The Political Structure of the Continuation of the Israeli-Palestine Conflict

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy

Table of Contents

Nov. 21st 2008
Nov.. 17th 2008
Oct. 6th 2008
Oct. 5th 2008
Oct. 5th 2008
Sept. 26th 2008
Sept. 22nd 2008
Sept. 19th 2008
Sept. 2nd 2008

Nov. 28th 2008 . . . go to Student's Paper

Endnotes to be inserted (in all cases, page number (if print source) required :
(1) give source for table 1
(2) II.2.2 In October 1973 the UN Security Council passed resolution 338 which called for the combatants "to cease all firing and terminate all military activity immediately... [and start] negotiations between the parties concerned under appropriate auspices aimed at establishing a just and ' durable peace in the Middle East". direct quote, give source
(3) III.1 Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert had expressed strong skepticism, "Quite frankly I don¢®?t think that in the essence of what Hamas is all about, that they are likely to change their attitude," he had said, "They are set to destroy Israel. That is what they say." direct quotes, require reference

Nov. 21st 2008

Check (Printed Reference Section). Lots of books are online.

Nov. 17th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

Very plausible. Discuss inhowfar other factors - economic, demographic, diplomatic factors affect the complex relation.

Oct. 6th 2008

When you came to me, you had written a paper applying the game theory on a conflict which you, in your own words, did not know much about.
After you fixed the points I listed below, I suggest you add a chapter in which you explain the difference between a game played based on assumptions simplifying the situation (a simplifuication necessary to apply the theory) and reality. Your cnclusion is too short.
What you have achieved in the last couple of weeks is establishing a foundation of knowledge on which you can present your theory in an academic circle and defend your position in a debate.

Oct. 5th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

WOW ! That was fast.
(1) Notes
Let us pursue a minimalistic policy of including notes. Assuming that the topic you deal with is the single most sensitive political issue of the last 60 years, we may argue that any educated reader either knows the names of persons and organizations you mention or is capable of looking up information on' the internet, PROVIDED YOU SPELL THEM CORRECTLY. Tzipi Livni, not Tzipi Livini.
I insist on you adding footnotes giving the source of table 1 aliyas and immigration figures, and the source of any direct quotation.
If you have the luxury of time, you might add links to important documents such as Sykes-Picot, the Balfour Declaration, the Oslo Accord etc. which I am sure you can find on the web.
(2) Organization
For this draft I compiled a table of contents. Comparing it with one which was part of an earlier draft of yours, I noted that you decided to skip a number of chapters, even part of your political analysis. The parts you wrote earlier are not lost, as they remain part of your log.
(a) II.2 History, II.3.1.1 History, II.3.2.1 History
Come up with more specific chapter titles to avoid confusing your reader.
(b) In case of the Palestinians, as I mentioned in the comment below, it does not suffice to list Arab League and PLO. Add (1) a chapter preceding the Arab League giving an overview of the demographic history of the Palestinians until today. (2) brief chapters on the role of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, the Fedayeen (pre PLO), on Gaza under Egyptian administration, West Bank under the administration of Jordan - the last 4 may be one paragraph chapters, but show a better understanding of the Palestinian cause.
(3) references - Pappe, History of Palestine (library) missing
I spent this afternoon posting your paper; I need time to digest it; possible further comment coming. Check this webpage every now and then.

Oct. 5th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

Political History of Palestine
(1) no notes. for instance where you translate "Intifada" - you speak Arabic ? Also, direct quote at the end of the first paragraph.
(2) organization. Arab League an outside factor, PLO established in 1964; in-between you have political factors claiming to represent the Palestinian cause : the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem (briefly), and the Fedayeen (guerrilla fighters).
Israeli historiography stresses the Grand Mufti's call for the Palestinians to step aside so that the Arab armies could push the Zionists into the Med. One might ask : what authority (to speak for the Palestinians) did he exercise after the Naqba ? You should include a paragraph on the Fedayeen, as the PLO did not, in 1964, invent Middle Eastern terrorism.
(3) The Diplomatic Front
what you miss : PLO granted special status, accepted into UN general assembly 197..
PLO and Arab attempts to isolate Israel in international organizations, similar to African attempts to get South Africa kicked out of international organizations.
What you write is correct, but, as you experience, an attempt to summarize this situation is tricky, any omission opens you up to potential criticism.

