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Literature on the History of Southern Africa
Zambia South Africa
First posted in April 2002, last revised on November 25th 2013







History of Rhodesia/Zimbabwe : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE
1826-1893 . 1889-1911 . 1911-1923 . 1923-1965 . 1965-1980 . . Since 1980


Matabele Kingdom
In 1823, the Ndebele, an offspring of the Zulu, under King Mzilikazi, who had quarreled with Shaka, fled the Zulu domain and invaded what is Southern Zimbabwe today and established the Matabele Kingdom (1826). They subjugated the surrounding Shona or Mashona. Between 1870 and 1881, the Kraal at Bulawayo served as the kingdom's political center.
The first protestant mission was established among the Matabele in 1861 by the London Missionary Society. In 1889, Cecil Rhodes obtained from the British government a charter for his British South Africa Company permitting him to set up a colony in Southern Africa. Rhodes obtained a treaty from illiterate Matabele King Lobengula, which virtually signed the sovereignty over Mashonaland over to Rhodes. Rhodes had Fort Salisbury established (1890) and took steps to take control of the country. An incident was provoked and the Matabele decisively defeated in 1893; King Lobengula died soon after, and the Matabele Kingdom ended. A combined Matabele/Mashona rebellion was suppressed in 1896/1897.
The Matabele, an offspring of the Zulu, were a warrior nation. They fought on foot in Impis, highly disciplined units, armed with an Assegai - a short spear with a large, iron blade - and a shield. Their economy depended on herds of livestock, predominantly cattle.

British South Africa Company Rule, 1889-1911
Administration : In 1889, Cecil Rhodes obtained from the British government a charter for his British South Africa Company permitting him to set up a colony in Southern Africa. Rhodes obtained a treaty from illiterate Matabele King Lobengula (1888), who virtually signed the sovereignty over Mashonaland over to Rhodes. Rhodes had Fort Salisbury established (1890) and took steps to take control of the country. Salisbury became the administrative center of the BSAC territory of Mashonaland, and, after 1901, of the merged territories of Mashonaland and Matabeleland. In 1911 the territory was transformed into the Southern Rhodesia Protectorate, still under the control of the BSAC.
Conquest / Pacification : An incident was provoked and the Matabele decisively defeated in 1893; King Lobengula died soon after, and the Matabele Kingdom was annexed by the BSAC. A combined Matabele/Mashona rebellion was suppressed in 1896/1897. Mapondera's Revolt was defeated in 1901.
The Maçequeçe Incident, a clash with Portuguese forces over a border village to Moçambique in 1891, was peacefully solved. In 1899 the Rhodesia Regiment was formed; it immediately saw action in the Boer War.
Economic Prospects : Rhodes pursued two interests, (a) the strategic policy of establishing a territory stretching from the Cape to Cairo under British control, and (b) the quest for gold - he was convinced that mines equally to those of Witwatersrand (Johannesburg, Transvaal) were to be found in Mashonaland. His hopes were quickly disappointed, and he focussed his interest elsewhere. As the British South Africa Company obtained a treaty from the King of Barotseland and territory further north (see Northern Rhodesia), a road was built across Mashonaland to Livingstone and from there the Great North Road to the copper mines of Katanga.
While Southern Rhodesia did not fulfil Rhodes' expectations of another Witwatersrand, Rhodesia had a lot of minerals to offer. Gold mining (in quantities disappointing Rhodes) began immediately; coal mining in 1903, copper mining in 1906, asbestos mining in 1907, tin mining in 1908. Early Rhodesia lived through a mineral rush, at a time when the country still lacked basic infrastructure. To work the mines, Chibaro (forced labour) was used.
Matabeleland and Mashonaland were opened for white settlement and many white farmers immigrated. They grew cotton (which had been grown by the Shona and Matabele before the arrival of the Europeans), tobacco, maize, held cattle. Oxen were of critical importance, as ox-carts provided standard transportation in the colony's early days. Railroad construction began in 1897; the year after, Umtali was connected by rail with the port of Beira in Moçambique. The railroad network would soon grow to reach the mining regions. The Rinderpest epidemic of 1896-1898 threatened the colony's transportation system; camels were imported to provide a temporary alternative.
Infrastructure : Logistically, Southern Rhodesia depended on the port of Beira; on the other hand, she had very trong ties to the Cape Colony. Southern Rhodesia had no towns (Salisbury and Bulawayo, at best, qualified as boomtowns); only in 1935 would Salisbury be granted the status of a city. The country had practically no roads, no bridges, a railroad network in its infancy, trails used by ox-carts. The most basic institutions, such as banks and hospitals, followed the pioneers and prospectors, with a delay of several years. In contrast to the U.S. frontier, Southern Rhodesia lacked the element of outlaws. Bulawayo got electricity in 1897, 16 years before Salisbury.
Society : Southern Rhodesia saw a continuous influx of white immigrants, and, in these early years, experienced a lack of white women. The native population, for 1900, is estimated at 692,000, consisting mainly of Mashona and Matabele (Ndebele).
The natives were quickly integrated in the growing export-oriented economy. Harare, a black suburb of Salisbury, was established as a township in 1907. Southern Rhodesia developed into a segregated society; blacks were forbidden to enter Salisbury.

Southern Rhodesia Protectorate, 1911-1923
Administration : In 1911 the territory was transformed into the Southern Rhodesia Protectorate, still under the control of the BSAC. The BSAC - a private company, in 1922, prepared for handing over administration to a civilian authority. The white population, in a referendum, rejected the suggestion to join the Union of South Africa, and opted for self-government instead.
Military History : In World War I, the Rhodesia Regiment (white) fought in German South West Africa (1915) and in German East Africa (1917). The Rhodesian African Rifles (black; est. 1898) also fought in the same campaigns.
Economy : Southern Rhodesia's mining industry expanded; white immigration continued, as did the area farmed by whites, and the black labour force employed in the mines, on railroad line construction and on the white farms. Southern Rhodesia suffered from the Spanish Influenza in 1918. Salisbury got electricity in 1913.
Society : in 1919, white women, provided they fulfilled the property qualifications, were granted the right to vote. There was small, but regular influx of Asian immigrants.

Self-Government, 1923-1965
Administration : In 1923 the British South Africa Company ceded it's protectorates and assets to the British government. In a 1922 referendum the ca. 30,000 white settlers opted for Southern Rhodesia to become a self-governing colony, rather than to join the Union of South Africa. The capital Salisbury (present Harare) only in 1935 was granted the status of a city.
