Back to WHKMLA Main Index . WHKMLA, Students' Papers Main Page . WHKMLA, Students' Papers, 12th Wave Index Page



Comparative Analysis of Post-Colonial History : Algeria, Vietnam

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Jung, Jin Hwan
Term Paper, AP World History Class, June 2008



Table of Contents
I. Introduction
II. Algeria
II.1 Political Development
II.1.1 Authoritarian State of Ben Bella & Boumedienne
II.1.2 Political Liberation of Benjedid Chadli
II.1.2.1 Political structure before 1988
II.1.2.2 Political structure after 1988
II.1.3 Political Changes Since the Civil War
II.2 Economic Development
II.2.1 Autogestion in 1960s
II.2.2 State plans and Centralized Economy
II.2.3 Economic Liberalization
II.2.4 Economic conditions since the Civil war
II.3 Welfare & Living conditions
II.3.1 Welfare
II.3.1.1 Health Care
II.3.1.2 Social Welfare
II.3.2 Education
III. Vietnam
III.1 Political Development
III.2 Economic Development
III.2.1 Economic conditions before the unification
III.2.2 Economic development after the unification
III.2.2.1 Centralization of the Economy
III.2.2.1.1 The Second Five Year Plan
III.2.2.1.2 The Third Five Year Plan (1981-1985)
III.2.2.2 Economic Decentralization/ Liberalization
III.3 Welfare & Living conditions
III.3.1 Health Care and Welfare System
III.3.2 Education
IV. Comparative Analysis: Similarities & Differences
IV.1 Politics
IV.1.1 Similarity : Authoritarian States
IV.1.2 Difference : Political Liberalization
IV.2 Economic Development
IV.2.1 Similarity : Authoritarian States
IV.2.1.1 Similarity : Centralized economy
IV.2.1.2 Similarity : Economic liberalization / decentralization
IV.2.2 Difference
IV.3 Welfare and Living Conditions Development
IV.3.1 Welfare
IV.3.2 Education
V. Conclusion
Notes
Bibliography



I. Introduction
            This paper would mainly first focus on both countries¡¯ developments in politics, economy and welfare, and later analyze the similarities and differences among the political, economic and welfare aspects of two countries.

II. Algeria

II.1 Political Development
            The political triangle of army-party-state had governed Algeria since independence. Only had Benjedid Chadli, the third president, tried to reform this political triangle and democratize the political structure; however, the executive power regained the full authority since the civil war.

II.1.1 Authoritarian State of Ben Bella & Boumedienne
            Algeria after the independence became an authoritarian state. After the independence, the Algeria¡¯s political power was concentrated on Ahmed Ben Bella. Ahmed Ben Bella consolidated his power by first outlawing the other parties such as Parti Communiste Algerien (PCA) and the Messalist PPA (1). Henceforth, the FLN, of which Ahmed Ben Bella was part, became the only legal party.
            His power was almost similar to that of a dictator; for example, the Assemblee Nationale, the first national legislative body of Algeria after the independence, got no powers and its deliberations were always ignored by Ahmed Ben Bella. When Ahmed Ben Bella tried to ratify the Constitution of 1963, there was some opposition among congressmen from Assemblee Nationale. Ahmed Ben Bella virtually eliminated the oppositions and easily ratified the constitution with agreement from 96.8 percent of the voters (2). Also, Assemblee Generale (AG) was the supreme legislative organization which consisted of all the workers. So AG was nominally the supreme power which controlled economic activities of workers. But in reality, the state, especially Ahmed Ben Bella, had right of veto over any decision of the AG or other organizations that might be contrary to the goals of national economic central planning (3).
            The Constitution of 1963, as aforementioned, oriented predominant power toward the presidency and made FLN the only legal party. It was the first constitution which set the basic structure of independent Algeria; it declared Arabic as the official language and Islam as the official religion. The Assemblee Nationale was subordinated to the presidency. The constitution reflected the growing authoritarianism in Algeria and specifically the presidential ambitions of Ahmed Ben Bella. (4)
            In 1965, the coup d'etat had occurred because of Ahmed Ben Bella's dictatorial attempts to abruptly reconstruct the country and cut himself off from the economic realities. Then in 1965, Houri Boumedienne, who was Vice President and Minister of Defense, got power and became Algeria's Chairman of the Revolutionary Council (5). When he first became the Chairman of the Revolutionary Council, he temporarily abolished the country's constitution and political institutions that Ahmed Ben Bella had established. He then heavily relied on his military forces, and ruled through a Revolutionary Council of his own (mostly military) supporters.(6)
            The rejection of the separation of powers and of political pluralism was still ongoing after the coup d'etat. A few political communes, wilayas (territorial collectivity enjoying economic and diplomatic freedom) (7) and business enterprises were established to support Houari Boumedienne.
            National Charter and the new constitution defined the Algerian state newly. The National Charter of 1976 was the principles on which the long-promised constitution would be based. It expressed Algeria's future as socialist and Muslim. It asserted that "socialism is an irreversible movement in Algeria," and "Islamic values are a fundamental constitutive element of the personality of the Algerian people." (9) Additionally, it reassured the Boumedienne's decade-long dictatorship.
            The Constitution of 1976 was not significantly different from the first constitution. As expressed in National Charter, the constitution reaffirmed Algeria's status as an independent country and recognized socialism and Islam as national ideology and religion. Though it nominally granted civil freedoms; in reality, Algeria remained an authoritarian state with a strong executive and the constitution actually bestowed the irreversible power to the executive. New representative body called Assemblee Populaire Nationale (the legislative body of Algeria) was conferred by the constitution; yet, the candidates were selected by the FLN (10). Still, the president, Boumedienne, was the secretary general of FLN and could control Assemblee Populaire Nationale.
            As inscribed in National Charter, socialism was an irreversible movement to Algerians, and Islamic values were a fundamental constitutive element of the personality of the Algerian people.

