Exotic Food


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
CJY



Table of Contents


Appendix - Historic Recipes , September 22nd 2009
Conclusion 2nd draft, September 21st 2009
Conclusion, September 2nd 2009
The Change of British Cuisine in Relation to Fresh Fruit Trade, September 2nd 2009
Cooling and Refrigeration; Their Effects on Tropical Fruits Trade in Britain, August 24th 2009
Cooling and Refrigeration; Their Effects on Tropical Fruits Trade in Britain, August 24th 2009
The Development of Canning Technologies and its Impact, August 24th 2009
Working Table of Contents 3rd draft, August 24th 2009
Appendix - Historic Recipes , July 25th 2009
Working Table of Contents 2nd draft, July 25th 2009
Chapter 3.1 1st draft , July 25th 2009
Chapter 3.2 2nd draft , July 17th 2009
Appendix - Historic Recipes , July 17th 2009
Chapter 3.2 1st draft , July 17th 2009
Working Table of Contents , July 17th 2009
References , July 17th 2009



Appendix : Historic Recipes using Exotic Food . . . go to Teacher's comment

Good housekeeping invalid cookery book (1926)

page recipe ingredients
51 tomato jelly steamed fish lemon juice
55 baked fish lemon juice
54 fish baked in batter lemon juice
59 fish cream lemon juice
62 fish cquenelles lemon juice
63 fish and rice lemon juice
65 fish suffle lemon juice
67 stewed smelts lemon
68 fillets of sole on toast lemon juice
70 fillets of sole with tomatoes lemon juice
71 whiting stuffed and baked lemon juice
72 oysters au natural lemon
72 fricassee of oysters lemon juice
95 chicken or veal cream lemon juice
98 veal or chicken quelelles lemon juice
125 tomato salad lemon juice
134 custard pudding lemon rind
among the most suitable flavorings are fresh lemon rind or juice
135 creme caramel lemon juice
136 Franch chocolate custard vanilla
137 omlet souffle grated lemon rind
143 plain souffle lemon rind, juice
144 spaghetti pudding lemon rind
146 sponge pudding lemon rind
150 stewed apples rind of lemon
152 baked bananas banana, lemon juice
152 banana custard pudding banana, lemon rind
154 stewed prunes lemon rind, juice
154 prune souffle lemon juice
155 Swiss apple pudding lemon rind
158 apple cream lemon juice
158 apple jelly lemon juice
159 apple sponge lemon juice
160 bananas and cream banana, juice of orange
162 calf's foot jelly rind of lemon
164 a simple chorlotte russe vanilla essence
165 chocolate cream vanilla essence
165 chocolate sponge vanilla essence
167 egg jelly lemon
167 farinaceous jelly lemon rind, juice
170 Irish moss jelly lemon juice
171 lemon sponge lemon
172 milk jelly lemon rind
172 orange jelly oranges
173 port wine jelly lemon
176 vanilla cream vanilla
178 vanilla ice cream vanilla
178 lemon ice cream lemon rind
179 strawberry ice cream lemon juice
181 apple water lemon
181 boiled apple water lemon
183 barley water lemon
184 black currant drink lemon juice
191 egg soother lemon juice
192 Irish moss drink lemon juice
194 lemonade lemon
195 lemon cooler lemon
195 linseed tea lemon
198 milk lemonade lemon juice
200 orangeade oranges
210 French melted butter lemon juice
211 maitre d'hotel butter lemon juice
218 white sauce lemon juice
215 custard sauce lemon rind
217 lemon sauce lemon
218 orange sauce oranges
229 a simple gingerbread lemon
229 invalid cake lemon
231 sponge cake lemon rind
247 lemon curd lemon

King Edward's Cookery Book (1950)