Southern Rhodesia, now a crown colony, was administrated by a British governor, the authority of which was limited by that of the colony's Legislative Assembly (est. 1898), which had 30 seats and was elected every 4 years. The right to vote was tied to property qualifications; while a few blacks were elected into the assembly, the overwhelming majority was white.
After the War, the British Colonial Office attempted to make constitutional changes, widening the electorate and grant the African majority political representation. The white settlers who hitherto controlled the colony's policy were opposed to these measures. As the colony was self-governing since 1924, the Colonial Office could not simply order these measures to be implemented. In 1953 the Central African Federation, better known as Rhodesia and Nyasaland was formed, an achievement of the white settlers of Northern Rhodesia rather than of the Colonial Office, as the white settlers of the north tried to prevent democratic rights to be granted to the black majority, as Southern Rhodesia had succeeded in. The Federation's capital was Salisbury (modern Harare). Needless to say, the African population majority in all parts of the federation opposed it. In 1963, the federation disintegrated; full democratization was implemented in Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland; Zambia and Malawi declared independence in 1964. So did the white administration of Southern Rhodesia in 1965 - without granting the black majority political rights, and without the blessing of the British government. In 1961, the Council of Chiefs was created, in order to increase the infuence of blacks at least in the Tribal Trust Lands (former reservations).
Military : During World War II, Southern Rhodesians served at various fronts.
Economy : The BSAC had pursued a policy of minimizing he costs of administrating the colony, and there was great room for development. The economy, s well as the ppulation, black and white, contnued to grow, the latter mainly due to immigration. In 1931, the population of Southern Rhodesia was 1,303,775, of whom 55,408 were whites and over 5,000 were Asiatics (Hübner). In 1936, 2,586 immigrants arrived. Salisbury had 32,864 inhabitants in 1936, of whom 11,392 were whites. Bulawayo had 19,126 inhabitants, of whom 12,321 were whites. In 1936, Rhodesia had a combined 2170 km of railroad lines, 2745 km of roads, 4029 buses and trucks, 13700 cars, 60,550 km of telephone lines, 5227 registered telephones.
In 1930, the land act was passed excluding Africans from ownership of the best farmland. In 1934, a labour law was passed, excluding them from entering skilled trades and professions - a measure intended to prevent unemloyment among the white population during the ongoing Great epression.
In 1932, Southern Rhodesia was connected with Cape Town by regular flights. In order to improve overland transportation, the government in 1924 began a bridge building program; in the 1930es strip roads were laid, replacing the previously used wagon tracks.
Following World War II, Southern Rhodesia saw a rise in immigration figures. The construction of Kariba Dam was completed in 1960, providing energy for Rhodesia's growing industry - the second strongest on the African continent, after South Africa. In 1946, the Rhodesian Stock Exchange was founded, with seat in Bulawayo (the Salisbury branch pened in 1951). In 1946, Central African Airways were established. Instead of strip roads, since 1945 full-width asphalt roads were constructed. The skyline of Salisbury changed as a number of 10- and moe storey-buildings replaced older buildings in the centre of the city.
The booming economy provided the white minoriy with a high standard of living, while the growing African population had to live on much less. During World War II, many young white men were abroad, serving in the army, and blacks had to fill their jobs in order to keep the economy going. In 1945 the African Railroad Workers' Strike was held, followed by a general strike of African workers in urban areas in 1948.
Society : In the 1930es, legislation discriminated against the black population, which suffered repeated redrawing of (shrinking) areas set aside for the native population, the confiscation of better-quality arable lands the exclusion from professions requiring skills.
Education hitherto had been a private affair; the colony began to promote schools catering to the whites, while leaving the education of the blacks in the hands of the missionaries (who could only provide a very basic education).
In 1934, the Bantu Congress, the first political organization for Africans in the colony, was founded, later renamed African National Congress (ANC).
Southern Rhodesia's black population, although not unrepresented in the Legislative Assembly, grew increasingly dissatisfied with the political situation (the vast majority of them had been disenfranchised, because of property qualifications tied to the voting right). Since 1941, Rhodesia had regular radio broadcasting, since 1960 tv broadcasting in urban centers). A number of social and political organizations advocated demands of Rhodesia's black population; their own publications, plus mouth to mouth propaganda, spread information. The bulk of Africa's nations having been released into independence in 1960, Southern Rhodesia's neighbour to the north, Zambia, in 1964, only raised expectations.
Southern Rhodesia's white popultion was split in two camps, the liberals who wanted to fully integrate the black majority into Rhodesian society and terminate the policy of discrimination, and the conservatives (Rhodesian Front) who wanted to maintain segregation and were willing to severe ties with Britain if the latter would not accept their demands (Britain had a Labour government, favouring majority rule and independence for her colonies). An attempt by liberal PM Todd to encourage blacks to register as voters had little success ("Build a Nation" 1962); worse, the majority of the black voters boycotted the election of 1962, weakening the Liberal Party and strengthening the Rhodesian Front.
The University of Rhodesia was opened in 1953.


Rhodesia 1965-1980
International Status and Foreign Policy : In 1964, Ian Smith was elected Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia. Britain pushed for a constitutional reform of it's colony which would grant the African population majority political representation; Ian Smith and the Southern Rhodesian parliament were unwilling to accept this and in 1965 unilaterally declared independence, the state now being called Rhodesia.
Britain opposed this measure and negotiations continued; the Ian Smith government drew support from South Africa (which had an Apartheid regime and thus was sympathetic to the Rhodesian cause).
The U.N. imposed sanctions as early as 1966. The negotiations with Britain failed in 1969, and the Commonwealth decided to boycott Rhodesia; the country's athletes could not participate in Olympic Games, many nations refused to trade with Rhodesia.
In 1970 Rhodesia proclaimed the republic.
Domestic Policy : In 1965, shortly before UDI (unilateral declaration of independence), emergency legislation was passed which introduced censorship. ZAPU had already been banned in 1962, ZANU in 1964. Segregation was maintained; schools for blacks were not subsidized and schooling for black children was not mandatory; for white children it was mandatory and free of charge.
The years 1978 to 1980 saw a solution brought about by negotiations. In 1980, the Rhodesian administration agreed to general elections with black participation (one person one vote); Robert Mugabe's ZANU emerged victorious. The country was renamed Zimbabwe.
