Back to WHKMLA Main Index . WHKMLA, Students' Papers Main Page . WHKMLA, Students' Papers, 12th Wave Index Page

The Changing View of Confucius in Chinese History
From Ancient China to Communist China

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Ko, Young Kun
Term Paper, AP World History Class, June 2009

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
II. Zhou Dynasty - The Origin of Confucianism
III. Qin
IV. Chu-Han Contention
V. Confucian state
V.1 Han
V.2 Post-Han
VI. Neo-Confucianism
VII. Modernization of China - Dramatic Change of the View of Confucius
VII.1 Taiping Rebellion
VII.2 Hundred Days of Reform
VII.3 Boxer Rebellion
VII.4 Xinhai Revolution (1911)
VIII. Cultural Revolution
IX. Conclusion
VI. Notes
VII. Bibliography

I. Introduction
            Confucius, a well-known Chinese philosopher, even to the west, has been the man of controversy ever since his death. The opinion on his philosophy has altered throughout the Chinese history. Borrowing the terminology by Thomas Kuhn, the "Paradigm" of each era had differing evaluation on the Confucius and his writings. Furthermore, since Chinese history was frequently marked by eras of political turmoil and coups, leading aristocrats were also frequently shifted, in terms of race, family, class. For example, during Yuan dynasty, China was under the rule of the Kublai Kahn, the grandson of famous Genghis Kahn. Han Chinese, who were the ruling race of former Song dynasty, were treated as the lowest class in Yuan class system. Such conversion was often led by the shift of view on Confucianism, a philosophy that lasted and ruled in East Asia for more than two millenniums.

II. Zhou Dynasty - The Origin of Confucianism
            Confucius was born in the time of political turmoil, known as Spring and Autumn Period, a period when several big feudal lords fought for more political power. Although Zhou Dynasty was still present with the emperor as the central figure, the central government was not powerful enough to actually control large landlords. Lords who were powerful enough to become independent even started to proclaim themselves as kings (Wang) instead of lords (Gong), establishing kingdoms within Zhou Dynasty, such as Qi, Chu, Jin, Qin, Yue, Wu and Song. These kingdoms fought and allied each other for the political unification under their own states.
            To earn hegemony over the Zhongyuan, which is a term describing the mainland China, states not only raised great armies, they also invited prominent philosophers to lecture and rule as an aristocrat, even from other states. Rulers invested huge amounts of gold to invite and receive famous philosophers. With such investment, prominent philosophers started to rise statewide, forming so-called Hundred Schools of Thought (Zhuzobaijia). Out of numerous schools, mainly six schools are famous for their influences on history: Confucianism (rujia), Legalism (fajia), Taoism (daojia), Mohism (mojia), School of Yin and Yang (yinyangjia) and Logician (mingjia). A small, but influential school was School of Military (bingjia), which is famous for its Art of War written by Sun Tzu (Sunzi). Philosophers following certain school would travel across China to find a ruler who could utilize his thoughts to real politics and bring peace.
            According to a record by Sima Qian, the father of Chinese historiography, Confucius was born in the state of Lu, a small state compared to above mentioned states, located in today's Shandong province, China. He started career as a low clerk for Lu, managing sheep, and cows for the state of Lu. In the age of 53, for his high work performances, he became a high official. The state of Qi, however, feared that Lu was getting stronger because of Confucius, and sent beautiful women to the king of Lu to stay away from the politics and lead to corruption. Confucius, dissatisfied the king, resigned his position and left for a journey around China, which is known as Zhouyoulieguo. The philosophy of Confucius was shaped during this journey, in which he lectured several rulers about how to make their own states stronger. He also had thousands of students who spread his teachings to all over China, protected him throughout his journey and even recorded his teachings as a book called the Analects.
            After Confucius death, Confucius still developed with notable philosophers such as Mencius (Mengzi) and Xun zi. These two philosophers continued with their own philosophies, though Mencius' is considered as orthodox Confucianism. Xun zi, though a Confucian, rather influenced Legalism, which is actually the philosophy that succeeded in uniting China. Moreover, students following Confucius spread and became aristocrats in some prominent states. The state of Lu, the birthplace of Confucius, eventually became the center of Confucianism and was full of Ruzi, a term for the student of Confucianism. The state of Qi, just north of Lu, was also full of Ruzi and employed much of its officials from Ruzi. To these students, Confucius would be not just a hero, but the great teacher of whole China, as Confucius in Chinese is Kong Fu zi, meaning Master Kong.
            On the other hand, the state of Chu was mainly dominated by Taoist philosophers, as depicted in Analects. According to Analects, Confucius while travelling through the state of Chu met Taoist philosophers who were living as simple peasants. Taoists made fun of Confucianism for its "artificiality" and sometimes simply vanished in front of Confucius, who was then puzzled. Sima Qian also records famous confrontation between Laozi, the founder of Taoism and young Confucius, in which both philosophers try to convince other and settle difference between two thoughts. This attempt, however, fails. Laozi then left to avoid impending political turmoil in China through Hangu Pass (hanguguan), a path to western China, then Qin where he wrote his magnum opus. These records show that Taoist did not agree with Confucius. It would be too radical to argue that Taoist perceived Confucius as villain, but it is obvious that Taoist did not perceive Confucius as hero.