page recipe ingredients
16 Mulligatawney Soup lemon
17 Aspic Jelly lemon rind, juice
21 Boiled Cond lemon
22 Casserole of Fish lemon juice
23 Dressed Crab lemon juice
24 Fish Crouettes lemon juice
24 Fish Would lemon juice
25 Fish Pie lemon juice
26 Fricassee of Fish lemon juice
27 Boiled Halibut lemon
28 Baked Mackerel lemon rind
30 Oyster Patties lemon
33 Sardines in Batter lemon
35 Fried Smelts lemon
35 Baked Fillets of Sole lemon juice
36 Boiled Turbot lemon
58 Calf's Feet Fricassee lemon juice
56 Calf's Head with Egg Sauce lemon
60 Calf's Head (Stuffed) lemon
64 Dutch Sweetbreads lemon rind, juice
66 Fillets of Veal lemon juice
79 Veal Would lemon salad
81 Stuffed and Roast Fillet of Veal lemon
82 Vol-au-Vent lemon juice
86 Curry of Cold Meat lemon
95 Veal Fritters lemon
102 Chicken a la Russe lemon
105 White Fricassee of Fowl lemon
106 Jugged Hare lemon
107 Roast Hare lemon juice, orange salad
120 Beetroot with Potatoes lemon juice
123 Cauliflower with Mushroom Sauce lemon juice
129 Boiled Rice lemon juice
129 Boiled Rice with Tomato Sauce lemon juice
134 Lemon Salad lemon
134 Orange Salad oranges
141 Kidney Toast lemon juice
150 Hollandaise Sauce lemon juice
150 Lobster Sauce lemon juice
151 Oyster Sauce lemon juice
152 White Sauce for Fish lemon juice
152 Reform Sauce lemon juice
153 Bechamel Sauce lemon juice
154 Tartare Sauce lemon juice
154 Syrup Sauce lemon juice, orange juice, small pieces of pineapple
156 Butterscotch Sauce vanilla essence
157 Lemon Butter Sauce lemon juice
160 Shrimp Butter lemon juice
169 Christmas Pudding orange peel, lemon peel, citron
169 Christmas Pudding dates
170 Date Pudding lemon
170 Fig Pudding lemon
171 Lemon Pudding lemon rind, lemon
172 Treacle Pudding lemon rind, juice
175 Jamaica Pudding lemon flavouring
174 Swiss Apple Pudding lemon juice
179 Tapioca Cream raf af ias
180 Tapioca Cream essence of vanilla
180 Ground Rice Pudding lemon rind
182 Baked Custard essence of ratafia
183 Boiled Custard essence of vanilla
183 Boiled Custard essence of vanilla
183 Caramel Custard vanilla flavouring
184 Orange Custard cocoanut, oranges
184 Queen's Pudding lemon flavouring
185 Bread and Butter Pudding essence of almond
185 Cabinet Pudding citron
186 Cabinet Fig Pudding essence of almonds, essence of vanilla
187 Honeycomb Mould essence of vanilla
187 Lemon Solid lemon rind, juice
190 Frying Butter lemon juice
192 Potato Fritters lemon grinded rind, juice
192 Brown Bread Pudding vanilla essence
193 Apple Amber Pudding lemon
195 Curd Cheese Cakes grated lemon rind
195 Lemon Cheese Cake lemon cheese mixture
196 Eclairs vanilla
196 Manchester Pudding rind of lemon
197 Orange Tart oranges, tangerines, vanilla essence
198 Strawberry Cream Horns vanilla
199 Mincemeat citron, orange, lemon rind, juice
199 Mincemeat lemon rind, juice
200 Mincemeat lemon rind, juice
203 Strawberry Gateau vanilla essence
204 Banana Gateau bananas, oranges
204 Peach Trifle vanilla
205 Spanish Trifle orange
205 Trifle vanilla essence
206 Pineapple Upside Down Pudding tinned pineapple
208 Whole Creams lemon, lemon knots
209 Fruit Creams lemon jelly
209 Custard Creams vanilla pod, green colouring, orange flower wafer
210 Lemon Creams lemons
210 Orange Cream tangerines, vanilla essence
210 Charlotte Russe angelica strips, vanilla essence
211 Meringues vanilla essence
213 Lemon Jelly lemons
213 Clart Jelly lemon juice
214 Pineapple Jelly tinned pineapple
214 Wine Jelly lemon rind, juice
214 Russian Jellies tinned pineapple
215 Surprise Oranges oranges
214 Egg Jelly lemons, oranges
215 Orange Jelly lemon, juicy orange
216 Lemon Sponge Lemon rind, juice
216 Pineapple Sponge tinned pineapple
216 Pineapple Sponge tinned pineapple
217 Compote of Apples lemon juice
218 Compote of Fruit lemon juice
219 Fruit Blancmerge vanilla or almond essence
219 German Apple Sponge lemon rind
219 Old Fashioned Fruit Salad tangerines, banana, lemon juice, liquor flavouring
220 Dessert Normandy Pippins lemon
220 Prunt Mould lemon juice
221 Rhubarb Mould lemon juice, lemon essence
233 Plain Cake Mixture lemon rind
234 Luncheon Cake Mixture lemon rind
234 Luncheon Cake Mixture 2 grinded lemon rind
235 Gingerbread (Fruit) citron
239 Genoese Mixture vanilla essence, grated lemon rind, almond essence
240 Genoese Mixture 2 vanilla essence, almond essence
241 Almond or Walnut Creams vanilla essence
242 Queen Cakes citron, lemon rind
242 Victoria Sandwich Mixture vanilla essence
242 Chester Cakes cocoanut
243 Madeira Cake citron slice, lemon rind flavouring
243 Christmas Cake crystallized Parma violets, almonds, citron
244 Simnel Cake lemon juice
245 Rich Sultana Cake lemon peel
245 Chocolate Layer Cake vanilla essence
246 Cocoanut Rocks cocoanut
247 Sponge Cake orange rind, flavouring, orange cheese, orange paste, cocoanut, lemon essence
249 Genoese Pastry lemon rind
250 Angel Cake vanilla essence
250 Devil's Food vanilla essence
251 Cocoanut Cake cocoanut
251 Bath Buns lemon rind
255 Simnel Cake 2 lemon peel, citron
255 Almond or Lemon Biscuits lemon flavouring, almond flavouring
256 Almond Macaroons orange flower water
256 Chocolate Macaroons orange flavouring
257 Chocolate Rocks vanilla
257 Cocoanut Biscuits cocoanut
257 Voovent Biscuits vanilla essence
258 Cornflour Biscuits vanilla essence
259 Lemon Biscuits lemon rind
259 Pressed Cakes almond essence
260 Shortbread lemon rind, lemon essence
262 Almond Paste 2 vanilla, orange flower water, almond essence, lemon juice
262 Chocolate Butter Icing vanilla essence
262 Coffee Butter Icing coffee essence of strong coffee
263 Glace Icing lemon juice
263 Orange Glace Icing orange juice
264 Royal Icing lemon juice
266 Apple Suffle grated lemon rind, lemon juice
266 Apple Souffle 2 lemon
267 Barley Water lemon
268 Barley Water and Soda lemon juice
270 Black Currant Tea lemon juice
274 "For a Cough" lemon juice
275 Invalid Ice lemon juice
276 Lemon Drink for Invalids lemon
276 Lemon Sponge lemon, lemon juice
277 Moulded Custard vanilla
278 Scalloped Oysters 1 lemon juice
278 Souffle Omlet vanilla essence
280 Sweetbread (Fried) lemon
280 Sweetbread (in White Sauce) lemon
283 Apple Jam lemon
283 Apple Jelly lemon
286 Lemon Cheese lemon juice, grated lemon rind
286 Marmalade lemon juice, orange juice
287 Orange Cheese orange rind, orange juice
287 Orange Paste sweet orange
287 Oranges Preserved Whole Seville oranges
288 Rhubarb Jam lemon rind, lemon juice
289 Vegetable Marrow Jam lemon rind, lemon juice
296 Iced Tea lemon juice
296 lemonade lemon
297 Lemon Syrup drachm tincture of orange, drachm tincture of lemon
299 Standard Vanilla Ice vanilla flavouring
300 Standard Custard Vanilla Ice vanilla flavouring
300 Cheap Vanilla Ice Cream vanilla
301 Nursery Ice Cream vanilla flavouring
301 Standard Mousse vanilla flavouring
301 Butterscotch Parfait vanilla flavouring
302 Three Fruit Mousse banana, lemon, orange
303 Lemon Water Ice lemon juice
304 Orange Water Ice orange rind, lemon juice
304 Raspberry Water Ice lemon juice
305 Hot Chocolate Fudge Sauce vanilla




Conclusion 2nd draft . . Go to Teacher's Comment


         It has been shown, in the earlier chapters, that the introduction of many innovations had changed the way fresh fruits were imported, and how it affected the British cookery. However, despite the available technology, there still are some notable character of British cuisine ? distilling. Distilling is a technology used to make distilled alcoholic beverages like Whisky or gin, but the thing this paper would like to focus on is the production of liquor. Liquor is distilled alcoholic extract of fruits or other ingredients. In the cases of fruits, the distilled products had much longer shelf life, and thus could be shipped more easily in bottled forms. Before the actual fruits could be imported, the distilled versions were one of the ways to bring flavor into many fruity dishes-at least in the continental Europe. Despite the availability of these liquors, British cuisine was timid into implementing them eagerly into their cookery. This was found to be one unique character of British cuisine in the early 1900's.
         It seems, that from a very early period in history, distilled liquor of various fruits were made available in Europe. Bols, the oldest distilling company in Europe, began its business in Amsterdam in 1575, and produced liquors of fruits like oranges. Distilling plants were located in Amsterdam, and in earlier years, because the general price of imported fruits like oranges were high, the price of distilled goods were maintained high. It would be around the 1800¡¯s, when the price or fruits was lowered that any of these fruity liquors could be thought of an ingredient of cookery. They were certainly not cheap, but when compared to the living versions, they could bring out the flavor in much small quantities. In the 1890's famous French dishes such as ¡®Grand Marnier souffl?¡¯, which implemented liquor as flavoring were widely known in European cookery. However, one strange thing remains ? none of the cookbooks invested has any presence of such liquor for flavor. Among more than 4000 recipes that were examined throughout 1850 to 1950, barely none of them had fruity alcoholics to bring out the flavor. Rather, simpler methods like rinds or juice were used. Because Bols and Grand Marnier both states that they have been exporting to Britain before the latter part of 19th century, the supply of these drinks were available at that time. It is simply that the British did not use them in cookery, but only for plain drinking purposes.