II.1.2 Political Liberalization of Benjedid Chadli

II.1.2.1 Political structure before 1988
            When Benjedid Chadli first became the president after Boumedienne, he inherited the single party system and recognized FLN the only legal party as his predecessors did. In order to increase the FLN's role over the society, he created the mass organizations such as UGTA or UNJA, which were labor unions highly integrated with FLN (11). His early reforms had been limited to the economic sector and had ensured that Benjedid remained in control of the reform process.

II.1.2.2 Political structure after 1988
            Because of the depressed hydrocarbon prices and economic shortages, public discontent led to October 1988 riots which caused heavy casualties. Facing the harsh opposition, Benjedid quickly initiated the reforms. The reasons for his responses were mainly two; he wanted to regain the political support that he had lost after October 1988 riots, and he wanted to alter the political structure in his favor. (12)
            Regardless of his initiatives, the reform itself was quite huge. Benjedid first separated FLN, his party, from the state. The amended Constitution of 1989 ended the monopoly of FLN and later legislations approved the establishments of opposition parties. Benjedid also diminished the role of the military. Free representation in local and national elections was enabled, and as a consequence, Front Islamique du Salut (FIS) was first created as an opposition party against FLN. (13)

II.1.3 Political Changes Since the Civil War
            After the astonishing victory of FIS over FLN in 1990 free elections, the military saw the first radical power transfer from FLN to FIS as a threat to the stability of Algeria and called for the president¡¯s resignation. Quickly Algeria returned to authoritarian state with Sid Ahmed Ghozali as a prime minister (14). The executive body got full authority and other political institutions were suspended. As a consequence of cancelled elections, Islamic fundamentalists were enraged by the decisions of HCE and provoked the civil war. In 1996, the constitution was amended to produce a stronger executive body (15). But the fundamental structure remained; political pluralism and multi party system remained regardless of the Civil War.
            Abdelaziz Bouteflika, the Algerian president since 1999, sought to end the war. But the guerilla fights did not end. The state of emergency remains in place and no significant changes toward democratization occurred yet.

II.2 Economic Development

II.2.1 Autogestion in the 1960s
            Autogestion was an example of a unique type of Algerian socialism after the independence. Frightened and anguished by the pressure of FLN, European owners (pied-noirs) fled Algeria. Consequently, Algerian workers took control of the vacant factories, farms and other enterprises to keep them operation. The government supported the autogestion and self-management. In 1965, the self-managed agricultural sector included 5,711,332 acres and comprised nearly all "modern" agriculture (16). For the industrial and commercial sectors, many were in self-management system, but still the state remained the owner of the business properties and got the greatest authority.