The Guerilla War : ZANU and ZAPU began guerilla raids from bases in Zambia, Moçambique in 1966. In 1972 the guerilla raids intensified. The Rhodesian military was quite apt in dealing with these raids, but they began to make an impact. In 1974/1975 Portugal released her colony of Moçambique into independence; in 1976 the Rhodesian army began to pursue guerilla fighters into Moçambique territory. While the guerilla fighters could not achieve a military victory, the guerilla activity forced Rhodesia to maintain an armed force it could not afford. The years 1978 to 1980 saw a solution brought about by negotiations.
The Economy : Following the proclamation of the Republic in 1970, Rhodesia introduced a new currency, the Rhodesian Dollar. In 1972 the country went metric.
With Moçambique engulfed in war, and Rhodesia facing international boycott, an alternative to the railway route to the port of Beira became a necessity. In 1974, Rhodesia was connected to the South African railroad network. The part of the embargo most damaging Rhodesia was the oil embargo; Rhodesia tried to make the most out of her coal reserves. Another consequence was inflation.

Zimbabwe, Since 1980
In 1980, in free elections including the African majority, the ZANU won and Robert Mugabe became the first president of Zimbabwe, as former Rhodesia was now called. The capital Salisbury was rechristened Harare. Government policy was to maintain a capitalist economy and to ask the white settlers to stay in the country; confiscation of white-owned farmland did not take place. In the Moscow Olympics of 1980, a white Zimbabwean team won field hockey gold.
The British government, feeling responsible for social injustice (most of the best farmland was owned by white settlers which form only a tiny fraction of the population) paid a large sum of money to the Zimbabwean government, intended for the purpose to purchase land from settlers for the purpose of redistribution to African farmers.
Zimbabwe was accepted as a full member of the international community, the economic boycott on the former Rhodesia was lifted, Zimbabwe became member of the Commonwealth and the United Nations. Because of the peaceful transition from an Apartheid regime to black rule and the continued presence of the white population element, important for the country's economy, Zimbabwe was long regarded a model African state.
On the other hand, Mugabe leaned toward the socialist camp; Zimbabwe did not join the boycott of the Moscow Olynpics. His rule was autocratic, the ZAPU, a coalition partner until 1982, faced violent persecution 1982-1987; in 1988, a One-Party-State was created by merging ZANU and ZAPU, the office of prime minister abolished. The economy did not develop as hoped for. Recently, multiparty democracy has been reintroduced.
The plan to purchase farmland and redistribute it to Africans had not materialized and in 2000, a number of white-owned farms have been occupied by dissatisfied and impatient Africans; there have been casualties among the white farmers. The nation's strong population growth over the last decades has contributed to the severity of the situation. ZANU PF controls the countryside, while the political opposition maintains strongholds in the urban centers. In 2005 the government had shantytowns in the suburbs bulldozed, their tenants forcibly resettled in the countryside. In March 2007, opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai was beaten up by government stooges after attending an allegedly illegal prayer meeting; he had to seek treatment in a hospital. During the last couple of years Zimbabwe has experienced a steadily rising inflation and a mass exodus. The country which once was the breadbasket of Africa now features empty shelves in its stores.

Historical Atlas : Zimbabwe Page






WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia; from ISS
Article : Zimbabwe, from Wikipedia
Historical E.F. Knight, Rhodesia of today; a description of the present condition and the prospects of Matabeleland & Mashonaland 1895, IA
H.C. Thomson, Rhodesia and its government (1898), IA
P.F. Hone, Southern Rhodesia, 1909, IA
Know your Rhodesia and know your Nyasaland, by N.S. Ferris, online edition of 1956 book
Africa Today Pamphlets : The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland 1959
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; Category : Zimbabwe, from Wikipedia
Zimbabwe Page, from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford
Zimbabwe, from Post-Colonial Web
on History Virtual Library History, Zimbabwe Index; Category : History of Botswana, from Wikipedia
Organizations Southern African Historical Society
Economic History Society of Southern Africa
Church History Society of Southern Africa
The Philatelic Society for Greater Southern Africa
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from BBC News; from timelines.ws
Accounts of History Modern Article : History of Zimbabwe, from Wikipedia; from History World
Zimbabwe Government Online, History of Zimbabwe, Official
Historical H. Hensman, A History of Rhodesia (1900), IA
St.J. du Toit, Rhodesia, Past and Present (1897), IA
Specific Periods Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950; A Record of Sixty Years Progress, IA
A.G. Leonard, How We Made Rhodesia (1896), IA
Postcolonial Studies at Emory, Zimbabwe's Struggle for Liberation
EISA : Zimbabwe: Early history (100 000 BP-1000 CE) (2007)
EISA : Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe's Kingdoms (1000-1838 CE) (2007)
EISA : Zimbabwe: Matabele Kingdom (1838-1890) (2007)
EISA : Zimbabwe: British South Africa Company rule (1890-1923) (2007)
EISA : Zimbabwe: Self-government and Federation (1923-1963) (2008)
EISA : Zimbabwe: The Rebel Colony (1963-1979) (2008)
EISA : Zimbabwe: Reconciliation, unity and conflict (1980-1989) n.d.