Conclusion
         In the context of analyzing the change of common British cuisine, this paper attempted to explore how such factors as the improvement of maritime technologies, improved canning and refrigeration, and the WWII altered the consumption conditions in British cuisine. In each of the factor, one common result was brought about ? that imported fresh fruits became more approachable for the public. At first, the imports of these fruits were extremely costly, with only few individual sailors bringing in few items for local consumption. The low supply kept the price high, enough for the general public to be unable to get access.
         The combination of geographical and ecological concerns made a fragile balance between the cost and profit of fresh fruit imports.
         But the prevalent flow of technological innovation reduced such costs to a considerable level, making the trade possible and profitable. Examining the specific cookbooks of the time gave clear ideas about the effects of such factors, all of which directed towards one location - diversification. Accordingly, more of non-indigenous fruits started to be used in common cookeries, and those that were uses as preservable forms, like dried lemon peels, started to be used in its natural, fresh forms; all because the import price were made affordable by new innovations.



Conclusion . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Conclusion
         In the context of analyzing the change of common British cuisine, this paper attempted to explore how such factors as the improvement of maritime technologies, improved canning and refrigeration, and the WWII altered the consumption conditions in British cuisine. In each of the factor, one common result was brought about ? that imported fresh fruits became more approachable for the public. The combination of geographical and ecological concerns made a fragile balance between the cost and profit of fresh fruit imports. But the prevalent flow of technological innovation reduced such costs to a considerable level, making the trade possible and profitable. Examining the specific cookbooks of the time gave clear ideas about the effects of such factors, all of which directed towards one location - diversification. Accordingly, more of nonindegenous fruits started to be used in common cookeries, and those that were uses as preservable forms, like dried lemon peels, started to be used in its natural, fresh forms; all because the import price were made affordable by new innovations.



The Change of British Cuisine in Relation to Fresh Fruit Trade . . Go to Teacher's Comment

The Change of British Cuisine in Relation to Fresh Fruit Trade
         To see the changes in British cuisine in relation to fresh fruits, we must first look at the economic aspects of the situation. The evolution of common cuisine, which in this paper is represented by ¡°the British cuisine¡± is similar to the pattern of change of real wage. As real wages rose, more money could be spent upon buying food - which meant people now began to care not just eating itself, but also what and how to eat. This is the core essence of the matter here. Thus, for fresh imported fruits to be accustomed into the British cookery, their price must be lowered to a considerable degree, either by means of reducing the cost in transportation or making the real wage greater. Usually, the former was much a greater factor, for rate of price falling was more significant than rise of real wages.
         To see what the cuisine was actually like, we need to take closer looks into the cookbooks of that time. But there is a catch - cookbooks must be chosen wisely to represent the general outline of cookery at that time. Several books, each from its own distinctive periods of the time gave ideas on what the people ate at that time. Mrs. Beeton¡¯s Shilling Cookery Book is a typical Victorian age cookbook. It was published in 1865, a year around which steamships were being started to be implemented. Thus, in an analysis with regards to steamship was necessary. First, there were in total of 40 recipes that included any ingredients such as lemon, rind of lemon, lemon juice, orange, vanilla, or any fresh fruits that had to be imported from abroad. Out of 600 recipes in the book, this number was somewhat small. Thus, although the price of individual fruits are not specifically mentioned, it can be easily deduced that the price of fresh fruits, or even its processed products had a high price level, seldom suitable in ¡°Shilling¡± cookery book. One interesting thing was that there were no sign of oranges in the entire recipe book. Again here, reasonable deductions had to be made. As stated earlier, both oranges and lemon are citrus fruits, and they have the relatively same sources - Spain in particular, and about the same lengths of shelf life. The difference here is thus not its supply, but rather its use. While lemon was used in a wide variety of usages, such as with fish or in desserts, oranges did not, when compared to that of lemons, have such wide usage. Until orange became cheaper, they would stay out of the common kitchen. This relation to price could be easily found in recipes that used lemon as well. While in modern cookery, we consider the use of lemon (or lemon juice) in fish recipes almost routine, the usage of lemon in this book was mainly confined to rind and peel. Juice was also used, but they were not juice that was juiced freshly, but rather processed juice sold commercially. Fresh lemon was seldom used. Among the total of 79 recipes that contained fish, only 4 of them used any traces of lemon. This was a quite different frequency compared to later recipes.
         Cassel¡¯s New Universal Cookery Book was also examined. With its publication date of 1894, it showed well what the British ate at the turn of the century. In here the number of entries having foreign fruit showed a sharp decline. Among more than 2000 recipes in the book, only 22 of them had traces of imported fresh fruit. Compared even with Mrs. Beeton, this is a very small number. However, this lack of entry was the characteristic of this cookbook. In fact, this book had the highest price and lowest price of imported fruits. This made it deducible that some imported fruits were made affordable by this time. Bananas had consumer price of 6d. to 1s. per dozen, which is a price quite lowered than the previous era. It was also noteworthy that this book included some extensive recipes of pineapples and bananas. This very fact well illustrates the notion that these fruits were made more accustomed to the public in general. There were about five recipes on banana alone, and for pineapples, there were six. By this time, melon and mango were introduced in British cuisine.
         Next is Good Housekeeping Invalid Cookery Book. This book was published in 1926, and it shows well the post-WWI and pre-WWII diet of the British people. This book showed great surge in both the number of recipes with imported fruits. It was perhaps the shortest of the books that were discussed so far, only 254 pages in total, but perhaps with the most prolific entries with imported fruits. In this stage of development, many new changes can be found. In fish dishes, a great number of them, if not the majority, use lemons, either in fresh form or in juice forms. The rate of which rinds and peels were used as substitutes of fresh lemon had been reduced. It seems that adding fresh lemon was a common practice in a typical British kitchen. It is even directly stated in the book, that "... among the most suitable flavorings is fresh lemon rind or juice ..." This statement shows that even rinds were made freshly from the fruit itself. Moreover, the use of vanilla is first observed here, mostly in essence form, but considering the fact that vanilla are best flavoring in essence, this condition could be understood. Even in modern cookery, we use vanilla essence more often than the pod itself. Oranges become more common, and a vast increase in dessert section is noteworthy. Starting from orangeade, tens of recipes with oranges are attributed to desserts. In the context of economics, this meant that people now could afford not just the meal itself, but rather on the sweet items that followed after a meal. The post WWI cuisine of Britain definitely diversified and expanded; the number of recipes with foreign produce increased, and the cooking methods started to care not only whether to eat or not, but also what and how to eat.
         Such increase in quality of food in the public sector was again boosted after the Second World War. If the impact of WWI was large, the impact of WWII was gigantic. In King Edward¡¯s Cookery Book, this impact is well depicted. In total of 319 pages, there were 190 entries that had fresh fruits as its ingredient. The book itself was published in 1950. Moreover, not only lemon but also oranges are used extensively in its fresh form. As stated earlier, the application of the newly advanced canning technologies are notable, More ingredients that are canned began to appear in some of its recipes. The recipe ¡°Pineapple Upside Down Pudding¡±, for the first time in all the examined cookbooks, has ¡°tinned pineapple¡± as its ingredient. With the war efforts, during which virtually all food had to be imported from abroad, the canning methods had drastically evolved, to a level which made its price considerably low. Everything from eggs to pineapples was canned, and this accumulated know-how during the war times helped in distributing canned goods throughout the public. Through improved transportations of the WWII, new kinds of fresh fruits are visible in the recipes. Tangerines and cocoanuts are examples that could not be seen in any of the previous books. While fruit ingredients that appeared still remained - such includes lemon rind and dried lemon peel ? their position grew smaller, and gave ways to new and diversified imports.