II.2.2 State plans and Centralized Economy
            Houari Boumedienne's state plans resulted in a highly centralized command economy. He was a more pragmatic president than Ahmed Ben Bella. His two industrialization plans, the First Four-Year Plan (1970-73) and the Second Four-Year Plan (1974-77), emphasized investment in capital-intensive heavy industry at the expense of more labor-intensive small industries that would generate badly needed employment. (17) State enterprises in capital-intensive heavy industry, for example SONATRACH, directed Algerian economic development.
            Agrarian Revolution was a systematic plan of Houari Boumedienne in the 1970s, also a part of centralized economy of Algeria. Houari Boumedienne wanted to extend the socialism to the primary sector (agriculture), so he nationalized the millions of hectares lands, constructed socialist villages and redistribute the lands to workers. Obviously, private owners resisted and complained about the decisions and the government¡¯s interference. Also, the nationalized farms were unproductive. This led to Chadli Benjedid's liberalization policies.

II.2.3 Economic Liberalization
            Chadli Benjedid admitted the failure of Boumedienne's Agrarian Revolution. He quickly shifted attention toward agriculture and permitted the privatization of the farms. He also liberalized and decentralized the huge, state-controlled enterprises in order to solve the problems such as inflation, foreign debts and low petroleum prices. For example, he decentralized the huge state companies such as SONARTRACH into several companies and later openly privatized them. (18)

II.2.4 Economic conditions since the Civil war
            The economic growth rate plunged since the civil war occurred. Because of the collapsing economy, Algerian government had to borrow money from foreign countries. External debt had skyrocketed from the 30 percent of Algerian GDP in 1985 to 62 percent of GDP in 1993. (19) Consequently, International Monetary Fund (IMF) took control of and managed the Algerian economy in 1995.
            The adjustments after IMF took control successfully reduced the national debt and helped Algeria recover positive economic growth in the late 1990s and 2000s.

II.3 Welfare & Living conditions

II.3.1 Welfare

II.3.1.1 Health Care
            When Algeria was first liberated, the Algerian health care system was skeletal, consisting of 1 physician per 33,000 people (20). Since then the health care system developed in a great scale; for example, from 1975, new law enabled people to get national health care for almost free. Also, Algerian government in 1970s and 1980s started to adopt immunization programs which were not provided in 1960s. Rather than investing in expensive hospitals, the government emphasized health centers and clinics, so that patients could easily prevent diseases. From 1990s, health services started to become privatized.

II.3.1.2 Social Welfare
            The social welfare system was designed before the independence and maintained its effect after the independence; a system of family allowances for employed persons, for example, had been instituted by the French in 1943 and it was maintained after the independence Also, a limited social security program was established in 1949 and it also remained after the independence. (20). In 1971 a new social security law was accepted and was extended to all people who were working in primary sector businesses, for example farms. This program since 1971 has provided sickness and disability insurance, old age pensions, and family allowances to people (22).

II.3.1.3 Education
            Algeria after the independence highly emphasized the education. After attaining independence, Algerian government tried to level out the effect of French colonialism (23). Algerian authorities started to develop their own programs which were indigenized, Arabic, and emphasized scientific and technical studies, reflecting the needs of Algerian industrial sectors (24).
            To establish an effective education system, the Algerian government allocated huge percent of its budget to education. For example, when Algerians first got independence, the government used 25 percent of its budget on education (25). In 1985 approximately 16.5 percent of the government's investment budget was devoted to education; in 1990 the education sector received 29.7 percent of the national budget. (26)

III. Vietnam

III.1 Political development
            Vietnam has been a single-party state which has been governed through centralized system dominated by the Vietnamese Communist Party. The constitution of 1959 clearly stated the Vietnam as "people's democratic state led by working class." (27) Nominally, the constitution separated the power among legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government. However, in reality, the National Assembly was the most powerful political organ and it held inexorable authority over all national affairs. After the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1976, there were no fundamental changes in the political structures. Although the constitution of 1980 emphasized the popular sovereignty, still the freedom to express was restrained (28). National Assembly, the legislative body, and Council of State, the highest standing body of National Assembly, remained the highest political organs of Vietnam.
            The recent constitution, which was approved in April 1992, showed no big change. No political parties except the Vietnamese Communist Party got legally accepted. The central role of the Communist Party was reassured in all branches and institutions of politics, economics and other parts of society (29). Alike other constitutions had stated, the constitution of 1992 also reassured the biggest political power of the prime minster Nguyen Tang Dung and the National Assembly.