Sept. 26th 2008

In response to yesterday's presentations.
(1) In consideration of the time constraint, Junoh and you did the best job of getting their message across; most presenters got lost in an introduction and were cut off before they got to the point.
(2) When I look at your game theory thing, I wonder
what are the underlying assumptions ? You list two sides, Israelis and Palestinians. Assuming the Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza accept a deal which denies the refugees living outside Paleastine the right to return to Israel, what if they continue terrorist acts ? Is it feasible to talk of Palestinians, when Hamas and Fatah already fought military engagements ? What if a new Israeli government signs a deal returning all parts of the West Bank, Gaza and East Jerusalem occupied since 1967, and the settlers living in the West Bank reject it, and commit acts of terrorism ?
What if the main donor of Israel, the U.S., is no longer capable of continuing to do so, or if the Arab oil-producing nations significantly increase their funding of the Palestinians ?
The establishment of tables, as you do, without suficient discussion of the factors related seems somewhat hollow to me.
(3) Zionism did not start in the 1850s-1860s.

Sept. 22nd 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

(1) Table 1. Data from Eisenstadt, but you dide not read Eisenstadt directly, but instead found Eisenstadt quoted in Barnavi. note : Eisenstadt 1954, qoted after Barnavi 1992, p. ? page number missing.
(2) Basel. The Anglization of the placename is unnecessary and disfiguring.
(3) At the time of the First World War, the area was ruled by the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire a name; Turkish a description you add. Drop Turkish; it is general knowledge that the Turks were the domonating group in the Ottoman Empire.
(4) But the Ottomans sided with Germany during the First World War, and the Turkish control of the area ended when Arab forces backed by Britain drove out the Ottomans. As in the course of your paper Palestine is the focus of interest : Arab forces backed by Britain, in cooperation with British forces, drove the Ottoman forces out of Palestine.
It is debatable if the Arabs backed the British or vice versa.
(5) And yet, the British had contracted three mutually contradictory promises for the future of Palestine. The Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916 with the French and Russian governments proposed the land be placed under international administration; the Husayn-McMahon Correspondence 1915-1916 implied that Palestine would be included in the zone of Arab independence. It was on the latter agreement that the revolt of the Arabs was based on.
Chronological Order : A Husayn-MacMahon, B Sykes-Picot, C Balfour Declaration.
(6) France was given Syria, and Britain got a mandate over Palestine and Transjordan.
France was given a mandate over Syria (with Lebanon), Britain a mandate over Palestine (with Transjordan) and Iraq.
(7) the European persecution of Jews like the Holocaust led ..
The Holocaust was not merely a persecution; labelling it as 'European' may also be regarded misleading. Keep in mind, the topic you chiose is of most sensitive nature. Rephrase
(8) persecution of Jews like the Holocaust led thousands of Jews to emigrate to the British Mandate Palestine, provoking unrest in the Arab community.
first causing resentment and later provoning unrest in the Arab cmmunity
(9) the 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine
I regard the term 'revolt' exaggerated; I suggest you replace it by "Intifada'. A combination of General Strike and Demonstrations which may involve stone-throwing.
(10) As a response to both the lobby and the violent conflict in the area, the British responded by proposing several possible solutions.
The first British response was to place quota on Jewish immigrants per annum. When the British realized that Palestine was intenable, then the British administration proposed partition; a number of partition plans were made : ...
(11) Both the Arabs and the Jewish were outraged by the White Paper and directed violence toward the British as in the 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, the King David Hotel bombing, and the assassinations of Lord Moyne and Count Bernadotte, in order to expel the detested British government in the area
This way you identify both Arabs and Jews with the actions of Arab and Jew terrorists. Rephrase.
(12) The violence and the World War II led Britain to give up its mandate
Pershaps you should add the dates to the terrorist acts you listed above, then you would understand my point : World War II is over when you have an upsurge in terrorism committed both by Jewish and Arab terrorists in the months preceding British announcement of withdrawal. Try arrange your argumentation in chronological order.
(13) The State of Israel, the first Jewish state for nearly 2,000 years, was proclaimed at 1600 on 14 May 1948 in Tel Aviv. Egypt kept the Gaza Strip while Jordan annexed the area around East Jerusalem and the land now known as the West Bank
You jump too fast. A Israel proclasims independence and statehood. (The Israelis hope the Arabs to do the same in their part.) B Arab armies begin hostilities; first rab-Israeli War. C Israel victiorious; most Palestinians flee territory under Israeli control. D Armistice concluded. Instead of an Arab state of Palestine being declared in what was left of the areas assigned to an Arab State, Egypt held on to the Gaza Strip, Jordan to the West Bank with East Jerusalem. (Thise events took place in just a few weeks).