Notes
(19) Peter N Davies, Fyffes and the Banana, (1990), p.168



Cooling and Refrigeration; Their Effects on Tropical Fruits Trade in Britain . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Cooling and Refrigeration; Their Effects on Tropical Fruits Trade in Britain
         In the previous chapters, we¡¯ve looked through the impact of canning and maritime technologies in the development of British tropical fruit market, and we¡¯ve also seen that their impact had considerable dedications in the formation of market. Same kind of contribution can also be found on the new cooling and refrigeration technologies. The first refrigeration goes as far back as 1756, when William Cullen at the University of Glasgow in Scotland made an elementary method of obtaining cold temperatures through artificial means. However, it was in the 1820's that British scientist Michael Faraday made possible the obtaining of liquefied ammonia that true 'refrigeration' could be made a reality. By the late 1800's refrigeration technologies were beginning to be used for the transportation of meat products into Britain, from places such as Argentina and New Zealand.
         Attempts to carry tropical fruits were almost always made by the merchants, but its stability and reliability were hampered by the pace of ripening, the greatness in distance, and the lack of speed in methods of transportation. In some parts of North America, one of these factors, distance, was relatively less severe, and even with sailing vessels, merchants were able to ship tropical fruits like banana from Jamaica from as early as 1870s. It was comparably easier to transport bananas from Jamaica to Florida, than to transport them from the Canaries or Azores to London or Liverpool. Sailing vessels, as stated earlier, however were capable of transporting dried fruits and those fruits with long shelf life. By far the most among them was the citrus, and in 1854, it was documented that "... sixty million oranges were imported for the London market alone, and some fifteen million lemons ..." However, despite this significant number of imports, oranges were still considered as "winter luxuries" (Davis, 65). There were also the imports of other trade fruits, like pineapple and melons. Until this time, refrigeration of fruits was not implemented.
         After the primitive forms of refrigeration became available, they soon were used extensively, especially for carrying long-distance cargoes. In 1874, the first test of carrying meat over long distance was conducted, during which, with the use of natural ice, meat was able to be transported between US and Britain. Progress soon followed. In 1877, Frigorifique started to carry its regular cargoes of meat from Argentina to Britain, and in 1880, the very first shipment of mutton from Australia arrived in London. It showed that with the technical difficulties overcome, the meat market could digest a large quantity of imported frozen meat. However, it is notable that the carrying of live cargoes, that is to say living as in the case of fresh fruits, and dead cargoes, exemplified by meat, took different methods in transportation. Fruits and vegetables required separate mode of treatment during its long oceanic voyages. With living cargoes, the point is not to freeze them to an extent of death. Rather, because they continue to ripen and breathe, the task is to slow down this process to a considerable extent, so that they would still remain fresh in their destinations. In the cases of dead cargoes, meat had to be stored in much lower temperature to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Thus the fact that meat was safely transported over long distances does not directly indicates the availability of tropical fruits to be transported. It took several attempts to formulate the necessary procedures of transporting refrigerated fruits. In February of 1889, a cooling chamber was installed on the RMS Grantully Castle, and in Cape, about fifteen tons of grapes were loaded into this chamber. But, for couple of reasons this shipment did not arrive in London in good conditions. The temperatures were kept too cold for fruits, and the wrong kinds of grapes were chosen for shipments. (Davis 68)
         However, the fact that meat was able to be transported opened up a new array of possibilities for the transportation of fruits as well. This meant that technology was developed to a feasible point, and the experimental voyages soon resulted in the emergence of many new origins of overseas fruits and vegetables. Among such new sources was the Canary Island. Before, the islands were lacking in facilities so that no major attempts were made to commercially export its immense fruit products. However, with this solved, the Canary Islands exports of bananas and other fruits soared. One interesting thing is that because there were virtually no wood in the Canary Island, the wooded cartons used to ship fruits had to be bought from Norway, to be reassembled by the laborers in the island. They were mostly female workers. A similar type of development was taken in Madeira as well. Especially in the Canary, governmental efforts were conducted to foster the banana industry. The following table illustrates the point well.

Table 2. Canary Islands Exports, 1897 - 1902 (5)

year bananas oranges potatoes tomatoes
1897-1898 660,461 8,456 111,241 399,004
1898-1899 783,418 13,389 155,241 492,075
1899-1900 1,044,630 8,526 110,396 341,136
1900-1901 1,208,596 14,401 169,563 458,119
1901-1902 1,597,616 8,505 224,267 414,859


         As can be seen, the export of bananas from the Canary Island grew from 66,461 in 1897 ? 1898, to some 1,197,616 in 1901 ? 1902. In contrast with the export of oranges, which stayed within about the same range, though showing some fluctuations, the growth of banana export is phenomenal. It can be deduced that the Canary Islands, with its cheap labor, and rights of free importation of artificial manure, took the upper hand in exporting the fruit to Britain. In the mid 1890's, Madeira was reported to have exported some 30,000 bunches of bananas a year, and along with the Canary Islands made almost all of bananas going into Britain. By the 1890, with the adequate cooling facilities that delayed the natural ripening process of the plants, bananas were successfully transported over long distances. Thus, the second wave of imports of tropical fruits was done at least in the 1890¡¯s when cooling technologies were used to transport them. In the British cookbooks of 1964, Mrs. Beeton¡¯s Shilling Cookery Book, no entry except the ones containing citrus appears. There are no mentioning of banana nor pineapples. However, only about 30 years later, in Cassel¡¯s New Universal Cookery Book, many entries including bananas, melons, and pineapples appear, and in the case of banana, even the best deal price is mentioned. Thus, although the reason is not directly stated, it can be easily deduced that the cooling technologies had a profound impact upon the import of tropical fruits into Britain.