III.2 Economic development

III.2.1 Economic conditions before the unification
            Even before Vietnam was separated into the North and South Vietnam, the North and South Vietnam had formed different economic structures since the French forces colonized them. The French, who needed raw materials and a market for manufactured goods, developed the South agriculturally, because the South was more suited for agriculture when considering the soil and climate (30). The North, which had rich mineral resources, developed mining industries and secondary industries relatively.
            This difference had remained after the North and South were divided politically in 1954. When they were divided, they also adopted different economic ideologies, one communist and one capitalist. In the North, the communist regime's First Five-Year Plan (1961-65) prioritized the heavy industry, and later light industries (31). In the South, governors developed agricultural industries, for example food-processing plants. Factories producing consumer goods were also part of the southern industries.
            During the Indochina war, the North suffered from air strikes by the U.S. Workers in the North, who were supposed to work in large-scale constructions and state-planned economic plans, had to repair bomb damage (32). Transportation routes, electric power plants, petroleum storage facilities were destroyed. According to survey, all 6 industrial cities, 28 out of 30 provincial towns were damaged or devastated by U.S bombardments.
            The South became dependent on United States¡¯ aid. U.S financially supported the South to construct all the military facilities and social overhead capital and support the currency. Although the South was aided by U.S, the economic damage caused by the war was detrimental; 10 million hectares of farmland and 5 million hectares of forest lands were devastated, and 1.5 million cattle were killed. (33)

III.2.2 Economic development after the unification
            After the unification, the Vietnamese economy was shaped primarily by the Vietnam Communist party. The party set economic growth targets, launched reforms and mapped the strategies for economic development. Similar to Algeria, Vietnam also formed a centralized economy and the government proposed several state plans that contain guidelines for all its regions and tried socialist transformation.

III.2.2.1 Centralization of the Economy

III.2.2.1.1 The Second Five Year Plan (1976-1980)
            The second five year plan, which was held from 1976 to 1980, set extraordinarily high goals. For example, the plan set gals for the average annual growth rates for industry (16 to 18 percent), agriculture (8 to 10 percent) (34). It also tried to integrate the North and South economy. One of the noticeable characteristic of Vietnam's second five year plan was that Vietnamese government tried to develop plans that focused equally on agriculture and industry and thus create synergetic effect. For example, heavy industries were intended to serve agriculture on the premise that a rapid increase in agricultural production would in turn fund further industrial growth. (35)
            However, the reality was not that optimistic. First, Vietnam was too dependent on foreign financial aids. For example, among the economic aids tendered to Hanoi in 1976, the Soviet Union, China and Eastern Europe aided about US 4 billion Dollars, while the Vietnamese government allocated 2.5 billion Dollars (36). Second, Vietnam¡¯s economy did not change significantly; still the enterprises were not integrated into huge-scale state businesses ? Vietnamese economy remained dominated by small-scale production, low labor productivity and insufficient food and consumer goods.

III.2.2.1.2 The Third Five Year Plan (1981-1985)
            From 1981 to 1985, the Vietnamese government strived to fix the problems of the second five year plan by setting more realistic goals and pragmatic policies. The government strived to develop agriculture by adopting advanced science from Soviet Union and other European nations. Similar to what Algeria did after the failure of Agricultural revolution, the Vietnamese government adopted "family economy" to enhance the productivity. It was not a full privatization, but it permitted peasant households to personally use of lands, not use by the cooperative. So if the surplus was produced, the households could sell it on the free market (37). Free enterprises were permitted, thus this benefited peasants who refused to join cooperatives.
            Nevertheless, this did not mean that the Vietnamese started to entirely privatize the former centralized sectors. Still, 72 percent of the total number of peasant households in the South was part of cooperative organization. Many oversea trade firms in Ho Chi Minh City were forcibly merged into a single state-governed enterprise.