EISA : Zimbabwe: ZANU PF hegemony and its breakdown (1990-1999) (2008)
EISA : Zimbabwe: Dissent and repression (2000-2007) (2008)
M.F. Riley, Zimbabwean Nationalism and the rise of Robert Mugabe 1982, IA
Zimbabwe African People's Union, Zimbabwe: History of a Struggle 1972, IA
G.C. Mazarire, Memory and Contestation for the Scramble of Zimbabwe: Chivi (Mashonaland),c.1870-1892 2006
T.G. Jacobsen, The Fall of Rhodesia 2012
Historiography B.M. Tendi, How Intellectuals Made History in Zimbabwe, 2010
B.M. Tendi, Making History in Mugabe's Zimbabwe: Politics, Intellectuals and the Media
I. Pikirayi, David Beach, Shona History and the Arechaeology of Zimbabwe, Zambezia 1999 XXVI
P. Kaarsholm, The Past as Battlefield in Rhodesia and Zimbabwe : The Struggle of Competing Nationalisms over History from Nationalization to Independence, Collected Seminar Papers. Institute of Commonwealth Studies, 42 1992 pp.156-170
H. Chitate, Post Independent Zimbabwe's new 'O' Level History Syllabus 2166: A crisis of expectations 2010
B. Raftopoulos, Problematising Nationalism in Zimbabwe : A Historiographical Review, Zambezia vol.26 no.2 1999 pp.115-134
Politics Links Category : Politics of Zimbabwe, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Zimbabwe; Governments on the WWW : Zimbabwe
Category : Elections in Zimbabwe, from Wikipedia
General Entry Zimbabwe, from EISA Web Encyclopedia
Zimbabwe Profile, from International Crisis Group
Political History DADM, British South Rhodesia, 1964-1980, Zimbabwe, 1980-present
South African History Online, How Zimbabwe assisted Apartheid South Africa: Gukurahundi 2013
H. Witte, British colonial policy: land, labour and white settlement in Southern Rhodesia, 1890-1908 , thesis Concordia 1973
M. Gregory, From Rhodesia to Zimbabwe. Ah Analysis of the 1980 Elections and an Assessment of the Prospects, 1980
CASCON Case ZIM : Zimbabwe Independence 1965-1980, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland : The Party System in 1950-1956 and 1957-1962, in : Kenneth Janda, Political Parties : A Cross-National Survey
Institutions Constitutionnet : Zimbabwe Constitution Profile
Z. as a Topic of Int'l Politics C.P. Watts, The Rhodesian Crisis in British and International Politics, 1964-1965, thesis Birmingham 2006
N. Sibanda, British Party Politics and Foreign Policy: The Case of Zimbabwe, thesis Huddersfield 2012
Reports on Z. Politics Freedom House : Zimbabwe Report 2013 (reports for 1999, 2001-2013 available)
Analysis of Z. Politics M.L. Malbrough, Democratization and State Building in Botswana and Zimbabwe : A Comparative Case Study, thesis Mercer Univ. 1998
R.J. Kovacs, What Makes a Failed State? Examining the Case of Zimbabwe, e-International Relations May 31 2012
Other B. Magure, Civil Society's Quest for Democracy in Zimbabwe: Origins, Barriers and Prospects, 1900-2008, thesis Rhodes Univ. 2009
A. Cohen, National Identity and Post-Colonial Development: Dictatorial Zimbabwe and Democratic Republic of South Africa, thesis Brandeis Univ. 2011
Establishing Shona Hegemony in Matabeleland : a Deliberate Case of Language Imperialism and Ethnic Cleansing, from Mthwakazi Action , a political site; has a lot of historical information
Military Wars of Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) 1800-1999, from ACED
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Zimbabwe, from ODM; by Jean Paul Leblanc
K. Chitiyo & M. Rupiya, Tracking Zimbabwe's Political History : The Zimbabwe Defence Force from 1980 to 2005 , ch.13, in M. Rupiya (ed.), Evolutions and Revolutions, A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa, ISS 2005
Category : Military History of Zimbabwe, from Wikipedia
Rob Burrett, The Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902 : The Far North-Western Front. Events in the Tuli Area, posted by The South African Military History Society
Rhodesia and South Africa Military History
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Rhodesian Civil War, 1972-1979, Mugabe Regime, 1980-
D.T. Laing, The Matabele rebellion, 1896 : with the Belingwe field force (1897), IA
R.St.S. Baden-Powell, The Matabele campaign, 1896; being a narrative of the campaign in suppressing the native rising in Matabeleland and Mashonaland (1900), IA
D. Reed, The Battle For Rhodesia (1967), IA
HaloTrust, Zimbabwe : History of Minelaying
M.R. Rupiah, A Historical Study of Land-Mines in Zimbabwe, 1963-1995, Zambezia vol.22 no.1 1995 pp.63-78
Diary of a Soldier of Fortune, by Stephen Portal Hyatt, participated in the conquest of Matabeleland
From British Military Medals : British South Africa Company Medal, 1890-1897
The British South Africa Company : Reports on the Native Disturbances in Rhodesia, 1896-1897, posted by Indaba Rhodesian Library
Economy & Finances Global History of Currencies : Zimbabwe; Tables of Modern Monetary History : Africa, from www.dollarization.org, scroll down for Zimbabwe
Category : Economy of Zimbabwe, from Wikipedia
Global Integrity : Zimbabwe 2006
Wharton Financial Institutions Center : Zimbabwe
A.B. Davis, Tobacco production and marketing in Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland 1964, IA
Central African Airlines, The Story of the CAA 1946-1961 1961, IA
J.D. Due, The challenges faced by four African economies : Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania, and the Sudan 1983, IA
R.W. Johnson, Tobacco production and trade in southern Africa, 1975, IA on Rhodesia, Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, The Malagasy Republic, Zaire, The Republic of South Africa, Mozambique, Angola
Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas : Globalization and Monetary Policy Institute 2011 Annual Report, Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe 2011
G. Karekwaivenani, A History of the Rhodesian Stock Exchange: The Formative Years, 1946-1952 2003
F.J.W. McCosh, Traditional Iron-Working in Central Africa with some Reference to the Ritualistic and Scientific Aspects of the Industry, Zambezia vol.07 no.2 1979 pp.155-170
M.C. Steele, The Economic Function of African-Owned Cattle in Colonial Zimbabwe, Zambezia vol.09 no.1 1981 pp.29-48
E. Cramer, A Clash of Economies : Early Centralization Efforts in Zimbabwe, 1929-1935, Zambezia vol.25 no.1 1998 pp.83-98
A. Asante, National Economic Collapse and Revival : The Case of Zimbabwe, thesis 2012
Southern Rhodesia, Report on Natural Resources, 1939, posted by RD Online
Social History General
Labour A.E. Sibanda, The political economy of Zimbabwe-Focus on the creation of a proletariat: Implications for the labour movement 1992