Cooling and Refrigeration; Their Effects on Tropical Fruits Trade in Britain . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Cooling and Refrigeration; Their Effects on Tropical Fruits Trade in Britain
         Although better steamships and canning made transporting of tropical fruits possible, the cargoes of fresh fruits still were unable to be transported to Britain. In the US, fruits such as bananas were regularly transported to its southern region by sailing ships, since it only took couple of days even with primitive technologies to transport them from the Caribbean islands to the US market, with New Orleans in its center of fruit trade. However, in the case of Britain, it was much harder to make such successful networks because the distance simply was too great. Even considering the time of on-board ripening the fruits would perish, and its selling price below profit. Thus it was only the citrus fruits, which, with its protective thick peels, had longer shelf life, that were imported with greater ease.



The Development of Canning Technologies and its Impact . . Go to Teacher's Comment

The Development of Canning Technologies and its Impact
         It was first the French to invent canning technologies in its Napoleonic Wars to feed its soldiers. However, this method preserving food without spoilage soon spread to the rest of the world. Today, canned food is a crucial method of food preservation in a wide range our society, but it was not until the 1860¡¯s that this method became effective. Historically, canning in Britain was brought about by Peter Durand, who built upon the French method, in 1810, when he developed a process of packaging food in air-tight iron cans. At this time, canning was far from commercial. It took over six hours to cook the food contained inside, and to make the matter worse, each can had to be sealed manually. Thus prior to the mid 1800's canned food was beyond the reach of common people. It was the above middle class that could afford to buy canned food, and it soon became a symbol of middle-class status all across Europe. And, canning had insignificant effect upon the British cuisine, and even in English cookbooks of 1865, canned food almost does not appear.
         The point most poignant in this case would be the lack of both demand and supply on canned goods. Prior to the subsequent rise of real wages in the British working class, canned goods were produced in a local level, especially in each household. At the time, canning included a variety of preserving food, which included jarring and pickling of fruits and vegetables, and it was these "canning" that most of British households relied upon. In the beginning of commercial canning industry, glass jars were the predominant medium, but they soon were replaced by tin cans, which were far easier in production and transportation. These methods implemented glass jars with cork sealing, but compared to the canned goods (in today¡¯s concepts), they were both less in nutritional and preservation values. However, modern concept of preserved cans were not so popular within the British society, even after the development of technology. The inadequate making methods, which held production to virtually a standstill (it took some 6 hours to cook a can), was a no favorable preconditions that could enable a mass production of canned goods. Around 1850's canned goods which included fruits like peaches, and other food like tomato and peas were available, but they were so large that they needed to be carried in wheelbarrow, and often had to be opened with hammer.
         With the development of time-reducing methods of producing canned food in 1860¡¯s the situation got a lot more favorable, but not completely. Canned goods still were economically inadequate, and it was not until the coming of the First World Wars that canned food was popularized. Thus, by the 1930's canned foodstuff were implemented to British households with cheaper prices and carriable sizes. However, in fruits, especially the tropical ones, the cases were not the same, and they were often considered not as a primary listings of foods to be canned. Thus, although canning was well under way by the mid 1930's, canned tropical fruits were popular well into the 1940s. In A Concise Encyclopedia of Gastronomy published in 1942, it is stated:

         ¡¦ Pineapples are tinned or canned, whole or in chinks or slices to an ever-growing extent, for export and for use at any time of the year either in fruit salads and in their own juice, or else in tarts, puddings, fritters and many other ¡®Sweet¡¯ forms¡¦.

         A Concise Encyclopedia of Gastronomy then gives several recipes that have canned pineapples, but in the earlier cookbooks, none of recipes that has canned pineapples does appear. Because in earlier cookbooks recipes with raw pineapples does appear, (Cassel, 1136) it would be logical to conclude that the raw fruit was available in the market as early as late 1800's but its price, which would be the key determining factor in an ingredient¡¯s popular appeal, was set up above the affordable line of most people. In the 1890's one recorded of price of pineapples are 1s. 6d. to 2s. 6d.(Cassel, 1137), but it is explicitly stated that "¡¦ they may be sliced and whole, and are admirably adapted for first-class dishes¡¦", which accounts for the nature of the fruit¡¯s consumption in England before they became popular.



Working Table of Contents . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Abstract
Introduction
Background: before 1850
Improved Maritime Technology and British Fruit Imports
The Development of Canning Technologies and its Impact
Cooling and Refrigeration; Their Effects on Tropical Fruits Trade in Britain
Conclusion
(this table may be changed later)



Appendix : Historic Recipes using Exotic Food . . . go to Teacher's comment

Cassell's New Universal Cookery Book (1894)

page recipe ingredients
1102 apple jam lemon juice
1105 apples in whisky lemon
1109 banana, or plantain 6d. to 1s. per dozen when plentiful; sometimes 1s. 6d to 2s. per dozen
bananas, compote of
bababas, puree of
bananas in surprise
1125 guava, jelly, imitation of, or English guava
lemons cost about 6d. Per pound
1128 mango used in chutneys
1129 melon it is said, that the best melons are good by itself
1136 pineapple, grated
pineapple jam
pineapple marmalade
pineapple parings
pineapple preserved in syrup
tomato jam, yellow american
tomato jelly




Working Table of Contents . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Abstract
Introduction
Background: before 1850
Improved Maritime Technology and British Fruit Imports
British Cuisine in the 1800's
British Cuisine in the 1900's
Conclusion
(this table may be changed later)