III.2.2.2 Economic Decentralization/Liberalization
            From 1986 to 1990 was the time of Vietnam's economic liberation. Vietnam maintained the emphasis on agricultural industries and light industries, yet started new policies that enhanced the freedom of economy and decentralized and lightened the economy. One of the conspicuous characteristic was doi moi, which is a structural reform for a market-based economic system. The government started to liberalize the prices, decentralize and privatize the farms, give autonomy to state enterprises and business accounting methods (38). The government also devised a new foreign trade law in order to intrigue foreign businesses. Implementation of these policies was achieved with varied success.

III.3 Welfare & Living conditions

III.3.1 Health Care and Welfare System
            The public health care service improved a lot. In 1945 Vietnam only had 47 hospitals for total and one physician per every 180,000 persons, but in 1979 the number of hospitals burgeoned and there were 713 hospitals (39). The ratio of physicians to potential patients also increased to one physician per 1000 persons (40).
            Although access to health care improved a lot, the shortages of funds, of qualified physicians, and of medicines still were problems. And unlike Algeria, the Vietnam could not provide quality public health care for free. The private health services and black markets for medicines proliferated. (41)
            One of the distinctive characteristic of Vietnamese public health care system was that from late 1980s Vietnam started to integrate traditional medical methods with Western modern ones. However, the government acknowledged that efforts to develop distinctive Vietnamese medical science by integrating both traditional and modern methods had achieved minimal success. (42)
            Distinctively, the country¡¯s welfare system has largely focused on those who participated in the Vietnam War and the victims of the war since the unification. From the early 1990s, the funds for emergency and regular aid were implemented, which were for supporting disabled and victims of natural disasters (43). Similar to health care system and education, the welfare system could not be fully developed due to lack of financial investments.

III.3.2 Education
            Before the unification, Vietnam could give an opportunity for secondary and higher education for only a small number of upper class people due to lack of equipments and money. The school system was based on the French model, with little revisions to teach Vietnamese history, language, literature and Communism ethics.
            After the unification, in 1979, reforms were implemented by the government to make education more relevant to the nation¡¯s economic and social needs (44). Practical and technical educations were implemented in order to raise skilled workers technicians and workers.
            Vietnam in the 1979 implemented a movement for self-supply of teaching aids, in order to address the shortage of investments on education. So, private citizens and those who were enrolled in agricultural cooperatives had to financially support the local schools.
            Government spending on education gradually increased, and government spending as a percentage of GDP more than doubled between the mid-1990s and the early years of the 21st century. Consequently, the country¡¯s general bill of health improved a lot (45).

IV. Comparative Analysis: Similarities & Differences

IV.1 Politics

IV.1.1 Similarities : Authoritarian State
            Just as most of the third world states, Vietnam and Algeria both started as authoritarian, one-party state. The power was also centralized in both nations. In Algeria, presidents such as Ahmed Ben Bella and Boumedienne acted almost like dictators, and the state was authoritarian. In Vietnam, the power was also centralized; though nominally the power was separated into three branches, the National Assembly got the most power and in most cases the prime minister held the biggest power.

IV.1.2 Difference : Political Liberation
            Algeria and Vietnam took different paths after 1988. In Algeria, public discontents led to October 1988 riots. Facing the harsh resentments, Benjedid Chadli separated his party from the state and thus enabled the establishments of other opposition parties. This was the significant shift from authoritarian state to politically open societies, even though this shift was later nullified by the coup d'etat of military forces. On the other hand, in Vietnam, the VCP remained as the only party.
            There were also differences in political ideologies. While Algeria was based on Islam belief and socialism, Vietnam was based on socialism and indigenous belief, Confucianism. In some ways, Marxism-Leninism simply represented a new language to express the constant cultural tendencies of Vietnam. Like the Confucians, leaders of the centralized Vietnamese government considered the relationship between the government and the governed should be deliberately structured to parallel the Confucian system. (46)

IV.2 Economics

IV.2.1 Similarities

IV.2.1.1 Centralized Economy
            In terms of economy, Algeria and Vietnam showed similar methods and ways of achieving economic development. In order to achieve a rapid economic growth after the independence, they both adopted centralized economy policies. For example, in Algeria, Boumedienne adopted several state plans resulted in a highly centralized command economy and emphasized investment in capital-intensive heavy industry at the expense of more labor-intensive small industries. In Vietnam, three (the first, second and third) five year plans were adopted and resulted in a highly centralized command economy.