P.S. Harrison, Government Policy and African Wages in Rhodesia, Zambezia vol.02 no.2 1972 pp.39-45
T.H. Mothibe, Zimbabwe : African Working Class Nationalism, 1957-1963, Zambezia vol.23 no.2 1996 pp.157-180
Chibaro: African Mine Labour in S.Rhodesia 1900-33 (Onselen), from Review of African Political Economy - Vol. 4 No. 9
Diet J.M. Orpen, The diet of native labourers : a lecture read before the Rhodesia Scientific Association Salisbury Branch, at Salisbury, Rhodesia, 25th April, 1902, 1902, IA
M.I. Gomez, A Resource Inventory of Indigenous and Traditional Foods in Zimbabwe, Zambezia vol.15 no.1 1988 pp.53-74
Health Zimbabwe, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
G. Waite, Traditional Medicine and the Quest for National Identity in Zimbabwe, Zambezia vol.27 no.2 2000 pp.235-268
M.K. Mutowo, Animal Diseases and Human Populations in Colonial Zimbabwe : The Rinderpest Epidemic of 1896-1898, Zambezia vol.28 no.1 2001 pp.1-22
A. Chikanda, Emigration of medical doctors from Zimbabwe, thesis Univ. of Western Ontario 2010
C.J. Zvogbo, Medical Missions. A Neglected Theme in Zimbabwe's History, 1897-1957, Zambezia 1986
F. Dube, Colonialism, cross-border movements, and epidemiology: a history of public health in the Manica region of central Mozambique and eastern Zimbabwe and the African response, 1890-1980, thesis Univ. of Iowa 2009
Crime, Punishment Zimbabwe, from Crime and Society. a Comparative Criminology Tour of the World by R. Winslow
Education M.E. Spears, Societal influences and governmental responsiveness in policy communities: educational policy-making in Zimbabwe 1993, IA
Women Feminist Theory Website, Feminism in Zimbabwe
educational policy-making in Zimbabwe 1993, IA
G.C. Mazarire, 'The Politics of the Womb': Women, Politics and The Environment in Pre-Colonial Chivi, Southern Zimbabwe, c.1840 to 1900 2003
A.P. Cheater, The Role and Position of Women in Precolonial and Colonial Zimbabwe, Zambezia vol.13 no.2 1986 pp.65-80
J. Chadya et al., Gender and Sexual Violence in Bulawayo, Colonial Zimbabwe, 1946-1956, Zambezia vol.30 no.1 2003 pp.108-133
A. Furlong, Gender, Land and Women in Zimbabwe in the Light of Nussbaum's Understanding of the Capabilities Approach, thesis Trinity 2003
Land Tenure, Reform A.T. Magaisa, The Land Question and Transitional Justice in Zimbabwe: Law, Force and History's Multiple Victims 2010
M. Masiiwa, Land Reform Programme in Zimbabwe: Disparity Between Policy Design and Implementation 2004
C. Mabhena, 'Visible Hectares, Vanishing Livelihoods': A case of the Fast Track Land Reform and Resettlement Programme in southern Matabeleland - Zimbabwe, thesis Univ. of Fort Hare 2010
R. Goodhope, A study on the impact of governance on land reform in Zimbabwe, thesis Univ. of the Western Cape 2004
S.M. Fungayi, Land Tenure and Agricultural Policies in Colonial Southern Rhodesia, 1890-1980, thesis Adelaide 1980
Immigration A. Mlambo, Building a White Man's Country : Aspects of White Immigration into Rhodesia up to World War II, Zambezia vol.25 no.2 1998 pp.123-146
A. Mlambo, Building a White Man's Country : Racial Chauvinism as a Factor in Rhodesian Immigration Policy, 1890 to 1963, Zambezia vol.27 no.2 2000 pp.139-160
E.P. Makambe, The African immigrant factor in Southern Rhodesia, 1890-1930 : The origin and influence of external elements in a colonial setting, thesis Univ. of York 1979
A. Mlambo, "Some Are More White Than Others": Racial Chauvinism As A Factor of Rhodesian Immigration Policy, 1890-1963 2000
Other D.N. Beach, Zimbabwean Demography. Early Colonial Data, Zambezia vol.17 no.1 1990 pp.31-84
M.R. Rupiah, The History of the Establishment of Internment Camps and Refugee Settlements in Southern Rhodesia, 1938-1952, Zambezia vol.22 no.2 1995 pp.137-152
The Many Faces of Displacement : IDP's in Zimbabwe, from IDMC (2000)
A. Novak, Sport and Racial Discrimination in Colonial Zimbabwe: A Reanalysis, International Journal for the History of Sport 2011 pp.1-17
Ethnography General Languages of Zimbabwe, from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Zimbabwe, Ethnic Groups in Zimbabwe, from Wikipedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe : Europeans, Ndebele, from Minorities at Risk
P.R. Warhurst, The History of Race Relations in Rhodesia , Zambezia vol.03 no.1 1973 pp.15-19
W.R. Whaley, Race Policies in Rhodesia, Zambezia 3/1 1973
Institutionalized Ethnicity : Zimbabwe
African D. Carnegie, Among the Matabele (1894), IA
White Article : Indians in Zimbabwe, from Wikipedia
Mixed Race K. Gombay, The Black Peril and Miscegenation: The Regulation of Inter-racial Sexual Relations in Southern Rhodesia, 1890-1933, thesis McGill 1991
Interaction C.J. Zvogbo, Aspects of Interaction between Christianity and African Culture in Colonial Zimbabwe, 1893-1934, Zambezia vol.13 no.1. 1986 pp.43-58
P. Gundani, The Roman Catholic Church and the Kurova Guva Ritual in Zimbabwe, Zambezia vol.21 no.2 1994 pp.123-146
Traditional African Ways G.L. Chavunduka, Witchcraft and the Law in Zimbabwe, Zambezia vol.08 no.2 1980 pp.129-148
F.J.W. McCosh, Traditional Iron-Working in Central Africa with some Reference to the Ritualistic and Scientific Aspects of the Industry, Zambezia vol.07 no.2 1979 pp.155-170
S.J. Ndlovu-Gatsheni, Dynamics of Democracy and Human Rights among the Ndbele of Zimbabwe, 1818-1934, thesis Univ. of Zimbabwe 2003
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Zimbabwe, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour, Zimbabwe, from Jewish Virtual Library; Zimbabwe, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category : Religion in Zimbabwe, from Wikipedia
Franco Frescura, List of Mission Stations in Southern Africa
E. Rosenthal, Rhodesian Jewry and its Story, n.d. (early 1960s)
History of the Jesuits in Zimbabwe
Baha'i Zimbabwe, History of the Zimbabwean Community
I. Linden, The Catholic church and the struggle for Zimbabwe 1980, IA
G.C. Mazarire, The Rise and Fall of the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) in the Victoria Circle 1888-1950: A Dissenting View of the Church's Alleged Invention of Chikaranga with Particular Reference to the Chibi Circuit 2006
M. Gelfand, The Shona Religion, Zambezia vol.01 no.1 1969 pp.37-46
W.R. Peaden, Aspects of the Church and its Political Involvement in Southern Rhodesia, 1959-1972, Zambezia vol.07 no.2 1979 pp.191-210
M.F.C. Bourdillon, Suggestions of Bureaucracy in Korekore Religion : Putting the Ethnography Straight, Zambezia vol.09 no.2 1981 pp.119-136
S. Madhiba, Methodism and Public Life in Zimbabwe. An Analysis of the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Zimbabe's Impact on Politics from 1891-1980, thesis Pretoria 2010