Sept. 19th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

(A) The reorganized table of contents. You established the order : a Military & Diplomatic History, b foreign involvement, c political history, c1 Palestine, c2 Israel, c3 Palestinians in Israel, d demographic history.
(1) It is difficult to establish a proper order as every aspect influences the other. I would suggest a Political History, b Demographic History, c Military & Diplomatic History, d Foreign Involvement. If you want to analyze the conflict, foreign involvement, while of essential importance, should not be listed at the beginning. Your question about diplomatic history might not arise if you do not start with it.
(2) c3 "Palestinians in Israel" is misleading. The wars of 1948 and 1967 divided the Arab population of Palestine in three groups : i. the Palestinians who remained in the State of Israel in its borders of 1948-1967. ii the Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza. iii. the Palestinians dwelling in refugee camps outside of Palestine.
In most political analyses, (i) is overlooked / ignored. (iii) is numerous, politically active. Your title suggests you want to write about (i), It seems to me that, in this chapter, you want to write about the camp refugees, thus about (iii).
(3) In chapter c3, I do not get the purpose of the first two paragraphs. They may make sense elsewhere, but not in reference to the camp refugees.
(4) A general piece of advice : Never again refer to yourself as not being knowledgeable about the subject, and as being lazy. Being part of the group of Americanized students in our school may suffice to let you get away wityh top grades without studying. But once you find yourself in a college environment, you will not be granted such a privileged status. Especially if you aim for top colleges, as you do, you have to display the attitude of studying the conflict seriously. If in your interview you display a touch of your "I don't know" / "I don't study" attitude, forget about Oxford. According to my experience, British colleges have higher expectations than those in the U.S.
Those MUN events many KMLA students love to attend are exercises in debate, to a lesser extent in solid preparation. Now is the time to reach a deeper level of understanding and analysis. If you are serious about Oxford, you need to increase the pace in the coming weeks.
(5) It might be easier if you, next time, if you do not send the entire file, but (i) a separate table of contents file, (ii) a separate list of references, (iii) individual chapters as separate files, complete with notes. Try write two chapters/subchapters a week.

Sept. 2nd 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

(A) Frankly, I don't understand the title. Israeli is an adjective, Palestine is a noun; either Israeli-Palestinian or Israel-Palestine.

(B) from a technical point of view :
(1) no foot-/endnotes. Your paper contains a number of direct quotations, for which notes should be given.
(2) Intro, geography one paragraph each, history 10 paragraphs; logic, structure chapters also long. Consider to subdivide the longer chapters into sub-chapters.

(C) The History Chapter
History can be written from a large number of perspectives : (1) history of the military conflict (war/terrorism), (2) history of foreign involvement in the conflict, (3) the Israeli-Palestinian competition for (a) favour in international opinion and (b) diplomatic recognition, (4) the costs of the conflict for both sides,
Further, the paper treats both Israeli and Palestinian society by and large as homogeneous blocks, one might bring in a (5) Hawks and Doves chapter. Other approaches might include (6) a demographic history of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. You might start the history section with an introduction of who are the Israelis and Palestinians (i.e. the history of the Israeli state and of the organizations claiming to represent the Palestinians).

