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Literature on the History of Southern Africa
Malawi Zimbabwe
First posted in April 2002, Last revised on November 17th 2013

History of Colombia : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Barotseland 1838-1900 . North-Western Rhodesia 1900-1911 . North-Eastern Rhodesia 1900-1911 . 1911-1953 . 1953-1963 . Since 1964

Barotseland 1838-1900
Located in what is western Zambia today, the Barotse or Lozi kingdom was a Bantu state. In 1838, the Kalolo invaders (from Lesotho) conquered it and superimposed their rule. David Livingstone met their chief Sebituane in 1851. The Barotse regained control in 1864. The first English traders arrived in 1872. In 1878, Lewanika succeeded Sipopa as the chief of the Lozi. In 1886 Lewanika permitted the establishment of a mission and school. According to Meyers Konversationslexikon, his state had c. 900,000 inhabitants; the two main places were Laroe and Neuschescheke. In 1890, 1898, 1906 and 1909 Lewanika granted concession to various applicants, which ended up in the hands of Cecil Rhodes' British South Africa Company, granting it excessive mining and other rights, in effect recognizing the company's sovereignty. However, Barotseland retained a certain degree of autonomy within the territory of the BSAC, which was to last throughout colonial history.

In 1900 the British South Africa Company began to refer to the region as Northwestern Rhodesia, in 1911 merged with Northeastern Rhodesia to form Northern Rhodesia. Within this geographical entity, early in the century, Barotseland was the most developed, had the highest population density. A map of 1913 shows that within Northern Rhodesia, mission stations concentrated in Barotseland.

North-Western Rhodesia, 1900-1911
Following treaties signed by King Lewanika of Barotseland with Cecil Rhodes' British South Africa Company, the area was proclaimed a British Protectorate under the name of Northwestern Rhodesia; the protectorate extended beyond the borders of Barotseland, including territories which were Lunda kingdoms. The border to Angola was fixed in a treaty with Portugal in 1891 and again, by King Victor Emmanuel of Italy, in 1905; the border to the Congo Free State also by treaty in 1891. The seat of administration was first Kalolo; it was moved to Livingstone in 1907, located on the banks of the Zambezi river.
The colonial administration was most interested in opening up the Copper Belt region. A railway line was built, from Livingstone to Ndola, opened by 1909, to facilitate the export of copper.
The border between North Western Rhodesia and North Eastern Rhodesia was first fixed along the Kafue River (1899), in 1905 moved to the waist-line between Katanga Province and the Zambezi River.
The British South Africa Company, from the start, had little interest in preserving the territorial entity of Barotseland, which, however, maintained a greater degree of political autonomy than any other entity in Central Africa which had become a protectorate. In 1911 the protectorates of North Western Rhodesia and of North Eastern Rhodesia were formally joined to form the Protectorate of Northern Rhodesia.

North-Eastern Rhodesia, 1900-1911
Cecil Rhodes' British South Africa Company, which had obtained a royal charter in 1889, after acquiring treaties from local Bembe and Chewa rulers, and overcoming armed resistance among the Bemba (1899), proclaimed the Northeastern Rhodesia Protectorate in 1900. The administrative center in 1899 had been established at Fort Jameson (Chipata), just west of the border to British Central Africa (Nyasaland).
The colonial administration was most interested in the exploitation of mineral deposits. A railway line was built, from Livingstone; it reached Ndola in 1909. Copper mining began in 1906.
The border between North Eastern and North Western Rhodesia was first fixed along the Kafue River (1899), and in 1905 moved to the waist-line between Katanga and the Zambezi River. In an Anglo-German agreement in 1901, the border to German East Africa was defined.
The British South Africa Company, from the start, had little interest in preserving the territorial unity of the Bemba and Chewa entities. In 1911 the protectorates of North-Western Rhodesia and North Eastern Rhodesia were formally joined to form the Protectorate of Northern Rhodesia.

Northern Rhodesia Protectorate, 1911-1953
In 1911 the North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia protectorates were joined to form Northern Rhodesia; the seat of administration was at Livingstone (Barotseland, Northwestern Rhodesia). The protectorate was administrated by the British South Africa Company. It's main interest lay in exploiting the territory's mineral deposits, coal, gold. A railway line connecting Katanga's copper mines with the Portuguese harbour of Beira (in Moçambique) had been completed in 1910. The existence of a railway connecting lead to an upswing of the copper mining industry, the introduction of new technology into the area.
