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Literature on the History of Southern Africa
Malawi Zimbabwe
First posted in April 2002, Last revised on November 17th 2013







History of Colombia : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE
Barotseland 1838-1900 . North-Western Rhodesia 1900-1911 . North-Eastern Rhodesia 1900-1911 . 1911-1953 . 1953-1963 . Since 1964


Barotseland 1838-1900
Located in what is western Zambia today, the Barotse or Lozi kingdom was a Bantu state. In 1838, the Kalolo invaders (from Lesotho) conquered it and superimposed their rule. David Livingstone met their chief Sebituane in 1851. The Barotse regained control in 1864. The first English traders arrived in 1872. In 1878, Lewanika succeeded Sipopa as the chief of the Lozi. In 1886 Lewanika permitted the establishment of a mission and school. According to Meyers Konversationslexikon, his state had c. 900,000 inhabitants; the two main places were Laroe and Neuschescheke. In 1890, 1898, 1906 and 1909 Lewanika granted concession to various applicants, which ended up in the hands of Cecil Rhodes' British South Africa Company, granting it excessive mining and other rights, in effect recognizing the company's sovereignty. However, Barotseland retained a certain degree of autonomy within the territory of the BSAC, which was to last throughout colonial history.

In 1900 the British South Africa Company began to refer to the region as Northwestern Rhodesia, in 1911 merged with Northeastern Rhodesia to form Northern Rhodesia. Within this geographical entity, early in the century, Barotseland was the most developed, had the highest population density. A map of 1913 shows that within Northern Rhodesia, mission stations concentrated in Barotseland.

North-Western Rhodesia, 1900-1911
Following treaties signed by King Lewanika of Barotseland with Cecil Rhodes' British South Africa Company, the area was proclaimed a British Protectorate under the name of Northwestern Rhodesia; the protectorate extended beyond the borders of Barotseland, including territories which were Lunda kingdoms. The border to Angola was fixed in a treaty with Portugal in 1891 and again, by King Victor Emmanuel of Italy, in 1905; the border to the Congo Free State also by treaty in 1891. The seat of administration was first Kalolo; it was moved to Livingstone in 1907, located on the banks of the Zambezi river.
The colonial administration was most interested in opening up the Copper Belt region. A railway line was built, from Livingstone to Ndola, opened by 1909, to facilitate the export of copper.
The border between North Western Rhodesia and North Eastern Rhodesia was first fixed along the Kafue River (1899), in 1905 moved to the waist-line between Katanga Province and the Zambezi River.
The British South Africa Company, from the start, had little interest in preserving the territorial entity of Barotseland, which, however, maintained a greater degree of political autonomy than any other entity in Central Africa which had become a protectorate. In 1911 the protectorates of North Western Rhodesia and of North Eastern Rhodesia were formally joined to form the Protectorate of Northern Rhodesia.

North-Eastern Rhodesia, 1900-1911
Cecil Rhodes' British South Africa Company, which had obtained a royal charter in 1889, after acquiring treaties from local Bembe and Chewa rulers, and overcoming armed resistance among the Bemba (1899), proclaimed the Northeastern Rhodesia Protectorate in 1900. The administrative center in 1899 had been established at Fort Jameson (Chipata), just west of the border to British Central Africa (Nyasaland).
The colonial administration was most interested in the exploitation of mineral deposits. A railway line was built, from Livingstone; it reached Ndola in 1909. Copper mining began in 1906.
The border between North Eastern and North Western Rhodesia was first fixed along the Kafue River (1899), and in 1905 moved to the waist-line between Katanga and the Zambezi River. In an Anglo-German agreement in 1901, the border to German East Africa was defined.
The British South Africa Company, from the start, had little interest in preserving the territorial unity of the Bemba and Chewa entities. In 1911 the protectorates of North-Western Rhodesia and North Eastern Rhodesia were formally joined to form the Protectorate of Northern Rhodesia.


