The History of Inner Mongolia

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy

Table of Contents

December 18th 2008
November 9th 2008
October 7th 2008
June 4th 2008
May 16th 2008
March 27th 2008
March 26th 2008

December 18th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

This draft is better organized than the last one. The following matters should be addressed :
(1) Working Title : History of Inner Mongolia => be more precise : Administrative History of Inner Mongolia.
(2) Qing Dynasty (12th century-1911)
Misleading. Qing Dynasty began in 1644. You may want to call this chapter : Inner Mongolia from the Yuan to the Qing Dynasty.
(3) Your entire paper has no notes. Most of your paper is translated source material. Please indicate - in footnote or comment line - if the text you translate is (a) a full translation (identify source), (b) translation of selected parts (identify source) or a compilation of translations of segments of a variety of sources (in that case you have to identify the individual source for every paragraph).
(4) ¨ç Yeke Juu (Yikezhao) League
There were seven banners under the control of Yeke Juu (Yikezhao)meng, which specifically are Eerduosi left wing middle banner (Junwang banner), Eerduosi left wing front banner (Zhungaer banner), Eerduosi left wing back banner (Dalate banner), Eerduosi right wing middle banner (Etuke banner), Eerduosi right wing front banner (Wushen banner), Eerduosi right wing back banner (Hangjun banner), Eerduosi right wing ? banner

I assume the ? to mean "front".
(5) On June, Minguo 35th year (1946), Jirim (Zhelimu) province government was changed to Jirim (Zhelimu) League government, and was transferred into the jurisdiction of Liao?. a question mark.
(6) On November, 1948, more than 1100 cavalry forces of the KMT were eradicated during the Liaoshan war. In Suhebateer, the troops led by people such as Luobusang and Jinbaochang were divided into different sections and attacked first Jirim (Zhelimu) League and Chahar League, and then into Xilingol (Xilinguole) League and Chahar League. Later in December, Inner Mongolia¡¯s CCP labor campaign committee and the autonomous government of Inner Mongolia decided to establish a ? in Beizimiao, and Wangzaitian, Kuibi, and Baomingde were appointed to positions of commander, member of government committee, and the chief staff officer, respectively. The commanding post summoned the 4th cavalry and, with the assistance of nomads and the security troops, decided to deploy a combat against bandits.
a question mark.
(7) On October 6th, 1951, Xibei military government committee ratified changing Dingyuanying(the place where Alxa (Alashan) banner office used to be stationed at; was constructed in 1730, and was a place given as a gift to ?) into Bayanhaote.
a question mark.
(8) d. ???
(9) At the beginning of your analysis you should state that your analysis is almost entirely based on a number of Chinese language sources you obtained at the library of (the university of Beijing ?). These sources were written from a perspective identifying with the CCP and PRC, often anonymously.
Then you may comment how this source material affects your analysis : what kind of information do you find, what kind of information is missing, how reliable you believe your sources to be.
(10) C.2 Republic of China: Warlord Period (1911-1928) Because the KMT was almost along the same line of aim as the previous regime, the Republic of China led by Sun Yat-sen, it is notable how the year nominations continued to be "Minguo".
Sun Yat Sen established the KMT; the KMT does not start in 1928; to refer to a previous period is misleading, as the previous period to the Republic of China is the Qing Dynasty.
Here you have an example where the Communist historiography may confuse you : For Chinese communists, the early Republic of China (until Chiang Kai Shek broke with the Communists) is legitimate; the Nanking Republic of China on the other hand is the enemy. In English language texts, not much of a distinction is made between the early and later Republic of China.
(11) Glossary : Dutong
The explanation you give may be the historic origin of the title. However, as you use it in the text, it reads to me more like a provincial governor.
(12) Your usage of terminology (leaning to Chinese terms) is okay. But you may want to add a paragraph to your introduction in which you point out that such terms are explained in the glossary.
(13) Overall comment : let me commend you for the effort you have invested in obtaining source material and translating it; no student at KMLA, prior to you, took on a project compatible to yours. When we first talked about this topic, I did not foresee that it would take so long to get to this point.
In order to finish your project, the points listed above still have to be addressed. Most of them are easy to fix; the identification of the sources of translated texts, and the analysis section in which you comment on your sources probably requiring most time and effort on your side. You are now in the polishing stage of your paper.
Are the bibliographies you posted earlier complete, or do you have to post a new one ?

November 9th 2008

Missing in your reference list :