B.Y. Muhammad, The Hidden Muslims of Zimbabwe, The Tripoli Post Nov. 24 2013
History of Regions Category : Provinces of Zimbabwe, from Wikipedia
Provinces of Zimbabwe, from www.statoids.com; Districts of Zimbabwe, from www.statoids.com
Article Mashonaland, Manicaland, Matabeleland, from Wikipedia
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : British South Africa Company 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, British Colony of Southern Rhodesia 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, Independent State of Rhodesia 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, Republic of Zimbabwe 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
I. Pikirayi, The Archaeological Identity of Mutapa State. Towards an Historical Archaeology of Northern Rhodesia, Studies in African Archaeology 6 1993
The Tati Concession Lands. The Destruction of Lobengula and the Matabele, 1880-1893, from Great Epic Books
Local History List of Cities in Zimbabwe, from Wikipedia
Articles : Harare (Salisbury), Bulawayo, from Wikipedia
The Old Bulawayo Archaeological Project
Institutions Zimbabwe, from Airline History
Article University of Zimbabwe, from Wikipedia
Category Rail Transport in Zimbabwe, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Zimbabwe
Hans Meyer, Die Eisenbahnen im Tropischen Afrika (The Railroads in Tropical Africa), Leipzig : Duncker & Humblot 1902, in German, DTBSWS
Mike's Railway History, Progress in Rhodesia
Public Broadcasting in Africa Series, Zimbabwe 2009
A. Mlambo, Civil Aviation in Colonial Zimbabwe, 1912-1980, Zambezia vol.19 no.2 1992 pp.99-116
A. Mlambo, From Dirt Tracks to Modern Highways : Towards a History of Roads and Road Transportation in Colonial Zimbabwe, 1890 to World War II, Zambezia vol.21 no.2 1994 pp.147-166
A. Mlambo, A Decade of Civil Aviation in Zimbabwe: Towards a History of Air Zimbabwe Corporation, 1980-1990, Zambezia vol.22 no.1 1995 pp.79-100
A. King, The Central African Examiner, 1957-1965, Zambezia vol.23 no.2 1996 pp.133-156
Cultural History Articles Zimbabwe at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Jive Zimbabwe, The History of Zimbabwean Music
World CP : International Database on Cultural Policies, click : Zimbabwe
Biographies List of Zimbabweans, from Wikipedia
African Women Bibliographic Database
Dictionary of African Christian Biography
W.H. Wills et al., The Anglo-African who's who and biographical sketch-book 1905, IA
African Nationalist Leaders in Rhodesia - Who is Who ?
Environmental History Disaster History : Zimbabwe, from Relief Web
Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
A. Mandondo, Situating Zimbabwe's Natural Resource Governance Systems in History 2000 emphasis on woodlands
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Rhodesia
History of USAID in Zimbabwe

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Zimbabwe, from Wikipedia; U.S. Ambassadors to Zimbabwe, from NNDB; Chinese Ambassadors to Zimbabwe, from PRC MOFA
Lists of Consuls
Lists of Bishops List of Archbishops of Central Africa (Anglican), from Wikipedia
Catholic Hierarchy, Archdiocese of Harare; has list of archbishops
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Zimstat
Population Figures from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
World Life Expectancy : Health Profile, Zimbabwe
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1965
Inflation Rate Index Mundi, Zimbabwe Inflation Rate 1999-2011
Trading Economics, Zimbabwe Inflation Rate 1999-
Unemployment Rate Index Mundi, Zimbabwe Unemployment Rate 1999-2009
Election Results from Psephos (since 2000); from IFES Election Guide
EISA : Zimbabwe Election Archives
African Elections Database : Elections in Zimbabwe
Search IPU Parline for "Zimbabwe"
Documents Historical Newspapers The London Gazette Archive
Northern Rhodesia and Zambia : Central African Examiner March 1961
Rhodesia Herald, online edition of historical issues, posted by Memories of Rhodesia (charges fee)
Historic Newspaper Articles The Spectator 14 Juni 1951, British Central Africa ?, Spectator Archive
J. Callaghan, Central Africa (V) : Federation and the British Labour Party 12 July 1958
Time Trail Zimbabwe, web-edition of historical Time Magazine articles, posted by Time Magazine, 15 articles 1965-
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Zimbabwe, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Online Yearbooks - Rhodesia/Zimbabwe Entries Statesman's Year-Book, British Zambesia 1890, pp.164-165, IA, British Zambesia and Nyasaland 1891, pp.166-168, IA, Zambesia and Nyasaland, British 1892, pp.195-198, IA, South Africa, British 1894, pp.193-195, IA, 1895, pp.193-195, IA, 1896, pp.193-195, IA, 1898, pp.196-198, IA, 1899, pp.212-214, IA, Rhodesia 1903, pp.230-235, IA, 1913, pp.194-198, IA, 1919, pp.201-205, IA, 1921, pp.204-208, IA
UN Yearbook Collection, 1946-2007
The Question of Southern Rhodesia 1964, The Situation in Southern Rhodesia 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, South African Aggression against Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe 1986, Zimbabwe 2005
Staatskalender The Southern Rhodesia Native Affairs Dept. Annual for 1942, 1979, IA
British Online Archives, Southern Rhodesia Blue Books 1906-1953
British South Africa Company, Report upon the present condition of Rhodesia 1903, IA
Historic Films Colonial Film : Southern Rhodesia/Rhodesia
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Zimbabwe
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : Zimbabwe
International Mission Photography Archive : Zimbabwe
Archival Deposits National Archives, UK
Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Archive Records
SOAS, Archive Catalogue (Archives of the London Missionary Society, the Methodist Missionary Society, the Presbyterian Church of England Foreign Missions Committee)
British Online Archives, Universities' Mission to Central Africa
Microform Academic Publishers, Guides, Central Africa 1883-1964. The Monthly Magazine of the Universities' Mission to Central Africa, introduction by R.G. Stuart
Adam Matthews Publications, African Missionaries' Collections
Indiana University Library, African Pamphlets Collection Index
African Studies Centre, Leiden : Development Plans, Rhodesia
University of Johannesburg, South African Law Reports listed according to Shelf (Subject) Code in the Law Library, scroll down for Southern Rhodesia
Methodist Church of South Africa Archives
Laws Legislation UK, Rhodesia And Nyasaland Act 1963
South African Legal Information Institute, Databases (scroll down for Zimbabwe etc.)