Northern Rhodesia Protectorate, 1911-1953
In 1911 the North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia protectorates were joined to form Northern Rhodesia; the seat of administration was at Livingstone (Barotseland, Northwestern Rhodesia). The protectorate was administrated by the British South Africa Company. It's main interest lay in exploiting the territory's mineral deposits, coal, gold. A railway line connecting Katanga's copper mines with the Portuguese harbour of Beira (in Moçambique) had been completed in 1910. The existence of a railway connecting lead to an upswing of the copper mining industry, the introduction of new technology into the area.
World War I broke out in 1914. Northern Rhodesia shared a border with German East Africa. In 1916, British and South African troops penetrated into German East Africa; the German commander, Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, switched to guerilla tactics, holding out until the end of the war. At the time he was informed of the ceasefire, he operated in Northern Rhodesia.
The burden of a colonial administration and wartime hardship caused the Mambwe to rise in arms; the rebellion was quickly suppressed. In 1917 an Advisory Council was established. In 1924 the British government took over the administration of Northern Rhodesia from the British South Africa Company.
In 1924, The British Colonial Office took over the administration of Northern Rhodesia from the British South Africa Company. Sir Herbert Stanley was appointed the first British governor, with residence in Livingstone.
The Colonial Office promoted the immigration of white settlers, reserving stretches of farmland for them. Immigration was not satisfactory; the country's major industry was copper mining, picking up in the 1920es. The Great Depression resulted in sharply declining prices for copper (1931-1933), which affected Northern Rhodesia. Yet, copper production still increased. In 1935 Northern Rhodesia was the scene of a labour dispute, a strike in the Copper Belt. In the 1930es, a second axis, the Great East Road, had been constructed, connecting Nyasaland with the Great North Road; where these roads met lay the city of Lusaka. In 1935, the colony's capital was moved there, from Livingstone.
The discussion of plans for the settlement in Northern Rhodesia of European Jews fleeing political repression were intensified in the aftermath of the so-called 'Kristallnacht', a massive anti-Jewish pogrom launched by Nazi organizations on November 9th 1938. Overall, an estimated 250 Jews found their way to the landlocked British protectorate.
When World War II broke out in 1939, Britain claimed the colony's entire copper production; copper prices soared. A Northern Rhodesian regiment was recruited, fought in the war in various theatres. In 1940 the second Copper Belt strike took place.
After the war, steps for democratization were undertaken; an African Representative Council was established in 1946. The white settlers were against a policy giving the Africans a greater part in the political process and a wider access to education and campaigned for an amalgamation with Southern Rhodesia. In 1948, two Africans were appointed to the Northern Rhodesia Legislative Council. The first African mineworkers' union was organized (1948). The Northern Rhodesian African National Congress was founded.
In 1950, elementary education was made compulsory for Africans.

Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
In 1953, against the expressed will of many Africans, the Central African Federation, also called Rhodesia and Nyasaland, was created.
In the late 1950es, political parties were founded representing the African population majority; in 1962 a campaign of civil disobedience paved the road to independence.
The NRANC organized boycotts, strikes; in 1959 it was banned. Many NRANC leaders, among them Kenneth Kaunda, joined the UNIP (United National Independence Party), which in 1960 elected Kaunda president. Also in 1959 elections were held in Northern Rhodesia, the first with African participation. A new constitution was promulgated in 1962; a coalition UNIP-NRANC government was formed (1962). In 1963 the federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was dissolved; Northern Rhodesia, under the name of Zambia, was granted independence in 1964.