Chapter 3.1 1st draft . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Background: before 1850
         Although many countries import various food products from outside these days, in the earlier times this was not the same. Before the arrival of the industrial revolution, most European states relied on self-supporting methods of acquiring food. Those food items that were imported from abroad were mostly traded within Europe, and only in rare cases like spice and nuts, were they shipped on a truly "international" trade route. England before the industrial revolution imported most of its grain need from the fertile plains of France and Hungary. There of course had been very small quantities of importation of fresh fruit from abroad, for example, the first shipment of fresh banana in England was documented to be in the year 1633, but to common people, that is to say, the working class, the price of imported fresh fruits remained so high that it was virtually not affordable for them.
         In this backdrop, the one most significant factor in lowing the price was to lower the cost of transportation. With the pre-modern sailing ships of the 1500s to 1600s, the Carracks and the Galleons were too small or too slow to transport fresh food products from abroad. It is widely known that the Spanish frequently used galleons as the main route of shipment from their New World colonies, but the items transported then were not fresh food, but rather items like silver that did not give much about transportation time. To exemplify, the Argentinean Pampas region, widely known its cow herding, exported hide rather than the meat; the meat was left for local consumption and the hide were exported due to lack of methods to transport the meat freshly. This stalemate could only be broken by the introduction of new technologies of transportation, notably steam ships and railroad.
         The significance that England holds is its special place during the era of industrialization. There were good reasons that the British were able to import the fruits the earliest among its European rivals. It was because of the great amount of British colonies at the time. With the defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588, Britain became one of the strongest maritime forces at that time. Defeating its rival, the Dutch, made them the sole ruler. It was with this strength that Britain was able to colonize a vast amount of land all around the world. By 1850 the British Empire had its influence on virtually all parts of the world, starting from India to Canada. This vast Empire made possible the good flow of raw material to the British isles, making industrialization easier. Another factor is that the ever growing number of British population, since the industrialization increased the demand for new food products, notable fruits. As Britain emerged as "the first industrialized nation", its population increased triple amount than before, and this combination of industrialization and population growth made it ever more paramount for British to be dependent upon foreign food imports.
         The end results brought from the two factors was that British no longer needed to depend upon food imports from other European nations, notably France. Until the 1850, British grain imports were mainly from France, Russian, and the Baltic regions, but around 1900, more than 87 per cent of them were from outside Europe (Davies, 10). Following next to this trend was the rise of real wages among the working class. Such rise brought about the change in the dietary habits within them, and the consequence was that fewer families were obliged to depend of simple diet, mainly on potatoes. With the increased real wages, they now could demand on the market fish, meat, green vegetables, and fruit. This demand was met to some degrees by the increase of domestic productions, in the case of fresh fruit, in areas such as Kent, the Vale of Evesham (Davies, 11). However, such reinforcement in fruit supply was limited to the fruits that could be grown in British soil and climate. What could not be grown, had to be imported from abroad. Much of the additional demand had to be filled from abroad.
         The importation of fruit into Britain has two separate and distinct origins. First is dried fruit, and the latter is fresh fruit. Dried fruit, mainly currants, dates and figs had been recognized to have good keeping qualities, for they posed no difficulties in shipping long distances even by some of the most primitive methods. However, the very small scale of this trade should be kept in mind, for it has been estimated that the capacity of shipping required to cater for these imports from southern Europe and turkey only amounted to 8 or 9 thousand tons per year in the first half of the eighteenth century (Davies, 11). By the mid 1850s, this situation began to change, as real wages rose and demand for different kinds of fruit surmounted. The festive mood of Christmas ever more increased the seasonal demand for dried fruits imports, and items like currents and raisins from Malaga grew more and more popular.
         However, fresh fruit was of different matter. But the imports of orange and lemons were of some peculiar characteristics, for they had "longer shelf life" and other fresh fruits. Thus, without the help of the modern transportation technology, it was possible to import them in considerable quantities. Thus it became affordable for the commoners to get access to those fruits earlier than to other fruits. Although the most common ways of giving a taste of lemon or orange for most British familiar cookery was by adding dried peels or juice, it is notable to see this exception in fresh fruit imports. In British cookbooks for common people of 1865, several entries that contains "lemon flavoring" and "rind of lemon" appear. At first, the trade of these items were dominated mainly by the southern European region, but as time passed on Spain became the dominant supplier of orange and Sicily emerged as the principal source of lemons. Davies notes that, "According to the letterbook of a Liverpool merchant, Thomas Leyland, he obtained most of his 'China oranges' and 'sour oranges¡¯ from Seville. He also imported oranges from St. Michaels in the Azores and attempted to bring in lemons from Portugal." With the imports of other fruits, such as apples and pears, France was always the principal supplier of them. Keep in mind that the import of "tropical" or "exotic" fruits at that time were quite limited. The following table illustrates this point well.

Table 1. Imports of Fruits and Vegetables into Grat Britain and Ireland in 1840 (2)

Item Amount Value (Pound Sterling)
Almonds 22,097 cwt. 86,211
Apple 33,627
Cherries 211
Dates 985 cwt. 2,446
Figs 30,093 cwt.. 42,444
Unenumerated fruit 2,665
Grapes 32,108
Nutmegs 113.193 lb. 20,987
Coconuts 4,486
Chestnuts 25,124 bushels 8,793
Smallnuts 82,795 bushels 23,978
Walnuts 33,084 bushels 8,271
Onions 15,152 bushels 3,409
Oranges & Lemons 26,752 boxes 150,137
Pears 265
Plums 21,873
Potatoes 545,744 cwt. 109,206
Raisins 178,116 cwt. 238,230


         As can be seen from the table above, the import of "exotic" fruits are not even listed under an individual category. They are simply listed, "Unenumerated fruit", and their import, which is basically the combine of ALL the imports of exotic fruits, are considerably little. This little amount were imported for the sales to the higher classes of the society, not the common people. The import price in 1840 for these fruits were high, as mentioned earlier, thus it was only the upper class who could afford them. Note that the reason for such small imports in pears and cherries is that they were easily grown in Britain, hence reducing the needed imports to satisfy the demands.