Treaties
Consular Reports Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce Rhodesia, 22 Nov. 1918, IA
Historiography British South Africa Company, The story of Rhodesia (1937), IA
Zimbabwe School Examinations Council (ZIMSEC), Advanced Level Syllabus History 9155
Document Surveys British Library, Zimbabwe Official Publications
Colonial Film, Central African Film Unit
Document Collections Rhodesian Documents Online
Category " Zimbabwe, from Wikisource
GB Colonial Office, Southern Rhodesia. Correspondence relating to the constitution of Southern Rhodesia (1914), IA
GB Colonial Office, Southern Rhodesia. Despatch to the high commissioner for South Africa, transmitting draft letters patent providing for the constitution of resposible government in the colony of Southern Rhodesia, and other draft instruments connected therewith, 1922, IA
British South Africa Company, Reports on Land Settlement in Southern Rhodesia 1906-1907, IA
Security Council Report, U.N. Documents for Zimbabwe
S. Onslow, CWIHP e-Dossier No. 35 : Robert Mugabe and Todor Zhivkov
Modern History Sourcebook : Rhodesia: Unilateral Declaration of Independence Documents, 1965
Individual Documents Rhodesia, Ministry of Information, The murder of missionaries in Rhodesia (1978), IA
Communist Support and Assistance to Nationalist Political Groups in Rhodesia (1975), IA
A Case for Rhodesia (1978), IA, pamphlet
I.D. Smith, Terrorist Incursions from Zambia 1967, IA
Zimbabwe Power Sharing Document, Sept. 15 2008, posted by New Zimbabwe
Report to the Prime Minister on the Election held in Zimbabwe- Rhodesia in April 1979, 1979, IA
Report on the Constitutional Conference, 1980, IA
Letter to the Chairmen of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the House Foreign Affairs Committee on the Situation in Zimbabwe April 3, 1981, posted by Reagan Library, UTexas
Letter to the Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the House Foreign Affairs Committee Reporting on the Situation in Zimbabwe, July 7, 1981, posted by Reagan Library, UTexas
Letter to the Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee on the Situation in Zimbabwe November 5, 1981, posted by Reagan Library, UTexas
Letter to the Chairmen of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the House Foreign Affairs Committee Reporting on the Situation in Zimbabwe December 17, 1981, posted by Reagan Library, UTexas
British South Africa Company Charter, from Stanley Portal Hyatt Homepage
Historical Maps responsible institutions The Department of Surveyor-General , National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Maps, PCL, UTexas
David Rumsey Map Collection, Zimbabwe
Category : Old Maps of Zimbabwe, Maps of the History of Zimbabwe, Wikimedia Commons
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
Zimbabwe, Modern Linguistic Map of Botswana and Zimbabwe, Muturzukin
Matabeleland, Mashonaland, PinetreeWeb
Zimbabwe, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 49. Linyanti 1883, 49. Linyanti 1889, 49. Linyanti 1894, 50. Tete 1884, 50. Tete 1890, 50. Tete 1893, 55. Pretoria 1882, 55. Pretoria 1896, 55. Pretoria 1899, Gallica
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheets 30 Lusaka (1970), sheet 31 Salisbury (1970), sheet 34 Johannesburg (1970), PCL, UTexas
Rhodesia 1906, 1922, 1932, 1938, Probert Encyclopedia
Southern Rhodesia 1930, Philatelic Database
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1960, Wikipedia
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Rhodesia, Bulawayo, Matabele, Mashona, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Wikisource : Rhodesia, EB 1922
Articles Matabele, Maschona, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Article Rhodesia, Monomotapa, Prefecture Apostolic of the Zambezi Mission, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1912 edition
Article South Africa, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 edition
Economic Southern Rhodesia pp.334-336 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
J.H. Curle, The Gold Mines of the World, 1905, IA; Rhodesia pp.127-148
Geographical W.H.P. Greswell, Geography of Africa south of the Zambesi 1892, IA; Matabililand pp.304-307, Mashonaland pp.307-330
C.P. Lucas, Geography of South and East Africa 1904, IA; British Bechuanaland and Southern Rhodesia pp.85-100
G.T. Warner, A Geography of British South Africa< 1904, IA; Rhodesia pp.136-160
Ethnographical E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, The Earth and its Inhabitants Africa vol.4 : South and East Africa, 1890, IA : Zambese and Ku-Bango Basins pp.235-281
E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, Africa and its Inhabitants vol.4 1899, IA; Northern and Southern Rhodesia pp.235-281
Historical W. Douglas MacKenzie, South Africa, its History, its Heroes and Wars 1900, IA; Rhodesia pp.108-126
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Travelogues A. Bordeaux, Rhodesie et Transvaal: impressions de voyage 1900, IA
H.L. Tangye, In New South Africa: Travels in the Transvaal and Rhodesia 1900, IA
Rhodesia Travelogue, 1973, by Carlos Whitlock Porter (tendentious)
Residence Memoirs
Exhibition Catalogues The British South Africa Company Historical Catalogue & Souvenir of Rhodesia from the Empire Exhibition in Johannesburg, South Africa, 1936-37.
