India - (7) The Province of Burma, pp.452-453 in vol.1894, p.453 in vol.1897, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides
Travelogues M. Symes, An account of an embassy to the Kingdom of Ava, in the year 1795, vol.1, 1827, vol.2, 1827, GB
J. Conder, The Modern Traveller : Burmah, Siam, etc., 1830, GB
J. Crawfurd, Journal of an embassy from the governor general of India to the court of Ava, 1834, GB
Grant, Colesworthy, Notes explanatory of a series of views, taken in Burmah ; ... during Major Phayer's mission to the court of Ava, in 1855, 1856, SBB
H. Yule, A narrative of the mission sent by the governor-general of India to the Court of Ava in 1855, 1858, GB
Williams, Clement, Through Burmah to western China being notes of a journey in 1863 to establish the practicability of a trade-route between the Irawaddi and the Yang-Tse-Kiang, 1868, SBB
J.E. Marks, A visit to the King of Burmah at Mandalay, in October, 1868 (1869), IA
Gordon, Charles Alexander, Our trip to Burmah with notes on that country, 1876, SBB
Mahe de la Bourdonnais, A., Un français en Birmanie notes de voyage, 1886, in French, SBB
Morrison, George Ernest, An Australian in China being a narrative of a quiet journey across China to Burma, 1895, SBB
Residence Memoirs Cox, Hiram, Journal of a residence in the Burmhan Empire, and more particulary at the court of Amarapoorah, 1821, SBB
Th.A. Trant, Two years in Ava: From May 1824, to May 1826, 1827, GB
J.D. Knowles, Memoir of Mrs. Ann H. Judson, Late Missionary to Burmah : Including a History of the American Baptist Mission in the Burman Empire, 1829, GB
A. King, Memoir of George Dana Boardman : late missionary to Burmah, 1835, GB
Winter, Christopher Tatchell, Six months in British Burmah: or, India beyond the Ganges in 1857, 1858, SBB
Baillie, John, Rivers in the desert or, mission-scenes in Burmah, 1859, SBB
Gouger, Henry, A personal narrative of two years' imprisonment in Burmah, 1824-26, 1860, SBB
W.H. Marshall, Four Years in Burmah, vol.1, 1860, vol.2, 1860, GB
J. Smith, Ten Years in Burma (1902), IA
H.Th. Whyte, A Civil Servant in Burma (1913), IA
J.E. Marks, Forty Years in Burma (1917), IA
Institutions Archives Huntington Archive of Buddhist and Buddhist-related Art, Myanmar
Search Janus (catalogues of archives and manuscript collections held throughout Cambridge) for Burma
Search Janus for Burma
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL for Birma
Burma Archives Project, IISG
Musea Article : National Museum of Myanmar, from Wikipedia
Online Museum, from myanmar.net
Monuments Tentative List : Myanmar, from UNESCO World Heritage
Union of Myanmar Index, from Showcaves
Libraries National Library of Myanmar; Wikipedia Article
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms of Myanmar, from Wikipedia; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net (Burma)
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Burma, of Myanmar, from World Currency Museum; Banknotes of Burma/Myanmar, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; Myanmar Money Museum, from Myanmar Photo Exhibition; from Myanmar Travel Information; from Zeno
Coins - Mons and Pyu, Tenasserim and Pegu, British Burma, Myanmar, from Zeno
Burma / Myanmar, from World Coin Gallery
Stamps Stamps of Myanmar, from Myanmar Photo Exhibition

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Burma survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies SOAS : The Bibliography of Burma (Myanmar) Research : The Secondary Literature, 2004 Revision
M.W. Charney (SOAS), "The 'Living' Bibliography of Burma Studies: The Secondary Literature." 2002
P.M. Herbert, World Bibliographical Series No.132 : Burma, Oxford : Clio 1991 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies S. Laichen, Chinese Historical Sources on Burma. A Bibliography of Primary and Secondary Works The Journal of Burma Studies vol.2 1997
Myanmar : Women's Studies Bibliography, from UC Berkeley Library
CSCA Mission Research and Documentation Portal, CSCA: SOAS Mission Collection on Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Indochina and Myanmar : Myanmar, 2005
serial publications
general bibliographies
Burma/Myanmar entries
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for Burma, Myanmar
ASEAN Environmental Education Inventory Database, resources, scroll down for Myanmar
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South East Asia
South East Asia Dissertations, click Burma / Myanmar
booksellers Books on Burma, from DCO Thai
Books on Burma, from Orchid Press
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Gallica
Center for Research Libraries (CRL)
International Boundary Studies
on Burma / Myanmar National Library of Myanmar, e-Resources (Project)
Online Burma'Myanmar Library, from WWW Virtual Library
ISEAS Working Papers, Back Issues 2000-2003
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
The Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, (1847-1862), GB
Search Electronic Journals Online for Burma, Birma, Myanmar
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Southeast Asian Studies 1963-, mostly in Japanese
Explorations, 1997- Graduate Student Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, CSEAS, Univ. of Hawaii
Burma Archives Newsletter, IISG, 1998-2001
Historiography Article : Burmese Historiography, by M.A. Aung-Thuun, pp.119-122 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998
General Accounts on South East Asia Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
on Burma / Myanmar Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.27, pp.755-765 Article Southeast Asia : Myanmar KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.27
Historical Dictionaries Jan Becka, Historical Dictionary of Myanmar, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 1995
Articles : Arakan pp.31-33, Kachinland pp.256-258, Kawthoolei pp.289-291, Kayah pp.292-294, Paoh pp.438-440, Shanland pp.509-512, Wah pp.605-607, Zoram pp.639-641, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Documentaries Burma Documentaries, from DER, commercial site