World War I broke out in 1914. Northern Rhodesia shared a border with German East Africa. In 1916, British and South African troops penetrated into German East Africa; the German commander, Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, switched to guerilla tactics, holding out until the end of the war. At the time he was informed of the ceasefire, he operated in Northern Rhodesia.
The burden of a colonial administration and wartime hardship caused the Mambwe to rise in arms; the rebellion was quickly suppressed. In 1917 an Advisory Council was established. In 1924 the British government took over the administration of Northern Rhodesia from the British South Africa Company.
In 1924, The British Colonial Office took over the administration of Northern Rhodesia from the British South Africa Company. Sir Herbert Stanley was appointed the first British governor, with residence in Livingstone.
The Colonial Office promoted the immigration of white settlers, reserving stretches of farmland for them. Immigration was not satisfactory; the country's major industry was copper mining, picking up in the 1920es. The Great Depression resulted in sharply declining prices for copper (1931-1933), which affected Northern Rhodesia. Yet, copper production still increased. In 1935 Northern Rhodesia was the scene of a labour dispute, a strike in the Copper Belt. In the 1930es, a second axis, the Great East Road, had been constructed, connecting Nyasaland with the Great North Road; where these roads met lay the city of Lusaka. In 1935, the colony's capital was moved there, from Livingstone.
The discussion of plans for the settlement in Northern Rhodesia of European Jews fleeing political repression were intensified in the aftermath of the so-called 'Kristallnacht', a massive anti-Jewish pogrom launched by Nazi organizations on November 9th 1938. Overall, an estimated 250 Jews found their way to the landlocked British protectorate.
When World War II broke out in 1939, Britain claimed the colony's entire copper production; copper prices soared. A Northern Rhodesian regiment was recruited, fought in the war in various theatres. In 1940 the second Copper Belt strike took place.
After the war, steps for democratization were undertaken; an African Representative Council was established in 1946. The white settlers were against a policy giving the Africans a greater part in the political process and a wider access to education and campaigned for an amalgamation with Southern Rhodesia. In 1948, two Africans were appointed to the Northern Rhodesia Legislative Council. The first African mineworkers' union was organized (1948). The Northern Rhodesian African National Congress was founded.
In 1950, elementary education was made compulsory for Africans.

Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
In 1953, against the expressed will of many Africans, the Central African Federation, also called Rhodesia and Nyasaland, was created.
In the late 1950es, political parties were founded representing the African population majority; in 1962 a campaign of civil disobedience paved the road to independence.
The NRANC organized boycotts, strikes; in 1959 it was banned. Many NRANC leaders, among them Kenneth Kaunda, joined the UNIP (United National Independence Party), which in 1960 elected Kaunda president. Also in 1959 elections were held in Northern Rhodesia, the first with African participation. A new constitution was promulgated in 1962; a coalition UNIP-NRANC government was formed (1962). In 1963 the federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was dissolved; Northern Rhodesia, under the name of Zambia, was granted independence in 1964.

Independence, since 1964
The Republic of Zambia became independent in 1964; Kenneth Kaunda became the country's first president. Immediately there was talk of a possible secession of Barotseland; in a treaty the region was guaranteed a number of rights.
Kaunda launched the First National Development Plan in 1966, to develop Zambia's industry. A Second National Development Plan followed in 1971; their targets were to create new jobs, improve the country's infrastructure (Lusaka Int'l Airport was opened in 1967; works on hydroelectric dams were begun) and to improve the education system.
As copper prices were high, in the 1960es Zambia was relatively prosperous. The young republic took a stand against Apartheid and colonial regimes (South Africa, (Southern) Rhodesia, Angola, Mocambique); Nelson Mandela's ANC established it's headquarters in Zambia's capital Lusaka. Yet Zambia, as a landlocked state, depended heavily on transit routes through these countries. In order to decrease this dependence, the Tam-Zam Railway was built through the Northeast and through Tanzania, to Daressalaam.