IV.2.1.2 Economic Liberalization / Decentralization
            In 1980s, both Algeria and Vietnam started to adopt free-market strategies to their economies and decentralize the former command economy. Chadli Benjedid, for example, recognized the failure of Agrarian Revolution and former economic plans of Boumedienne. He privatized the former state-controlled farms, and decentralized and later privatized the huge, state controlled enterprises, for example SONARTRACH. Similarly, Vietnam adopted doi-moi, and therefore decollectivizes and privatizes the farms, give autonomy to state enterprises.

IV.2.2 Difference
            Few differences were that Algeria kept emphasis on heavy industries but Vietnam at first tried to focus on heavy industries but later shifted their emphasis on agriculture and light industries, due to different natural resources and climate in Algeria and Vietnam. The Civil War occurred in Algeria damaged the Algerian economy severely, while Vietnam did not suffer the huge war after 1975. Asian economic crisis did damaged Vietnam in 1990s, but not significant and direct damages as Algeria got.

IV.3 Welfare and Living Conditions Development

IV.3.1 Welfare
            Both in the Vietnam and Algeria, the public health care system improved a lot. The ratio of physicians to potential patients increased in both nations. However, there were some differences. The Algeria in 1975 legalized people to get national health care for almost free, and most of people except people living in countryside could get the public health care service. But the Vietnam could not provide quality public health care for free, and the black markets for medicines and health services proliferated.

IV.3.2 Education
            For education, they had similarity in that both Vietnam after reunification and Algeria after independence emphasized scientific and technical studies reflecting the needs of their industrial sectors, so as to raise skilled workers and technocrats. Differences were that while Algeria almost recreated the education system that were indigenized and Arabic to level out the effect of French colonialism, Vietnamese used former French education system with few revisions. Also, Algeria extraordinarily allocated high percent of their national incomes to education, over 20%, while Vietnamese education was lack of investments and money so they adopted self-supply of teaching aids, to supply needs of school equipments and teaching materials from local communities.

V. Conclusion
            The history of Vietnam and Algeria are very much similar in that both countries had been previously colonized by the same country, France, during the similar period and liberated as both socialist countries. Consequently, they at first took similar paths in terms of political development. They both started as authoritarian, one-party state in which the leader, either president or prime minister, held the most power. In Algeria, presidents such as Ahmed Ben Bella and Boumedienne were authoritarians. In Vietnam, the power was also centralized, though nominally the power was separated into three branches, the prime minister and the National Assembly got the most power.
            However, whereas Algeria after 1988 saw great political changes, Vietnam still remained as an authoritarian state and remained as one-party dictatorship. In Algeria, due to oil prices dropping sharply the preceding years and the slow pace of economic and political reform, 1988 October Riot had occurred and this led to the downfall of Algerian single-party system. However, in Vietnam, there were no significant riots which led to huge political changes, and Vietnam still remain as one-party dictatorship in which the prime minister Nguyen Tang Dung got the most power.
            For economics, Vietnam and Algeria were similar, for they both tried to rapidly develop their economy after independence. Consequently, they adopted centralized, state-governed economy system to develop agriculture and other industries. Similarly, in 1980s they both adopt free-market strategies to their economies. In Algeria, Chadli Benjedid privatized the former state-controlled enterprises and decentralized them. Similarly, Vietnam adopted doi-moi policy which decollectivizes and privatizes state enterprises.
            In terms of welfare and education, they also were similar. Both lacked public health care systems when they first got independence from France. The ratio of physicians to potential patients and the numbers of hospitals were infinitesimal in both nations. But they gradually developed public health care systems, following their economic development. Few differences were that whereas Algeria had put enormous amount of money on both welfare and education, Vietnam was lack of investments and therefore could not provide quality public health care for free, and the black markets for medicine and health services flourished.