October 7th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

(1) Table of Contents :
II Qing Dynasty, 1 Republic of China, III Kuomintang Rule, IV Mengchiang, V 1945-1949, VI Present-day
your chronological organization is confused. II Qing Dynasty, until 1911, III Republic of China : Warlord Period, 1911-1928, IV Republic of China : Pre-War KMT Rule 1928-1937, V Mengchiang 1936-1945, VI The Communists Take Control, 1945-1949, VII PRC 1949-1976, VIII Present-Day Issues
Chapter number 1 in a line of chapters numbered by Roman numerals was an oddity. The Cultural Revolution does not fit under the headline 1945-1949. KMT rule was part of the Republic of China era. For every historical period, give precise data.
Qing, Kuomintang, Mengchiang are entities well-known to western readers; follow spelling used by Wikipedia, quote respective articles : Mengjiang, Kuomintang, Qing Dynasty, Chahar (Province), Suiyuan (Province) etc.
(2) Qing Dynasty : Jinggis Khan => Genghis Khan ; Manzhou ethnicity Manchu, the Hans => the Han Chinese
double check if Wikipedia English edition has an article, use their spelling.
(3) Republic of China : chapters in Italics, thus translations from sources. Identify your sources in endnotes.
(4) III. KMT chapter title 1928-1937. some entries refer to period 1938-1945. The entire chapter consists, so far, of quotes. My recommendation : add an introductory paragraph in your own words in wich you explain that the KMT 1928-1936 was in control of Inner Mongolia, and after 1936 maintained a claim which occasionally involved the change of the administrative structure.
(5) At the bottom of chapters II and III, if I interprete you correctly, you have paragraphs referring to Inner Mongolia in general, as opposed to preceding subchapters on administrative units within Inner Mongolia. It would be better if you would write subchapter titles over these general paragraphs - avoid confusion. (6) IV.1.2 ends with The areas that this government controlled at that time include the following:
Either you forgot to list a number of names of administrative units, or what is listed under IV.1.3 and IV.1.4 were subdivisions of IV.1.2 and therefore should be listed as IV.1.2.1 and IV.1.2.2. Clarify
(7) Chapter IV. As far as I see, all entries you list in this chapter refer to the time when the Chinese retook control from the Japanese. These entries belong into the chapter 1945-1949. If your source does not mention how the Japanese puppet regime organized its own administration, it is the habit of Communist historiographers to omit anything they were not involved in.
A couple of interesting translations : forenoon (= morning); male and female populations - no; all of Inner Mongolia has one population, but x inhabitants.
(8) Chapter V is supposed to cover 1945-1949; it seems to me that what you write in that chapter applies to post proclamation of the PRC.
(9) check these sites :,,, ; you would have found these pages if only would have used my index page on Inner Mongolia
It seems to me that Sheng translates to Province; you check if Meng corresponds to Prefecture. That way we also may come up with an English term for Dutong. If you replace these terms, the paper becomes more legible for your readers.
The articles listed above also may serve to give guidelines for how to spell placenames in English.
(10) If my memory serves me correctly, you use 3 different spellings - Jinggis Khan, Qinggis Khan, Chingghis-Khan, for whom the Wikipedia calls Genghis Khan. Follow the Wikipedia
(11) V.1 History of Areal Changes in the Early Years of CCP
Chapter extremely long; think of criteria to subdivide in subchapters
(12) List of References : not every source is a primary source, just because it is printed in Chinese.
I assume all sources in your reference list are published in print, because you do not give a single URL.
Your sources (16), (36) : no year of publication given. If there is no such year given in a printed publication, you add : n.d. (no date).
(13) 11. Wulanshaobu. , from , 1385. published in 1385
(14) Glossary of terms : Sheng : an administrative unit.
If we can not be more specific, the effort to write this paper was wasted.

June 4th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

Fine, this looks like a chapter in which you separated your narrative from directly quoted translations of sources.
I inserted numbers ((1), (2) ..) where endnotes are needed; please supply those. I had to throw out one Chinese language term which I can not express in html.
You may want to start working on your glossary - names and abbreviations of organizations, in English, Chinese, and an explaining paragraph, as a gif file.
... do not forget Ceaucescu ... Ganse

May 16th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

Okay. You may want to add two appendices : A) The text you are translating, with a brief comment (seems to me an official PRC account of the region's history).
B) A glossary, in which you list those tricky Chinese names (of organizations etc.) with your choice of English translation, and with a paragraph long explanation.

On second thought, your paper heavily depends on the text you are translating. So you could organize it this way : Part I - translated text, Part II - your analysis (including a chapter of text criticism), Appendix Glossary . Actually, assuming you refer to the Chinese Revolution as partition, there is a period missing - 1911 to 1928.

March 27th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

The page from my website you added was on Outer Mongolia. This is the page to add not because of a narrative, but because of the links
Still search Datenbasis "Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde" (link on my Inner Mongolia page)

March 26th 2008 . . . go to Student's Log

(1) Position number one - "present day' : give at least an approximate date.
(2) The book you always bring to class is missing.
(3) Add my Inner Mongolia page,
(4) For yearbook entries : give pages (actually they are listed on my Inner Mongolia page; copy and paste works)

As I can not read Chinese, my ability to guide you in your research is somewhat limited. I also am somewhat concerned about your condition, which may be affected by a combination of excessive work/lack of sleep and your peculiar eating habits - occasionally you seem to suffer from too low a blood sugar level / lack of energy. Indicator - you forgot to list that book you always bring to class.
On my Inner Mongolia page I list a lot of links, which I expected you to try out. The Datenbasis "Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde" has an extensive online bibliography of mostly English language titles on every country in the world. I just tried the keyword "Mongolei" and it threw out 629 titles, some of which pertain to Inner Mongolia. Example :
Environmental resettlement and development, on the steppes of Inner Monglia, PRC / Dickinson, Debbie; Webber, Michael , 2007
By next time you have gone through the list and extracted the titles relevant for your topic. Your reference list so far has almost exclusively maps; we need sources providing substantial information.
I expect you to go through the links on my Inner Mongolia page and see what you can use. Do not permit non-English language titles to frighten you off; at least give them a try.