In the early 1970es, the Oil Crisis struck, and the copper prices fell sharply from 1975 onward.. In 1973, a one-party-state was established. The economic situation deteriorated. After the end of the Cold War, the one-party-state was abolished, Kaunda defeated in multiparty elections.
Strong population increase, low world market prices for copper and AIDS are the major problems facing Zambia today.

Timelines : Zambia
Historical Atlas : Zambia Page

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
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Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia; from ISS
Article : Zambia, from Wikipedia
Historical H.H. Johnston, British Central Africa : an attempt to give some account of a portion of the territories under British influence north of the Zambesi 1897, IA
Know your Rhodesia and know your Nyasaland, by N.S. Ferris, online edition of 1956 book
Africa Today Pamphlets : The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland 1959
Northern Rhodesia Information Department : A Brief Guide to Northern Rhodesia (1960), IA
Reoublic of Zambia, Zambia 1964, IA
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; Category : Zambia, from Wikipedia
South Africa Page, from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford
on History from Virtual Library History; Category : History of Zambia, from Wikipedia
Organizations Zambia Baptist Historical Society
Southern African Historical Society
Economic History Society of Southern Africa
Church History Society of Southern Africa
The Philatelic Society for Greater Southern Africa
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from BBC News; from timelines.ws; from The Zambian
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Zambia, from Kirken i Norge
Accounts of History Modern Article : History of Zambia, from Wikipedia
Tim Holmes, the History of Zambia, from The Zambian
T. Lambert, A Short History of Zambia
Historical Great North Road, Historical Notes on Northern Rhodesia (1937)
Specific Periods EISA : Zambia: Stone Age to the Iron Age (2005)
EISA : Zambia: Migrations and state formation (1480-1890) (2005)
EISA : Zambia: Early British colonialism (1899-1945) (2006)
EISA : Zambia: Rise of African Nationalism (1945-1964) (2006)
EISA : Zambia: Emergence of the mixed economy and the one-party state (1964-1974) (2006)
EISA : Zambia: Escalating economic and political crisis (1975-1991) (2006)
EISA : Zambia: Presidency of Chiluba (1991-2001), (2006)
EISA : Zambia: Presidency of Mwanawasa (2002-2005) (2006)
Politics Category : Politics of Zambia, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Zambia; Governments on the WWW : Zambia
Category : Elections in Zambia, from Wikipedia
Entry Zambia, from EISA Web Encyclopedia
DADM : Zambia, 1964-present
I. Schapera, The political system of the Bemba tribe, North-eastern Rhodesia. in : F. Meyer, African Political Systems, 1950, IA
L.E. Gardner, Colonial Origins of Government Corruption? Evidence from Tax Collection in Kenya and Zambia, draft 2009
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland : The Party System in 1950-1956 and 1957-1962, in : Kenneth Janda, Political Parties : A Cross-National Survey
S. Maitra, Role of Civil Society in Democratisation: A Case Study of Zambia , n.d.
Civicus, Status of Civil Society in Zambia 2011, Zambian Sectoral and Regional Distribution of Civil Society 2011, Accountability in Zambian Civil Society 2011
T. Haapanen et al., Civil Society in Zambia and Mozambique, 2007
Global Nonviolent Action Database : Zambians' Campaign for Independence, 1944-1964
S. Ngenda, Constitutional Development in Zambia, 1890-1975, thesis Univ. of Zambia 2011
Freedom House : Zambia Report 2013 (reports for 1999, 2001-2013 available)
Military Wars of Zambia, 1800-1999, from ACED
Category : Military History of Zambia, from Wikipedia
H. Lungu, N. Ngoma, The Zambian Military - Trials, Tribulations, and Hope, ch. 12 - pp.318-330, in M. Rupiya (ed.), Evolutions and Revolutions, A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa, ISS 2005
G. Chileshe et al., Civil-Military Relations in Zambia. A Review of Zambia's Contemporary CMR History and Challenges of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (ISS 2004)
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Zambia 1964 : Govt. vs. Lumpas