Institutions Archives Department of National Archives, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of Zimbabwe
Musea Museums in Zimbabwe, from Museums in Africa
Monuments
Libraries
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from Wikipedia
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page (2 anthems listed)
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Zimbabwe, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Coin Catalog of Zimbabwe, from Numismaticon; Zimbabwe Coins, from World Coin Gallery; Search Coin Archives for Rhodesia, Zimbabwe; Southern Rhodesia, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Stamps

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Zimbabwe survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
general bibliographies pp.372-445 in R.K. Rasmussen, Historical Dictionary of Rhodesia/Zimbabwe, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1979 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies The Mukiwa, Rhodesian War Bibliography
P. Hubbard, A Bibliography of Rhodesian Archaeology to 2005
Books on Rhodesia, from Rhodesia was Super, tendentious (Rhodesia Nostalgia)
serial publications Queens University, Southern African Research Centre, graduate theses
general bibliographies
Zimbabwe entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Zimbabwe-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
booksellers Books, Videos on Rhodesia, from Memories of Rhodesia
Weaver Press, Zimbabwe
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Zimbabwe University of Zimbabwe Institutional Repository
Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Thesis Server University of Zimbabwe Institutional Repository
Registry of Open Access Repositories : Zimbabwe
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
On Africa G. McCall Theal, History of Africa south of the Zambesi from the settlement of the Portuguese at Sofala in September 1505 to the conquest of the Cape Colony by the British in September, 1795 (1916), posted on Internet Archive
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Michigan State University, Archive of African Journals, Zambezia 1969-2003
General Accounts
Specific Topics Jonathan Crush, Cheap Gold : Mine Labour in Southern Africa, pp.172-177 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
D. Chanaiwa, African Initiatives and Resistance in Southern Africa, pp.194-220; M.H.Y. Kaniki, The Colonial Economy : the former British Zones, pp.382-419, in : A. Adu Boahen, Africa under Colonial Administration, Vol.VII of UNESCO General History of Africa, Oxford : Heinemann 1985 [G]
A.B. Davidson, A. Isaacman, R. Pelessier, Politics and Nationalism in Central and Southern Africa 1919-1935, pp.673-711, in : A. Adu Boahen, Africa under Colonial Administration, Vol.VII of UNESCO General History of Africa, Oxford : Heinemann 1985 [G]
Chapter 30 : The Rhodesias and the Central African Federation, pp.602-619; 31 : More about Rhodesia and Nyasaland, pp.620-645, in : John Gunther, Inside Africa, NY : Harper & Bros. (1953) 1955 [G]
The Rhodesian Counterinsurgence War, 1972-1980, pp.16-33 in : John W. Turner, Continent Ablaze. The Insurgency Wars in Africa, 1960 to the Present, London : Cassell 1998
Historical documentaries on the history of Rhodesia / Zimbabwe, from Memories of Rhodesia : Rhodesia 1890-1980, 2 Volumes
Historical Dictionaries R. Kent Rasmussen, Historical Dictionary of Rhodesia/Zimbabwe, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1979 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Rhodesia, 1944 p.604, 1945 p.603, 1946 pp.641-642 [G]
Southern Rhodesia, 1950 p.598, 1951 pp.601-602, 1952 p.602, 1953 p.611, 1954 p.612 [G]
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of, 1954 pp.612-613, 1955 pp.661-662, 1956 p.599, 1957 pp.660-661, 1958 pp.595-596, 1959 pp.593-594, 1960 pp.595-596, 1961 pp.603-604, 1962 pp.594-595 [G]
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1963 pp.697-699 [G]
Commonwealth of Nations, 1964 pp.268-269 [G]
Colonies and Other Dependencies, 1965 p.253 (on events in 1964) [G]
Southern Rhodesia, 1966 pp.695-696, 1967 pp.695-696, 1968 pp.703-704 [G]
Rhodesia, 1969 pp.663-664, 1970 pp.670-671, 1971 pp.652-654, 1972 pp.614-615, 1973 pp.600-602, 1974 pp.600-601, 1975 pp.605-606, 1976 pp.601-603, 1977 pp.601-603, 1978 pp.619-620, 1979 pp.609-610 (on events in 1978) [G]
Zimbabwe Rhodesia, 1980 pp.737-739 [G]
Zimbabwe, 1981 pp.735-737, 1982 pp.735-736, 1983 pp.735-737, 1984 pp.735-737, 1985 pp.480-481, 818, 1986 pp.474-475, 819, 1988 pp.403-404, 739, 1989 pp.403-404, 739, 1990 pp.420-421, 755, 1993 pp.376, 755, 1994 pp.374-375, 755, 1995 pp.506, 755 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook South Africa (British), 1895 pp.193-195, 1898 pp.196-198 [G]
Rhodesia, 1901 pp.218-222, 1905 pp.236-241, 1910 pp.189-194, 1919 pp.201-205 [G]
Southern Rhodesia, 1924 pp.211-213, 1925 pp.215-217, 1926 pp.219-221, 1928 pp.217-219, 1929 pp.217-221, 1932 pp.221-224, 1937 pp.241-244, 1943 pp.233-237 [G] Rhodesia, 1970-1971 pp.513-520, 1975-1976 pp.524-530, 1978-1979 pp.1010-1017 [G]
Zimbabwe, 1980-1981 pp.1623-1630, 1983-1984 pp.1625-1630, 1984-1985 pp.1627-1632, 1985-1986 pp.1623-1628, 1987-1988 pp.1624-1630, 1988-1989 pp.1627-1633, 1989-1990 pp.1623-1630, 1990-1991 pp.1625-1631, 1991-1992 pp.1621-1627, 1992-1993 pp.1630-1636, 1993-1994 pp.1634-1642, 1994-1995 pp.1632-1640, 1995-1996 pp.1625-1632, 1996-1997 pp.1624-1629, 1997-1998 pp.1627-1634, 1998-1999 pp.1761-1767, 2000 pp.1968-1974, 2001 pp.1927-1933, 2002 pp.1997-2003, 2003 pp.2001-2007, 2004 pp.2011-2017, 2005 pp.2023-2029 [G]
Americana Annual Rhodesia, Southern, 1927 pp.742-743, 1928 pp.680-681, 1930 pp.663-664, 1931 pp.656-657, 1932 pp.619-620, 1933 pp.667-668, 1934 p.511, 1935 p.613, 1936 p.633, 1937 pp.615-616, 1938 p.599, 1939 p.672, 1940 p.677, 1943 p.634, 1944 pp.610-611, 1945 p.623, 1946 p.644, 1947 pp.614-615 [G] Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of, 1957 pp.674-676, 1961 pp.644-646, 1962 pp.649-651, 1963 pp.576-578 [G] Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1964 pp.572-575 [G] Rhodesia, 1965 pp.615-616, 1967 pp.589-591, 1968 pp.190, 578-579, 1969 p.586, 1970 pp.202, 590-591, 1971 pp.586-587, 1972 pp.581-582, 1973 pp.74, 583-584, 1974 pp.78, 507-508, 1976 pp.74, 480 (on events of 1975) [G]
Zimbabwe, 1989 p.578, 1990 p.563, 1992 pp.573-574, 1993 pp.576-577, 1994 pp.577-578 [G]
Other Article : British South Africa Company, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.135-138 [G]
Article : Rhodesia, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.670-671 [G]
Article : British South Africa, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1894 pp.104-107 [G]