(D) Details
(1) In 1516, they conquered the east coast of the Mediterranean. 1516-1517
(2) Around 1860, the Ottoman Empire covered an area that ran from Vienna to the Gulf and from the Caspian Sea to Morocco in North-West Africa. Morocco never was part of the Ottoman Empire; this statement is not wrong, but can be misunderstood. Better : to Algeria.
(3) Basle => Basel
(4) They lived alongside about half a million Arab residents in what was then part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. skip "Turkish"
(5) But the Ottomans sided with Germany during the First World War, and the Turkish control of the area ended when Arab forces backed by Britain drove out the Ottomans. that statement holds for Jordan; Palestine west of the Jordan was ocupied by British forces.
(6) In 1918, the League of Nations granted France and Britain mandates over the former Ottoman Empire; France was given Syria, and Britain got a mandate over what became Israel, the West bank, the Gaza Strip, and Jordan. 1920. France was given a mandate over Syria (which included Lebanon), Britain over Palestine (which at that time included what was to become Israel, the West bank, the Gaza Strip, and Jordan)
(7) The Zionist project of the 1920s and 1930s and the European persecution of Jews through the Holocaust led thousands of Jews to emigrate to the British Mandate Palestine, provoking unrest in the Arab community. What Zionist project ? provoking unrest : give it a name - the Intifada of 1935-1938.
(8) At around this time, the United States was beginning its first intervention into the area in Iran. be specific - are you referring to the coup ousting Mossadegh 1953 ?
(9) Truman¡¯s decision to support the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine was made against the advice of most of the State Department and other foreign policy experts, which is accredited mainly to domestic political forces. I would like to see a note (source) here.
(10) The State of Israel, the first Jewish state for nearly 2,000 years, was proclaimed at 1600 on 14 May 1948 in Tel Aviv. don't use military jargon (1600). At first glimpse I thought you refer to a year.
(11) Egypt kept the Gaza Strip while Jordan annexed the area around East Jerusalem and the land now known as the West Bank. you skipped the first Israeli-Arab War.
(12) In 1949, the Jews extended the area proposed for them by the UN. No, that happened in the cause of the first Israeli-Arab War. You forgot to mention the mass exodus of Palestinians from what was Israel between 1948 and 1967.
(13) In 1956 Gamal Abdel Nasser came to power in Egypt and integrated the armies of Egypt and Syria and nationalized the European-owned Suez Canal. Nassar came to power in Egypt in 1954; the UAR (union of Egypt and Syria) was proclaimed in 1958. He nationalized (without compensation) the Suez Canal in 1956.
(14) The Six Day War of 1967 culminated from mounting tensions between Israel and its Arab neighbors, as Israel launched a "preemptive strike" against the Arab troops along its borders. No need to explain why ?
(15) In the Yom Kippur War of October 6, 1973, Syria and Egypt launched a surprise attack on Israeli-held lands to coincide with the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur. After initial losses, the Israelis regained nearly all of the territory they occupied during the Six Day War. Syria stationed troops in Lebanon in 1967. Move 1967 statement to before 1973 statement. No need to explain why the Israelis were able to turn what looked like a defeat into a draw ?
(16) A year later, a US State Department official, Harold Saunders, acknowledged for the first time that .. source (note)
(17) So, on the 24th of September the so-called Oslo II agreement was countersigned four .. "so-called" implies that you are critical of it. Are you ?
(18) A new Wye River accord was signed in September 1999 Wye River Accord

(E) Don't forget to add the books I gave you to your reference list. and
Philip Mattar, Encyclopedia of the Palestinians, NY : Facts on File 2000
Bernard Reich, Historical Dictionary of Israel, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1992 (both in my office)