Independence, since 1964
The Republic of Zambia became independent in 1964; Kenneth Kaunda became the country's first president. Immediately there was talk of a possible secession of Barotseland; in a treaty the region was guaranteed a number of rights.
Kaunda launched the First National Development Plan in 1966, to develop Zambia's industry. A Second National Development Plan followed in 1971; their targets were to create new jobs, improve the country's infrastructure (Lusaka Int'l Airport was opened in 1967; works on hydroelectric dams were begun) and to improve the education system.
As copper prices were high, in the 1960es Zambia was relatively prosperous. The young republic took a stand against Apartheid and colonial regimes (South Africa, (Southern) Rhodesia, Angola, Mocambique); Nelson Mandela's ANC established it's headquarters in Zambia's capital Lusaka. Yet Zambia, as a landlocked state, depended heavily on transit routes through these countries. In order to decrease this dependence, the Tam-Zam Railway was built through the Northeast and through Tanzania, to Daressalaam.
In the early 1970es, the Oil Crisis struck, and the copper prices fell sharply from 1975 onward.. In 1973, a one-party-state was established. The economic situation deteriorated. After the end of the Cold War, the one-party-state was abolished, Kaunda defeated in multiparty elections.
Strong population increase, low world market prices for copper and AIDS are the major problems facing Zambia today.