The Lumpa Uprising Newspaper Reports, 1964, Northern Rhodesia-Zambia
The Rhodesian Army. Rhodesian Volunteers in World War I, from Spartacus Schoolnet
East African Empire, by Will Prout, an extensive essay dealing with the later part of the East African Campaign (Col. Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck's actions) in World War I
The Northern Rhodesia Regiment in WW II, by B. Stone
Economy & Finances General Category : Economy of Zambia, from Wikipedia
Global Integrity : Zambia 2007
J.D. Due, The challenges faced by four African economies : Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania, and the Sudan 1983, IA
Currency & Finances Global History of Currencies : Zambia; Tables of Modern Monetary History : Africa, from www.dollarization.org, scroll down for Zambia
Wharton Financial Institutions Center : Zambia
Trade Karen Tranberg Hansen, The City, Clothing Consumption and the Search for "the Latest" in Colonial and Postcolonial Zambia IEHC 2006
Zambia Wildlife Trade, from TED
Crafts & Industry Northern Rhodesia-Zambia, Crafts and Culture, mostly Horizon articles
Agriculture The Colonial State and African Agriculture in Chipita District of Northern Rhodesia, 1895-1964
A.B. Davis, Tobacco production and marketing in Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland 1964, IA
Northern Rhodesia, Agricultural Survey Commission Report 1930-1932
Republic of Zambia, Ministry of Agriculture Report 1966
Northern Rhodesia-Zambia, Farming, Fishing, mostly Horizon articles
C.M. Chabatama, The colonial state, the mission and peasant farming in North-Western Province of Zambia : A case study of Zambezi District, 1907-1964, thesis Univ. of Zambia 2011
R.W. Johnson, Tobacco production and trade in southern Africa, 1975, IA on Rhodesia, Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, The Malagasy Republic, Zaire, The Republic of South Africa, Mozambique, Angola
A.B. Davis, Tobacco production and trade : selected African countries 1971, IA Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Zambia, Republic of South Africa
Mining Zambia's Copper Case, from TED (1996)
G.J. Coakley, The Mineral Industry of Zambia (1999)
Ch.F. Obidegwu, The Impact of Copper Price Movements on the Zambian Economy : A Dynamic Analysis, Diss. UPenn 1980
M. Burawoy, The Colour of Class on the Copper Mines: From African Advancement to Zambianization, 1972
Social History Education D. Banda, Education for All (EFA) and the 'African Indigenous Knowledge Systems (AIKS) : The Case of the Chewa People of Zambia, thesis Nottingham 2008
Report on the Development of a University in Northern Rhodesia, 1963 Lusaka 1964
P. Snelson, Educational Development in Northern Rhodesia, 1883-1945, 2nd ed. 1974
Health Zambia, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
W.T. Kalusa, Medical Training, African Auxiliaries, and Social Healing in Mwinilunga, Zambia, draft, n.d.
Crime and Punishment Botswana, from Crime and Society. a Comparative Criminology Tour of the World by R. Winslow
Gender K. Crehan, The Fractured Community. Landscapes of Power and Gender in Rural Zambia, thesis Univ. of California 1997
Land Tenure D. Jaeger, Settlement patterns and rural development: a human geographical study of the Kaonde, Kasempa District, Zambia, thesis Amsterdam 1981
R.A. Chileshe, Land Tenure and Rural Livelihoods in Zambia : Case Studies of Kamena and St. Joseph, thesis Univ. of Zambia 2005
Labour Relations FAO, The Development of Independent Cooperatives in Zambia. A Case Study, 1994
Global Nonviolent Action Database : Black miners strike in the Northern Rhodesian (Zambia) Copperbelt, 1935, Black Rhodesian railroad workers strike for better pay, 1945
Ethnography Languages of Zambia (41), from Ethnologue
Art and Life in Africa : Zambia
Category Languages of Zambia, from Wikipedia
Zambia : Bemba, Lozi, from Minorities at Risk
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Zambia
UNHCR Refworld : Zambia; Refugees in Zambia, from JRS
J. Brosche, M. Nilsson, Zambian Refugee Policy. Security, Repatriation and Local Integration thesis Uppsala 2004
M. Gluckman, Tribalism in modem British Central Africa , Cahiers d'etudes africaines 1960 vol.1 Issue 1 pp.55-70, Persee
E.W. Smith et al., The Ila-Speaking Peoples of Northern Rhodesia, vol.1 1920, vol.2 1920, IA
Ethnoatlas : Society - Lozi
C.M. Doke, The Lambas of Northern Rhodesia pt.1, pt.2, n.d.