Improved Maritime Technology and British Fruit Imports
         As mentioned in previous chapter, the single most important aspect in determining the public¡¯s usage of tropical fruits was the cost. In the earlier times, before 1800's that is, transportation was mainly done by sailing ships, which took great influence from the prevailing winds and ocean currents. The ships thus needed to in some cases circumnavigate from the shortest route by distance in order to take advantage of currents and winds. An example would be the route from Europe to Americas. Although the shortest way by distance is to take the trans-Atlantic way from the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula, but most sailing ships took the way through the coast of Africa, where the winds blew more favorable. Thus, it was under these circumstances that the ships were obliged to not take the shortest way, and it was not until the age of steamships that cargo ships could take the more straightforward way.
         From about 1825 to 1875, sailing ships built for speed was used to carry the cargoes in international trade. These ships were constructed swift and light to gain maximum speed from the wind. Thus tonnage fell secondary to agility. They usually fell in the 80 to 160 tons category. In the height of their times, it is estimated that more than 300 of them were in service. These vessels were employed on routes from Spain, the Mediterranean, the Azores or, in some cases, the West Indies. Despite their advantages in speed, their size and carrying capacity made the sailing types of vessel less and less favorable for oceanic trade. In the case of fruits, this was the same, and in the case of more perishable types of fruit, they were not suitable either. It was fortunate, that a new type of ships began to emerge. The coal-driven steamers soon came to replace the wooden sailing ships, but at first these steamers were seem less favorable than their predecessors. In the earlier half of the 1800's, when steamers first began to appear ? in fact it was in 1807 that the first true steamship was used commercially ? their technology was far from profitable for long distance journeys. At this level, their locomotive systems had to be supported with far too much coal, and as they were still relatively unreliable, they were unsuitable for long distance travels. Many of the record journeys of the early 1800's were conducted with the aid of both sail and steam engine. One example of such would be the Savannah's New York to St Petersburg in 1819.
         Thus, to break through this situation, efforts to improve on the efficiency of the ocean-going steamers were conducted. Such development first began with the advancement in the construction and design of the hull. This progress came about with the coming of better methods to treat iron to acquire quality steel. Until then, when iron was used in shipbuilding, it was mostly applied as reinforcing sidings to the wooden ships. Iron, it seemed, was too brittle and heavier than wood to be made suitable for oceanic voyages. Early steamers worked as tugboats or ferries in rivers or canals. However, there existed two critical points that propelled researchers to work on metal ships. The first was greater tensile strength of iron over wood. Despite iron's heavier weight to that of the wood's, such character made possible to build larger ships with far less thickness than wood. Thus in total, iron ships weighed approximately 25 % less than the same capacity wooden ships, so the ships could carry far more cargo without losing her buoyancy (Davis, 17). The second character was the limit to a ships size in regards to its building materials. The structural limit of a western wooden ship was 300 feet. However there was practically no restriction on the size of a steel ship, except for the buyer's ability to pay for the construction of such large ships. The advancement in enine performance were also completed around this time. The compound engine, in which the steam is expanded to generate power in two separate steps, made possible to get higher boiler pressure, even with reduced coal consumption. To simply put it, compound steam engines became stronger. Therefore these characters made inevitable for inventing more efficient metallic ships that were equipped with steam engines. It was in the 1880 that Britain's steam tonnage matched up with sailing tonnage.
         However, despite these new maritime techniques, apart from the import of orange and lemon from Spain, buying of fruit from the tropics did not show significant increase in this era. Little impact was done to British fruit business, which was probably more significantly affected by railroad or other factors. Most of all, tropical fruit, at that time, fell short in importance compared to other items. The increase in demand in products like meat, was greater than tropical fruits like bananas, thus for a considerable time the fresh fruit imports remained about the same. In 1840, during which there were virtually no imports of meat, in 1887, it increased to 700,000 tons. Furthermore, the provision of cheaper and faster overseas shipping ensured larger greater amount of traditionally imported crops to be brought in. The cargoes of soft fruits were then used to fill the gap between demand and domestic supplies. We can look into Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol, first published in 1843, to get some insights into the public demands on fruits at that time. In his story, he shows a vivid display of what kinds of fruits were sole in the peak of seasonal demand. Notable is that fruits like apple, pear, oranges and lemon were often mentioned, but there were no mentioning of any "exotic" kinds of fruits from the tropics, such as bananas or mangos. It would take another half a century for the tropical fruits to become popular among the commoners.
         Before the steamship era, still, some tropical fruits, notably bananas, were already known in England. This was due to the works of individual sailors, who purchased tropical fruits on small scales to sell back at home. Such individual sailors carried tropical fruit trade in a very small scale, which ensured that the price stayed very high and supplies hopelessly low. These first few came with the opening of trade with Africa, which caused a number of ships returning to England to stop by at either the Canary Island or Madeira. These stops were usually conducted to acquire supplies, but once in port, individual sailors bought several items on small scales to make own profits. Thus although the London market was provided with occasional fruity luxuries, it lacked the quantity and scale to be made into a formal business. Until the mid 1800's there was no organized trade of bananas in England. This situation remained virtually the same, even when regular steamship service began to operate between Liverpool and West Africa in 1853. For the fruit traders, there was no reason to carry perishable fruits from some long 2000 miles to England, when they could simply buy the long-lasting citrus fruits with considerable success. With the reference to the records of the s.s. Faith which made stops at both Madeira and Tenerife on her returning journey to England. This record writes that although bananas at that time were available on these two spots, only lemons were picked up. Davis writes that one plausible explanation would be due to the such primitive facilities in harbors at those places, which made it unattractive for larger ships capable conducting regular trade.

Notes :
(1)      Mrs. Beeton¡¯s Shilling Cookery Book, see bibliography for details
(2)      Reynolds, The Banana, p. 11



Chapter 3.2 2nd draft . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Background: 1850 to 1970
         Although many countries import various food products from outside these days, in the earlier times this was not the same. Before the arrival of the industrial revolution, most European states relied on self-supporting methods of acquiring food. Those food items that were imported from abroad were mostly traded within Europe, and only in rare cases like spice and nuts, were they shipped on a truly "international" trade route. England before the industrial revolution imported most of its grain need from the fertile plains of France and Hungary. There of course had been very small quantities of importation of fresh fruit from abroad, for example, the first shipment of fresh banana in England was documented to be in the year 1633, but to common people, that is to say, the working class, the price of imported fresh fruits remained so high that it was virtually not affordable for them.
         In this backdrop, the one most significant factor in lowing the price was to lower the cost of transportation. With the pre-modern sailing ships of the 1500s to 1600s, the Carracks and the Galleons were too small or too slow to transport fresh food products from abroad. It is widely known that the Spanish frequently used galleons as the main route of shipment from their New World colonies, but the items transported then were not fresh food, but rather items like silver that did not give much about transportation time. To exemplify, the Argentinean Pampas region, widely known its cow herding, exported hide rather than the meat; the meat was left for local consumption and the hide were exported due to lack of methods to transport the meat freshly. This stalemate could only be broken by the introduction of new technologies of transportation, notably steam ships and railroad.
         The significance that England holds is its special place during the era of industrialization. There were good reasons that the British were able to import the fruits the earliest among its European rivals. It was because of the great amount of British colonies at the time. With the defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588, Britain became one of the strongest maritime forces at that time. Defeating its rival, the Dutch, made them the sole ruler. It was with this strength that Britain was able to colonize a vast amount of land all around the world. By 1850 the British Empire had its influence on virtually all parts of the world, starting from India to Canada. This vast Empire made possible the good flow of raw material to the British isles, making industrilazation easier. Another factor is that the ever growing number of British population, since the industrializaition increased the demand for new food products, notable fruits. As Britain emerged as "the first industrialized nation", its population increased triple amount than before, and this combination of industrialization and population growth made it ever more paramount for British to be dependent upon foreign food imports.
         The end results brought from the two factors was that British no longer needed to depend upon food imports from other European nations, notably France. Until the 1850, British grain imports were mainly from France, Russian, and the Baltic regions, but around 1900, more than 87 per cent of them were from outside Europe (Davies, 10). Following next to this trend was the rise of real wages among the working class. Such rise brought about the change in the dietary habits within them, and the consequence was that fewer families were obliged to depend of simple diet, mainly on potatoes. With the increased real wages, they now could demand on the market fish, meat, green vegetables, and fruit. This demand was met to some degrees by the increase of domestic productions, in the case of fresh fruit, in areas such as Kent, the Vale of Evesham (Davies, 11). However, such reinforcement in fruit supply was limited to the fruits that could be grown in British soil and climate. What could not be grown, had to be imported from abroad. Much of the additional demand had to be filled from abroad.
         The importation of fruit into Britain has two separate and distinct origins. First is dried fruit, and the latter is fresh fruit. Dried fruit, mainly currants, dates and figs had been recognized to have good keeping qualities, for they posed no difficulties in shipping long distances even by some of the most primitive methods. However, the very small scale of this trade should be kept in mind, for it has been estimated that the capacity of shipping required to cater for these imports from southern Europe and turkey only amounted to 8 or 9 thousand tons per year in the first half of the eighteenth century (Davies, 11). By the mid 1850s, this situation began to change, as real wages rose and demand for different kinds of fruit surmounted. The festive mood of Christmas ever more increased the seasonal demand for dried fruits imports, and items like currents and raisins from Malaga grew more and more popular.
         However, fresh fruit was of different matter. But the imports of orange and lemons were of some peculiar characteristics, for they had "longer shelf life" and other fresh fruits. Thus, without the help of the modern transportation technology, it was possible to import them in considerable quantities. Thus it became affordable for the commoners to get access to those fruits earlier than to other fruits. Although the most common ways of giving a taste of lemon or orange for most British familiar cookery was by adding dried peels or juice, it is notable to see this exception in fresh fruit imports. In British cookbooks for common people of 1865 (1), several entries that contain "lemon flavoring" and "rind of lemon" appear. At first, the trade of these items were dominated mainly by the southern European region, but as time passed on Spain became the dominant supplier of orange and Sicily emerged as the principal source of lemons. Davies notes that, "According to the letterbookf of a Liverpool merchant, Thomas Leyland, he obtained most of his 'China oranges' and 'sour oranges' from Seville. He also imported oranges from St. Michaels in the Azores and attempted to bring in lemons from Portugal." With the imports of other fruits, such as apples and pears, France was always the principal supplier of them. Keep in mind that the import of "tropical" or "exotic" fruits at that time were quite limited. The following table illustrates this point well.

