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Literature on the History of South East Asia
Burma Siam
First posted on May 16th 2002, last revised on May 19th 2010






Lower Burma was an independent political entity from 1287 to 1539 (Mon Dynasty, capital first at Martaban, then at Pegu), and again 1550-1553 and 1740-1757.
In 1539 and 1553 subjected by the Toungoo Dynasty (Burma). Pegu served as the capital of Burma 1553-1640, but then the capital was moved to Ava, further up the Irawaddy River. In 1740 Lower Burma rebelled and Pegu again served as capital, until it was finally conquered by King Alaungpaya, the founder of the Konbaung Dynasty (Burma).
From 1852 to 1886 Lower Burma, now under British rule (Bengal Presidency), again was separated from Upper Burma.
Western sources of the 18th and 19th century rarely use the term Burma, much more frequently Pegu and Ava.

This page focusses on the Kingdom of Hanthawaddy / Pegu 1740-1757 and on the Pegu appearing in western sources of the 18th and 19th centuries. Europeans referred to the Kingdom of PEGU after its capital. The Wikipedia instead uses the term "Second Kingdom of Hanthawaddy" (see under entries in Biography section). Sources published after Pegu lost its independence in 1757 keep referring to the state as the Kingdom of Pegu (as opposed to the Empire of Ava / Burma, to which it belonged).

Historical Atlas : Burma Page
List of Wars : Burma


Students' Paper : Choi, Eun Suk, History of Buddhism in South East Asia







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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article : Bago, Burma, from Wikipedia; focus on the city, not the short-lived kingdom
Historical W. Hunter, A Concise Account of the Kingdom of Pegu, 1789, GB
W. Hunter, Description du Pegu, et de l'Isle de Ceylan, French trsl. of English or., 1793, GB