J.B. Gewald, Researching and writing in the twilight of an imagined conquest: Anthropology in Northern Rhodesia 1930-1960 2007
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Zambia, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Zambia, from Jewish Virtual Library
Zambia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category : Religion in Zambia, from Wikipedia
J.V. Taylor, Christians of the copperbelt: the growth of the church in Northern Rhodesia 1961, IA
Franco Frescura, List of Mission Stations in Southern Africa
History of Regions Category : Provinces of Zambia, from Wikipedia
Provinces of Zambia, from www.statoids.com
Districts of Zambia, from www.statoids.com
History, from www.barotseland.com
The Copperbelt, from Zambia Travel Guide
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : British South Africa Company, Administrations of North Rhodesia 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, British Protectorate of Northern Rhodesia 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, Republic of Zambia 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
G.M. Kaluwe, Why Barotseland did not have separate independence from Northern Rhodesia, Lusaka Times Jan. 11 2012
Article : Barotseland, Wikipedia
Barotseland Free State (unrecognized)
L. Muimui, Political History of Barotseland, Barotseland Free State Website (secessionist, unrecognized; history until 1964)
C. Buyers, Lozi (Barotseland), Brief History
Article : North-Western Rhodesia, North-Eastern Rhodesia, Wikipedia
M. Mufalo, Re-examining the Argument for the Restoration of the Barotseland Agreement, 2011
Local History List of Cities in Zambia, from Wikipedia
Articles : Lusaka : History; Livingstone : History, Ndola : History, from Wikipedia
Institutions Zambia, Northern Rhodesia, Rhodesia & Nyasaland, from Airline History
Article University of Zambia, from Wikipedia
Article Rail Transport in Zambia, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Zambia
Colin Miller, Zambian Broadcasting, from The Broadcast Archive; B. Phiri and D. Powers, Plurality and power relations in Zambian broadcasting (WACC 2001); Northern Rhodesian Broadcasting Corporation, from Pumamouse
Mike's Railway History, Progress in Rhodesia
J.B. Gewald, Transport transforming society : towards a history of transport in Zambia, 1890-1930 2007
Central African Airlines, The Story of the CAA 1946-1961 1961, IA
Cultural History Articles Zambia at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Zambians, from Wikipedia
African Women Bibliographic Database
Dictionary of African Christian Biography
W.H. Wills et al., The Anglo-African who's who and biographical sketch-book 1905, IA
Environmental History Disaster History : Zambia, from Relief Web
Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Global Environmental Institute, Addressing the Environmental and Social Governance Challenges of Chinese Mining Companies Operating in Africa: A Comparitive Study of OECD and Emerging Market Investor Behavior in Zambia's Copper Mining Industry 2011, IA
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Zambia
J.B. Gewald, Rumours of Mau Mau in Northern Rhodesia, 1950-1960, Afrika Focus vol. 22, Nr.1, 2009 pp.37-56

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors United States Ambassador to Zambia, from Wikipedia
Chinese Ambassadors to Zambia, from PRC MOFA
Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Lusaka (Sambia), from Wikipedia German edition
List of High Commissioners of the United Kingdom to Zambia, Wikipedia
Lists of Consuls
Lists of Bishops List of Archbishops of Central Africa (Anglican), from Wikipedia
Catholic Hierarchy, All Bishops of Zambia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Central Statistical Office, Zambia
Population Figures from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
Historical Abortion Statistics : Zambia, from Johnston's Archive
World Life Expectancy : Health Profile, Zambia
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1964
Inflation Rate Index Mundi, Zambia Inflation Rate 1999-2011