Table 1. Imports of Fruits and Vegetables into Grat Britain and Ireland in 1840 (2)

Item Amount Value (Pound Sterling)
Almonds 22,097 cwt. 86,211
Apple 33,627
Cherries 211
Dates 985 cwt. 2,446
Figs 30,093 cwt.. 42,444
Unenumerated fruit 2,665
Grapes 32,108
Nutmegs 113.193 lb. 20,987
Coconuts 4,486
Chestnuts 25,124 bushels 8,793
Smallnuts 82,795 bushels 23,978
Walnuts 33,084 bushels 8,271
Onions 15,152 bushels 3,409
Oranges & Lemons 26,752 boxes 150,137
Pears 265
Plums 21,873
Potatoes 545,744 cwt. 109,206
Raisins 178,116 cwt. 238,230


         As can be seen from the table above, the import of "exotic" fruits are not even listed under an individual category. They are simply listed, "Unenumerated fruit", and their import, which is basically the combine of ALL the imports of exotic fruits, are considerably little. This little amount were imported for the sales to the higher classes of the society, not the common people. The import price in 1840 for these fruits were high, as mentioned earlier, thus it was only the upper class who could afford them. Note that the reason for such small imports in pears and cherries is that they were easily grown in Britain, hence reducing the needed imports to satisfy the demands.

The Impact of Improved Maritime Technology in British Fruit Imports

Notes :

(1)   :  : Mrs. Beeton¡¯s Shilling Cookery Book, see bibliography for details
(2)   :  : Reynolds, The Banana, p. 11




Appendix : Historic Recipes using Exotic Food . . . go to Teacher's comment

Mrs Beeton's Shilling Cookery Book (1865)

page recipe ingredients
131 Boiled Apple Pudding minced lemon peel, lemon juice,
132 Apple Tart or Pie minced lemon peel, lemon juice,
132 Creamed Apple Tart minced lemon peel, lemon juice,
132 Baked or Boiled Arrowroot Pudding rind of lemon,
133 Aunt Nelly's Pudding rind of lemon, lemon juice, candied lemon peel
133 A Bachelor's Pudding essence of lemon
133 Baroness's Pudding raisins
134 Baked Bread-and-Butter pudding flavouring of vanilla, grated lemon peel
135 Canary Pudding rind of lemon
136 Baked Custard Pudding rind of lemon
137 Delhi Pudding minced lemon peel
137 Folkstone Pudding-Pies flavouring of lemon peel
138 Baked Lemon Pudding lemon
138 Boiled Lemon Pudding lemon
139 Plain Lemon Pudding lemon juice
139 Manchester Pudding strip of lemon peel
139 Military Pudding rind and juice of lemon
139 Mincemeat juice of lemon
139 Paradise Pudding rind of lemon
141 An Excellent Plum-Pudding candied lemon peel
141 Quickly Made Pudding grated lemon rind
142 Baked Rice Pudding rind of lemon
143 Baked or Boiled Ground Rice Pudding flavouring of lemon rind
143 Sago Pudding rind of lemon
144 Tapioca Pudding flavouring of Vanilla, grated lemon peel
145 Arrowroot Sause for Puddings juice of lemon
145 Lemon Souce for Sweet Puddings rind of lemon, juice of lemon
145 Sweet Sauce for Pudding flavouring of grated lemon rind
145 Wine Sauce for Puddings teaspoonful of lemon peel
147 Baked Apple Custard grated rind of lemon
147 Thick Apple Jelly or Marmalade minced lemon peel



Chapter 3.2 . . Go to Teacher's Comment

III. Import of various food product before the Victorian era

         Throughout British history, many foreign fruits have been imported into the country to affect the diet of the people. Many fruits and vegetables have been imported by people, and since the Island obviously did not have a diverse natural environment than its continental counterpart, its inhabitants, before the import of the food products, had relatively simple diet. Almost all known fruits and vegetables were introduced to British island by people of different era. Even the most basic and common fruit, the apple were not native to Britain. They were introduced during the Roman era, when they occupied the island as their northern most part of their empire. One of the most fundamental parts of early introduction of fruit is that the fruits that were imported were able to grown in British soil. Thus, the problems associated with transportation was significantly reduced, for bringing seed to the country was much easier than bringing the entire fruit which might rot and go bad.
         It is also notable that even with the introduction of the fruits, the common people were not able to get access to it, because the prices were set too high, so that only the rich could afford. One example is the banana. Grown first in southeastern Asia, the fruit spread to various parts of the world, first to India than to parts of Africa. However, it was not until the year 1633 that the first recorded sale of banana appears in England. Even with this firs sale of bananas, the common people were not able to pay the high price for the tropical fruit. Only the highest classes could afford them. Bananas remained rare and expensive fruit until the end of 19th century, where they begins to appear in cookbooks and recipes


Working Table of Contents . . Go to Teacher's Comment

I. Abstract
II. Introduction
III. Import of various food product before the Victorian era
IV. Manipulation of terror on Allied command
V. Tropical Fruit in Victorian Era
VI. Tropical Fruit in World Wars
VII. Tropical Fruit in Modern World
VIII. Conclusion Notes
Bibliography


Bibliography . . Go to Teacher's Comment

Mrs Beeton's Shilling Cookery Book (The Englishwoman's Cookery Book) - 1865
Cassel's New Universal Cookery Book - 1894
King Edward's Cookery Book - 1904
Good Housekeeping Invalid Cookery Book - 1926
A Concise Encyclopedia of Gastronomy Section V Fruit - 1946
The Encyclopedia of World Cookery - 1958
Warne's Everyday Cookery - 1959
Mr. Them's Encyclopedia of Vegetable Cookery : Volume I Cabbage and Things - 1959 Universal Cookery Book - 1968
1000 Recipe CookBook - 1979