Links General none specifically on Pegu; see under Burma
on History none specifically on Pegu; see under Burma
Organizations none specifically on Pegu; see under Burma
Timelines none specifically on Pegu; see under Burma
Accounts of History Current Article : Bago, Burma, from Wikipedia; focus on the city, not the short-lived kingdom
Historical Current F. Guerreiro, Indianische relation was sich in den Königreichen Pegu, Bengala, Bissnaga und etlich andern Ländern der gegen Auffgang gelegenen Indien von 1604 und etlich folgenden Jahren .. zugetragen, 1611, German trsl. of the Portuguese, GB
Politics
Military
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Myanmar
Ethnography Article : Mon People, Mon Language, from Wikipedia
R. Halliday, The Talaings (1917), posted on Internet Archive (on the Mon)
Religion Article : Theravada Buddhism, from Wikipedia
Local History Article : Bago, Burma, from Wikipedia; focus on the city, not the short-lived kingdom
History of Rangoon (Yangon), from Wikipedia
Institutions
Culture
Biographies Articles : Smim Htaw Buddhaketi, King 1740-1747, Binnya Dala, King 1747-1757, from Wikipedia
Article : Balbi, Gasparo, p.3121 in vol.3 of Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 1835, GB
Others Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon)
Documents Historical Newspapers
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK)
Search Janus (catalogues of archives and manuscript collections held throughout Cambridge)
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL
Constitutions, Laws
Document Collections C. Blagden, The Chronicles of Pegu, a Text in the Mon Language Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1907, posted at JSTOR (registration required, charges fee)
Joao Baptista Lavanha, Da Asia de Diogo de Couto. Dos Feitos, que os Portugueses Fizeram na Conquista, e Descubrimento das Terras, e Mares do Oriente. vol.2 : Decada Primeira. Parte Segunda, 1777 ; vol.3 : Decada Segunda. Parte Primeira, 1777 ; vol.4 : Decada Segunda. Parte Segunda, 1777 ; vol.5 : Decada Terceira. Parte Primeira, 1777 ; vol.9 : Vida de Joao de Barros por Manoel Severim de Faria e Indice Geral das Quatro Decadas de sua Asia, 1778 ; Da Asia de Diogo de Couto. Dos Feitos, que os Portugueses Fizeram na Conquista, e Descubrimento das Terras, e Mares do Oriente. vol.10 : Decada Quarta. Parte Primeira, 1778 ; vol.12 : Decada Quinta. Parte Primeira, 1779 ; vol.13 : Decada Quinta. Parte Segunda, 1780 ; vol.14 : Decada Sexta. Parte Primeira, 1781 ; vol.15 : Decada Sexta. Parte Secunda, 1781 ; vol.16 : Decada Setima. Parte Primeira, 1782 ; Da Asia de Diogo de Couto. Dos Feitos, que os Portugueses Fizeram na Conquista, e Descubrimento das Terras, e Mares do Oriente. vol.23 : Decada Duodecima, 1788, in Portuguese, GB
Historical Maps WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Burma Page
Atlas of Myanmar, from Wikimedia Commons
Map of Ethnic Groups in Myanmar, from IKAP - MMSEA
Talessman's Atlas, series of maps of the Eastern Hemisphere 1300 BC - 1500 AD
Search Atlas of Mutual Heritage for Martaban, Pegu, Syriam
Maps of Burma, posted by Mapas Imperiales, scans, scroll down for Birmania
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Pegu, pp.88-93 in vol.14 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1797, GB
Article : Pegu, pp.89-92 in vol.16 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1823, GB
Article : Pegu, pp.579-580 in vol.9 of Encyclopaedia Americana, 1832, GB
Articles Pegu, Rangun, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Articles Martaban, Pegu, Rangoon, from EB 1911
Religious Account of the Religion in Pegu, pp.84-88 in W. Hurd, A New Universal History of the Religious Rites, Ceremonies and Customs of the Whole World, 1814, GB
Burma, from New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
Economic Pegu, pp.205-206, in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Pegu, p.179 in T.A. de Marien y Arrospide, Tratado general de monedas, pesas, medidas y cambios de todas las naciones, 1789, in Spanish, GB
Pegu und Ava, pp.143-147 in J.Chr. Schedel, Historisches Handbuch für Kaufleute, 1793, in German, GB
Pegu, Rangoon, Martaban, pp.282-289 in vol.2 of W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
Pegu, p.209 in W. Dickinson, Universal Commerce, 1818, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Pegu, Rangon oder Ranguhn, posted by DTBSWS
E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Burma
Geographical An Account of the Kingdom of Pegu, pp.31-63 in vol.2 of J. Anderson, A New Account of the East Indies, 1744, GB
Entry : The Kingdom of Pegu, pp.95-103, in : T.G. Smoillett, The Present State of the World, vol.7 1768, posted on Google Books
Pegu, pp.491-499 in vol.5 of L.P. Anquetil, Precis de l'Histoire Universelle ou Tableau historique presentant les vicissitudes des Nations ... , 1799, in French, GB
Pegu, in R. Brookes, The General Gazetteer, 1801, GB
The Coast of Pegu, pp.312-313 in J. Huddart, The Oriental Navigator, or, New Directions for Sailing to and from the East , 1801, GB
Pegu, in J. Morse, A new gazetteer of the Eastern continent, 1808, GB
Of the Peguese, pp.213-215 in vol.1 of R. Philips, A General View of the Manners, Customs and Curiosities of Nations, 1813, GB
Kingdom of Pegu, pp.350-351 in C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, Or, a Description of All the Parts of the World, 1822, GB
Pegu, pp.387-390 in vol.1 of W. Hamilton, The East Indian Gazetteer, 1828, GB
Pegu, in : G. Landmann, A Universal Gazetteer; or, Geographical Dictionary of the World, 1835, GB
Article Pegu (District, Town), from Imperial Gazetteer of India, posted by DSAL
Historical On Pegu, pp.320-340, in Captain Cope, A new history of the East-Indies, 1754, GB
The Kingdom of Pegu, pp.38-120 in vol.7 of The modern part of an universal history, 1759, GB
The Kingdom of Pegu, pp.831-835 in vol.4 of E.W. Whitaker, A Complete System of Universal History, 1821, GB
Institutions Archives
Musea
Monuments Huntington Archive of Buddhist and Buddhist-related Art, Myanmar
Tentative List : Myanmar, from UNESCO World Heritage
Union of Myanmar Index, from Showcaves
Pegu Tiles, from RAMM World Cultures Online
Libraries
State Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins Myanmar Money Museum, from Myanmar Photo Exhibition; from Myanmar Travel Information; from Zeno
Coins - Mons and Pyu, Tenasserim and Pegu, from Zeno
Burma / Myanmar, from World Coin Gallery

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Burma Books on Burma, from Asia Books, from Thailine, from DCO Thai
The Bibliography of Burma, Secondary Literature, 2004 Revision, from Burma Library; 2002 Revision from SOAS
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South East Asia
Books on Burma, from Orchid Press
South East Asia Dissertations, click Burma / Myanmar
Online Libraries general Project Gutenberg, Online Catalogue, keywords Burma
Internet Archive
International Boundary Studies, search for Burma, Myanmar
ISEAS Working Papers, Back Issues 2000-2003
on Burma Online Burma'Myanmar Library, from WWW Virtual Library
Burma, from The Online Books Page
Digital Library of India
Online Journals South East Asia Journals, from ELIN-NIAS; Burma Journals, from ELIN-NIAS; Search Electronic Journals Online for Burma, Birma, Myanmar
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Southeast Asian Studies 1963-, mostly in Japanese
Explorations, 1997- Graduate Student Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, CSEAS, Univ. of Hawaii
Historiography Article : Burmese Historiography, by M.A. Aung-Thuun, pp.119-122 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998
General Accounts
History Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries Jan Becka, Historical Dictionary of Myanmar, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 1995