Trading Economics, Zambia Inflation Rate 2005-
Unemployment Rate Index Mundi, Zambia Unemployment Rate 1998-2006
Election Results from Psephos (since 1996); from IFES Election Guide
EISA : Zambia Election Archive
African Elections Database : Elections in Zambia
Search IPU Parline for "Zambia"
Documents Historical Newspapers Northern Rhodesia and Zambia : Northern Rhodesia Journal 1950-1964
Northern Rhodesia and Zambia : Central African Examiner March 1961
The London Gazette Archive
Historic Newspaper Articles History of Zambia, from World History Archives
London Gazette 37 Mar. 1928
The Spectator 12 Sept. 1930, Northern Rhodesia is a link between East and West, Spectator Archive
The Spectator 14 Juni 1951, British Central Africa ?, Spectator Archive
The Spectator 29 Mar 1963, Northern Rhodesia, Spectator Archive
J. Callaghan, Central Africa (V) : Federation and the British Labour Party 12 July 1958
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Zambia, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Online Yearbooks - Zambia Entries Statesman's Year-Book, British Zambesia and Nyasaland 1891, pp.166-168, IA, Zambesia and Nyasaland, British 1892, pp.195-198, IA, South Africa, British 1894, pp.193-195, IA, 1895, pp.193-195, IA, 1896, pp.193-195, IA, 1898, pp.196-198, IA, 1899, pp.212-214, IA, Rhodesia 1903, pp.230-235, IA, 1913, pp.194-198, IA, 1919, pp.201-205, IA, 1921, pp.204-208, IA
UN Yearbook Collection, 1946-2007
South African Aggression against Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe 1986
Staatskalender Digitized Books from Northern Rhodesia 1924-1938 (Zambia), Digitized Books from the Library of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
British Online Archives, Northern Rhodesia Blue Books 1925-1948
Historic Films Colonial Film : Northern Rhodesia
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Northern Rhodesia Photo Album 1950
Systematic Collections
Northern Rhodesia Police Photographs 1914-1919, from Great North Road
Commented Pictures from Nkana, N. Rhodesia, from the 1930es and 1940es, from Great North Road, photos made by Robert Retamal
Northern Rhodesia and Zambia. Photographs and Information from the Fifties and Sixties, from nrzam.plus; has many images, source files
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Zambia
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : Zambia
International Mission Photography Archive : Zambia
Archival Deposits British Provenience
National Archives, UK
Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Archive Records
Cambridge University Library: Royal Commonwealth Society Library Browne's expedition to the Zambezi, 1823, Janus, Northern Rhodesia Papers, 1910-1997, Janus, Northern Rhodesia Society, Janus, Report on rural development and education in Zambia 1974, Janus
SOAS, Archive Catalogue (Archives of the London Missionary Society, the Methodist Missionary Society, the Presbyterian Church of England Foreign Missions Committee)
British Online Archives, Universities' Mission to Central Africa
SOAS Library, Zambia Missions 1930s, Primitive Methodist Missionary Society 1819-1960, Sabin, Margaret Katherine, Mundus
Bodleian Library of Commonwealth and African Studies at Rhodes House, Universities' Mission to Central Africa 1828-1982, Mundus; British Online Archives, Universities' Mission to Central Africa
British Online Archives, Northern Rhodesia Blue Books, 1824-1948
Microform Academic Publishers, Guides, Central Africa 1883-1964. The Monthly Magazine of the Universities' Mission to Central Africa, introduction by R.G. Stuart
Adam Matthews Publications, African Missionaries' Collections
Other Provenience
Indiana University Library, African Pamphlets Collection Index
African Studies Centre, Leiden : Development Plans, Rhodesia
Methodist Church of South Africa Archives
Constitutions Constitution of 1991, ICL
The Constitution of Zambia Act 1996, Zambian Laws Database
Laws Zambian Laws Database
South African Legal Information Institute, Databases (scroll down for Zambia etc.)