Notes (1)      Historical Dictionary of Algeria p.24
(2)      Historical Dictionary of Algeria p.179
(3)      Stora 2004 p.134
(4)      Historical Dictionary of Algeria p.179
(5)      Article: Houari Boumedienne, Wikipedia
(6)      Article: Houari Boumedienne, Wikipedia
(7)      Article: Provinces of Algeria, Wikipedia
(8)      Article: History of Algeria, Wikipedia
(9)      Historical Dictionary of Algeria p.364
(10)      Stora 2004 p.148
(11)      Stora 2004 p.182
(12)      Democratization, October 1988 - January 11, 1992, Library of Congress- Country Studies : Algeria
(13)      Historical Dictionary of Algeria p.30
(14)      Return to Authoritarianism, Library of Congress- Country Studies : Algeria
(15)      Historical Dictionary of Algeria p.34
(16)      Stora 2004 p.134
(17)      Development Planning, Library of Congress- Country Studies : Algeria
(18)      Historical Dictionary of Algeria p.204
(19)      Historical Dictionary of Algeria p.204
(20)      Health and Welfare, Library of Congress- Country Studies : Algeria
(21)      Society & Social Welfare, Library of Congress- Country Studies : Algeria
(22)      Social Welfare, Library of Congress- Country Studies : Algeria
(23)      Historical Dictionary of Algeria p.208
(24)      Education, Library of Congress- Country Studies : Algeria
(25)      Historical Dictionary of Algeria p.208
(26)      Education, Library of Congress- Country Studies : Algeria
(27)      The System of Government, Library of Congress- Country Studies : Algeria
(28)      The System of Government, Library of Congress- Country Studies : Algeria
(29)      Article: Politics of Vietnam, Wikipedia
(30)      Karnow 1997, p.448
(31)      Historical Background, Library of Congress - Country Studies : Vietnam
(32)      Karnow 1997, p.448
(33)      Historical Background, Library of Congress - Country Studies : Vietnam
(34)      The Second Five Year Plan, Library of Congress - Country Studies : Vietnam
(35)      The Second Five Year Plan, Library of Congress - Country Studies : Vietnam
(36)      The Second Five Year Plan, Library of Congress - Country Studies : Vietnam
(37)      Article: Vietnam: Economic Development, Nations Encyclopedia
(38)      Article: Vietnam: Economic Development, Nations Encyclopedia
(39)      Public Health, Library of Congress - Country Studies : Vietnam
(40)      Public Health, Library of Congress - Country Studies : Vietnam
(41)      Public Health, Library of Congress - Country Studies : Vietnam
(42)      Public Health, Library of Congress - Country Studies : Vietnam
(43)      Some Problems with the Financial Policy on the Social Welfare, Ho Chi Minh Website
(44)      Education, Library of Congress - Country Studies : Vietnam
(45)      Article: Vietnam: Health and Welfare, Encyclopedia Britannica
(46)      Political Culture, Library of Congress - Country Studies : Vietnam


Bibliography
Note : websites quoted below were visited in June/July 2009.

(1)      Stanley Karnow, Vietnam: A History, Penguin Books Press, 1997
(2)      Benjamin Stora, Algeria 1830-2000: A Short Story, Cornell University Press, 2004
(3)      Phillip C. Naylor, Historical Dictionary of Algeria, The Scarecrow Press, 2006
(4)      Article: Houari Boumedienne, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Houari_Boumedienne
(5)      Article: Provinces of Algeria, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces_of_Algeria
(6)      Article: History of Algeria (1960s to 1980s), Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Algeria_(1960s_to_1980s)
(7)      Library of Congress, Country Studies : Algeria http://country-studies.com/algeria/
(8)      Library of Congress - Country Studies : Vietnam http://country-studies.com/vietnam/
(9)      Some Problems with the Financial Policy on the Social Welfare, Ho Chi Minh Website, http://www.ueh.edu.vn/tcptkt/english/2003/thang02-03/dtbminh&sdthanh.htm
(10)      Article: Vietnam: Health and Welfare, Encyclopaedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/628349/Vietnam/52714/Health-and-welfare
(11)      Article : Vietnam, from Encyclopedia of the Nations http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Asia-and-Oceania/Vietnam.html
(12)      Article : Politics of Vietnam, from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Vietnam


Back to WHKMLA Main Index . WHKMLA, Students' Papers Main Page . WHKMLA, Students' Papers, 12th Wave Index Page