Timelines : Zambia
Historical Atlas : Zambia Page






WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
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Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia; from ISS
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Southern African Historical Society
Economic History Society of Southern Africa
Church History Society of Southern Africa
The Philatelic Society for Greater Southern Africa
Historical Dictionaries
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J.D. Due, The challenges faced by four African economies : Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania, and the Sudan 1983, IA
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Trade Karen Tranberg Hansen, The City, Clothing Consumption and the Search for "the Latest" in Colonial and Postcolonial Zambia IEHC 2006
Zambia Wildlife Trade, from TED
Crafts & Industry Northern Rhodesia-Zambia, Crafts and Culture, mostly Horizon articles
Agriculture The Colonial State and African Agriculture in Chipita District of Northern Rhodesia, 1895-1964
A.B. Davis, Tobacco production and marketing in Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland 1964, IA
Northern Rhodesia, Agricultural Survey Commission Report 1930-1932
Republic of Zambia, Ministry of Agriculture Report 1966
Northern Rhodesia-Zambia, Farming, Fishing, mostly Horizon articles
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Health Zambia, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
W.T. Kalusa, Medical Training, African Auxiliaries, and Social Healing in Mwinilunga, Zambia, draft, n.d.
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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
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Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors United States Ambassador to Zambia, from Wikipedia
Chinese Ambassadors to Zambia, from PRC MOFA
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Systematic Collections
Specialist
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Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Zambia
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : Zambia
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Archival Deposits British Provenience
National Archives, UK
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Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Rhodesia, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
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Religious Article Rhodesia, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1908 edition
Economic Northern Rhodesia pp.336-337 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
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Historical
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Travelogues A. Bertrand, The kingdom of the Barotsi, Upper Zambezia: a voyage of exploration in Africa, returning by the Victoria Falls, Matabeleland, the Transvaal, Natal, and the Cape 1899, IA
G.E. Butt, My travels in North West Rhodesia, or A missionary journey of sixteen thousand miles, n.d. (c.1910), IA
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives National Archives of Zambia
Musea Category : Museums in Zambia, from Wikipedia
Monuments Northern Rhodesia-Zambia, Archaeology, Horizon articles
Libraries University of Zambia Library
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Rhodesia, of Rhodesia & Nyasaland, of Zambia, from World Currency Museum; of Rhodesia & Nyasaland, of Zambia from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Zambia Coins, from World Coin Gallery
Search Coin Archives for Northern Rhodesia, Zambia
Stamps Rare Rhodesia, Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamps Gallery; Stamps Rhodesia Stamps 1890-1913, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Zambia survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
Ethno-Net Africa Database : Zambia, Bibliography
general bibliographies pp.343-410 in J.J. Grotpeter, Historical Dictionary of Zambia, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1979 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Barotseland Bibliography by Subject
D.E. Miller, T. Maggs, Precolonial Metalworking in Africa, A Bibliography (1998)
serial publications Queens University, Southern African Research Centre, graduate theses
general bibliographies
Zambia entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Zambia-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
booksellers Africa World Press search for Zambia / Northern Rhodesia
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Zambia Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
University of Zambia Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.28, pp.933-943 Article Southern Africa : Zambia. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.28
Specific Topics Jonathan Crush, Cheap Gold : Mine Labour in Southern Africa, pp.172-177 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Frank Shapiro, Haven in Africa, Jerusalem : Gefen 2002 (on Jewish immigration into Northern Rhodesia) [G]
Chapter 30 : The Rhodesias and the Central African Federation, pp.602-619; 31 : More about Rhodesia and Nyasaland, pp.620-645, in : John Gunther, Inside Africa, NY : Harper & Bros. (1953) 1955 [G]
Historical Dictionaries John J. Grotpeter, Historical Dictionary of Zambia, Metuchen : Scarecrow 1979
Articles : Barotseland pp.66-68, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Rhodesia, 1944 p.604, 1945 p.603, 1946 pp.641-642 [G]
Northern Rhodesia, 1950 p.598, 1951 p.601, 1952 p.602, 1953 p.610,
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of, 1954 pp.612-613; 1955 pp.661-662, 1956 p.599, 1957 pp.660-661, 1958 pp.595-596, 1959 pp.593-594, 1960 pp.595-596, 1961 pp.603-604, 1962 pp.594-595, 1963 pp.697-699 [G]
Commonwealth of Nations, 1964 pp.268-269 [G]
Zambia, 1965 pp.871-872, 1966 p.811, 1967 p.808, 1968 p.808, 1969 pp.803-804, 1970 p.801, 1971 p.782, 1972 p.736, 1973 p.736, 1974 pp.734-735, 1975 pp.734-735, 1976 p.736, 1977 pp.738-739, 1978 pp.736-737, 1979 p.738, 1980 p.736, 1981 pp.734-735, 1982 pp.734-735, 1983 pp.734-735, 1984 pp.734-735, 1985 pp.479, 817, 1986 pp.475, 818, 1988 pp.403, 738, 1989 pp.403, 738, 1990 pp.420, 754, 1993 pp.376, 754, 1994 pp.374, 754, 1995 pp.506, 754 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Rhodesia, 1910 pp.189-194, 1919 pp.201-205 [G]
Northern Rhodesia, 1924 pp.213-214, 1925 pp.217-219, 1926 pp.221-223, 1928 pp.219-221, 1929 pp.221-222, 1932 pp.224-226, 1937 pp.244-246, 1943 pp.237-239 [G]
Zambia, 1970-1971 pp.482-485, 1975-1976 pp.517-522, 1978-1979 pp.1616-1621, 1980-1981 pp.1618-1622, 1983-1984 pp.1620-1624, 1984-1985 pp.1623-1626, 1985-1986 pp.1619-1622, 1987-1988 pp.1620-1623, 1988-1989 pp.1623-1626, 1989-1990 pp.1619-1622, 1990-1991 pp.1621-1624, 1991-1992 pp.1617-1620, 1992-1993 pp.1626-1629, 1993-1994 pp.1630-1633, 1994-1995 pp.1628-1631, 1995-1996 pp.1621-1624, 1996-1997 pp.1619-1623, 1997-1998 pp.1623-1626, 1998-1999 pp.1756-1760, 2000 pp.1963-1967, 2001 pp.1922-1926, 2002 pp.1991-1996, 2003 pp.1996-2000, 2004 pp.2005-2010, 2005 pp.2017-2023 [G]
Americana Annual Rhodesia, Northern, 1927 p.742, 1928 p.680, 1930 p.663, 1931 p.656, 1932 p.619, 1933 p.667, 1934 pp.510-511, 1935 pp.612-613, 1936 pp.632-633, 1937 p.615, 1938 p.599, 1939 p.672, 1940 pp.676-677 [G]
Northern Rhodesia, 1943 pp.633-634, 1944 p.610, 1945 p.623, 1946 pp.643-644, 1947 pp.614-615 [G]
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of, 1957 pp.674-676, 1961 pp.644-646, 1962 pp.649-651, 1963 pp.576-578 [G]
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1964 pp.572-575 [G]
Zambia, 1965 pp.755-756, 1967 pp.754-755, 1968 p.755, 1969 p.756, 1970 p.754, 1971 pp.753-754, 1972 p.754, 1973 p.753 [G]
Other