Legislation UK, Rhodesia And Nyasaland Act 1963
Legislation UK, Zambia Independence Act, 1964
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Zambia, from ILO, 43 docs. since 1964
Consular Reports
Document Surveys British Library, Zambia Official Publications
Colonial Film, Central African Film Unit
Document Collections Barotseland Free State (unrecognized), Political Documentation and Archives
Development Plans, 1961-1965, from Northern Rhodesia-Zambia
The Social Teaching of the Catholic Bishops and Other Christian Leaders in Zambia. Major Pastoral Letters and Statements, 1953-2001, theologie pratique
Individual Documents Northern Rhodesia Information Department : Zambia, Independence Achieved (1964), IA
I.D. Smith, Terrorist Incursions from Zambia 1967, IA
Barotseland Agreement of 1964, from Think Tank : Are the Calls for the Secession of Barotseland Justifiable
Kenneth Kaunda : African Development and Foreign Aid, Speech 1966, from Modern History Sourcebook
Agreement Between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (on their own behalf and on the behalf of the Government of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland) and the Government of Portugal With Regard to Certain Angolan and Northern Rhodesian Natives Living on the Kwando River Signed at Lisbon, 18 November 1954 from International Water Law Project
M. Chona (Vice President, UNIP), Northern Rhgodesia's Time for a Change 1961
Historical Maps responsible institutions Survey of Zambia, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Zambia Zambia Maps, PCL, UTexas
David Rumsey Map Collection, Zambia
Category : Old Maps of Zambia, Maps of the History of Zambia, Wikimedia Commons
Great North Road, Maps of Northern Rhodesia and Zambia
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
Map of 1913 on African Religions, from J.G. Bartholomew, Literary and Historical Atlas of Africa and Australasia, 1913, from Perry Castaneda Library, UTexas; shows concentration of mission stations (within N. Rhodesia) in Barotseland
Zambia, Modern Tribal and Linguistic Map of Zambia, Shikanda
Lusaka Times, Sketch of Northern Rhodesia
Map : North-Western and Northeastern Rhodesia, Wikipedia
Zambia, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 44. Kabebe 1884, 44. Kabebe 1885, 44. Kabebe 1895, 45. Livingstonia 1885, 45. Livingstonia 1888, 45. Livingstonia 1893, 49. Linyanti 1883, 49. Linyanti 1889, 49. Linyanti 1894, 50. Tete 1884, 50. Tete 1890, 50. Tete 1893, Gallica
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheet 27 Lubumbashi (1969), sheet 28 Dar es Salaam (1969), sheet 30 Lusaka (1970), sheet 31 Salisbury (1970), PCL, UTexas
WMU, Index to Maps Northern Thodesia 1:500,000
Rhodesia 1906, 1922, 1932, Probert Encyclopedia
Northern, Southern Rhodesia 1935, Philatelic Database
Map of Northern Rhodesia 1954, R.C. Dening
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1960, Wikipedia
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary Kasempa District, 1919, Hipkiss
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Rhodesia, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Wikisource : Rhodesia, EB 1922
Religious Article Rhodesia, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1908 edition
Economic Northern Rhodesia pp.336-337 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
W.H. Weed, The Copper Mines of the World 1907, Rhodesia pp.137-140
Geographical G.T. Warner, A Geography of British South Africa< 1904, IA; Rhodesia North of the Zambezi pp.160-167
Ethnographical E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, The Earth and its Inhabitants Africa vol.4 : South and East Africa, 1890, IA : Zambese and Ku-Bango Basins pp.235-281
E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, Africa and its Inhabitants vol.4 1899, IA; Northern and Southern Rhodesia pp.235-281
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Travelogues A. Bertrand, The kingdom of the Barotsi, Upper Zambezia: a voyage of exploration in Africa, returning by the Victoria Falls, Matabeleland, the Transvaal, Natal, and the Cape 1899, IA
G.E. Butt, My travels in North West Rhodesia, or A missionary journey of sixteen thousand miles, n.d. (c.1910), IA
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives National Archives of Zambia
Musea Category : Museums in Zambia, from Wikipedia
Monuments Northern Rhodesia-Zambia, Archaeology, Horizon articles
Libraries University of Zambia Library
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Rhodesia, of Rhodesia & Nyasaland, of Zambia, from World Currency Museum; of Rhodesia & Nyasaland, of Zambia from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Zambia Coins, from World Coin Gallery
Search Coin Archives for Northern Rhodesia, Zambia
Stamps Rare Rhodesia, Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamps Gallery; Stamps Rhodesia Stamps 1890-1913, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Zambia survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
Ethno-Net Africa Database : Zambia, Bibliography
general bibliographies pp.343-410 in J.J. Grotpeter, Historical Dictionary of Zambia, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1979 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Barotseland Bibliography by Subject
D.E. Miller, T. Maggs, Precolonial Metalworking in Africa, A Bibliography (1998)
serial publications Queens University, Southern African Research Centre, graduate theses
general bibliographies
Zambia entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Zambia-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
booksellers Africa World Press search for Zambia / Northern Rhodesia
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Zambia Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
University of Zambia Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.28, pp.933-943 Article Southern Africa : Zambia. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.28
Specific Topics Jonathan Crush, Cheap Gold : Mine Labour in Southern Africa, pp.172-177 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Frank Shapiro, Haven in Africa, Jerusalem : Gefen 2002 (on Jewish immigration into Northern Rhodesia) [G]
Chapter 30 : The Rhodesias and the Central African Federation, pp.602-619; 31 : More about Rhodesia and Nyasaland, pp.620-645, in : John Gunther, Inside Africa, NY : Harper & Bros. (1953) 1955 [G]
Historical Dictionaries John J. Grotpeter, Historical Dictionary of Zambia, Metuchen : Scarecrow 1979
Articles : Barotseland pp.66-68, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Rhodesia, 1944 p.604, 1945 p.603, 1946 pp.641-642 [G]
Northern Rhodesia, 1950 p.598, 1951 p.601, 1952 p.602, 1953 p.610,
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of, 1954 pp.612-613; 1955 pp.661-662, 1956 p.599, 1957 pp.660-661, 1958 pp.595-596, 1959 pp.593-594, 1960 pp.595-596, 1961 pp.603-604, 1962 pp.594-595, 1963 pp.697-699 [G]
Commonwealth of Nations, 1964 pp.268-269 [G]
Zambia, 1965 pp.871-872, 1966 p.811, 1967 p.808, 1968 p.808, 1969 pp.803-804, 1970 p.801, 1971 p.782, 1972 p.736, 1973 p.736, 1974 pp.734-735, 1975 pp.734-735, 1976 p.736, 1977 pp.738-739, 1978 pp.736-737, 1979 p.738, 1980 p.736, 1981 pp.734-735, 1982 pp.734-735, 1983 pp.734-735, 1984 pp.734-735, 1985 pp.479, 817, 1986 pp.475, 818, 1988 pp.403, 738, 1989 pp.403, 738, 1990 pp.420, 754, 1993 pp.376, 754, 1994 pp.374, 754, 1995 pp.506, 754 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Rhodesia, 1910 pp.189-194, 1919 pp.201-205 [G]
Northern Rhodesia, 1924 pp.213-214, 1925 pp.217-219, 1926 pp.221-223, 1928 pp.219-221, 1929 pp.221-222, 1932 pp.224-226, 1937 pp.244-246, 1943 pp.237-239 [G]
Zambia, 1970-1971 pp.482-485, 1975-1976 pp.517-522, 1978-1979 pp.1616-1621, 1980-1981 pp.1618-1622, 1983-1984 pp.1620-1624, 1984-1985 pp.1623-1626, 1985-1986 pp.1619-1622, 1987-1988 pp.1620-1623, 1988-1989 pp.1623-1626, 1989-1990 pp.1619-1622, 1990-1991 pp.1621-1624, 1991-1992 pp.1617-1620, 1992-1993 pp.1626-1629, 1993-1994 pp.1630-1633, 1994-1995 pp.1628-1631, 1995-1996 pp.1621-1624, 1996-1997 pp.1619-1623, 1997-1998 pp.1623-1626, 1998-1999 pp.1756-1760, 2000 pp.1963-1967, 2001 pp.1922-1926, 2002 pp.1991-1996, 2003 pp.1996-2000, 2004 pp.2005-2010, 2005 pp.2017-2023 [G]
Americana Annual Rhodesia, Northern, 1927 p.742, 1928 p.680, 1930 p.663, 1931 p.656, 1932 p.619, 1933 p.667, 1934 pp.510-511, 1935 pp.612-613, 1936 pp.632-633, 1937 p.615, 1938 p.599, 1939 p.672, 1940 pp.676-677 [G]
Northern Rhodesia, 1943 pp.633-634, 1944 p.610, 1945 p.623, 1946 pp.643-644, 1947 pp.614-615 [G]
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of, 1957 pp.674-676, 1961 pp.644-646, 1962 pp.649-651, 1963 pp.576-578 [G]
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1964 pp.572-575 [G]
Zambia, 1965 pp.755-756, 1967 pp.754-755, 1968 p.755, 1969 p.756, 1970 p.754, 1971 pp.753-754, 1972 p.754, 1973 p.753 [G]

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