III. Qin
            At the last stage of Warring states period, or Zhou Dynasty, the state of Qin, located in the west of Hangu Pass, started to dominate militarily and diplomatically over the neighboring nations by adopting legalism and legalist philosophers, even before the famous Qin Shi Huang Di, the first emperor of China. Shang Yang was employed as the prime minister of Qin by Duke Xiao in 356 B.C. By imposing strict laws based on Fajing written Li Kui, reforming military and land, Shang Yang could make Qin as the impoverished state in the western verge of China to a threat to neighboring states. Further, to standardize the state philosophy as legalism, he ordered Qin officials to burn the Confucian books, which is later again adopted by Qin Shi Huang Di, but for rather different reason. Still, this act of burning shows that Legalist philosophers were disagreeing with the Confucianism, not accepting the Confucius as a great teacher as some revered him. Although Shang Yang was executed after the death of Duke Xiao, the laws still remained in function and continued to exist until the fall of Qin under Liu Bang or Han Gaozu, the founder of Han Dynasty, though the book burning did not continue.
            Before the unification of China, Qin's legalist policy and Shang Yang's prosecution on Confucianism were only limited to regions occupied by Qin. The prosecution was also to unify the state philosophy. The situation, however, changed when Shi Huang Di successfully unified China under Qin in 221 B.C. with Li Si as his chancellor, by using effective military forces formed by Shang Yang's reforms. After unification, the emperor decided to abolish feudalism and adopt Junxianzhi, a centralized system in which all the regions are governed by aristocrats appointed by the emperor, rather than as an individual kingdom. Some officials, however, opposed this new system. In 213 B.C. a high official named Chunganyue, petitioned the emperor to abolish the new system and return to the old feudalism. Li Si, who knew that the emperor despised the old system, advised the emperor that Ruzi was behind this attempt to return to the old system and argued that Confucianism should be banned. Accepting the advice, the emperor ordered the officials to burn all the books that are not related to Qin. He also closed private academies and institutions related to poem and writing, for being inefficient. Ruzi, who were now at verge of existence, then petitioned the emperor about the burning of the books. This further infuriated the emperor who was already regarding Ruzi as troublemakers for their disagreement with his new policies. He ordered over 460 Ruzi who petitioned against him to be buried alive. From his policy, it is evident that Confucius and Confucianism were not well-respected in Qin Dynasty. By degree of punishment on Ruzi, and acknowledging that being buried alive was a mean of mass execution for the enemy, although his opinion is not directly recorded on the history book, it can be inferred that emperor deeply hated Confucius and his philosophy as political antithesis.

IV. Chu-Han Contention
            After the death of the first emperor, Zhao Gao, the chief eunuch of Qin palace and Li Si, the chancellor, conspired to prevent Crown Prince Fusu from being the emperor, which was the will of Shi Huang Di. Li Si believed that Fusu, who was tolerant towards Ruzi, would eventually execute him for misleading the emperor to bury over 400 scholars. Since Fusu was sent to de facto exile for opposing Li Si's advice, Li Si conspired with Zhao Gao and made Huhai, the youngest son of the emperor as the second emperor of Qin (Qinershi). To avoid conflicts, they also forced Fusu to commit suicide and assassinated remaining princes.
            Huhai, who was unwise compared to his brother, spent all day drinking and playing with naked women. He even selected the most beautiful girls around China to make them his concubines. He also continued his fathers project of building a large palace, forcing men from all China to become forced laborers in the extravagant project. Such political disorder led to multiple rebellions in the eastern, mainly Chu regions, which is today's southern China. These rebels eventually crumbled Qin, and returned China to feudalist society with multiple states, such as Western Chu, Han, Han and Qi, with Western Chus king Xiang Yu as de facto emperor.
            Xiang Yu, a descendent of Chus famous general Xiang Yan, learned martial arts instead of philosophies. Rather than engaging in Confucianism, Taoism or any kind of written works, he preferred Bingjia, the school of military which he learned through numerous battles with Qin army. His advisor Fan Zeng, whom he called father, was from Guigu, a famous ground for scholars studying machinations. Although Xiang Yu never killed people from Confucian background, his attitude towards the scholars is evidently arrogant, according to Sima Qian, threatening some of the scholars that he would boil them inside a pot filled with water (1). He did have philosophers as advisors, but he did not use them in the battlefield since he believed that his strategy is superior and experienced from numerous battlegrounds. His military strategy led him to become the de facto ruler of China, leading massive troops under his direct command that are known to be invincible. Even after he became the leader, however, he still disliked Confucius.
            In comparison, Liu Bang, the king of Han, was an uneducated man. He learned neither formal martial arts like Xiang Yu, nor philosophical studies. He was a leader of gangs in his town from humble background. Since he was not well educated, he was more tolerant to others' advice and comparatively did not discriminate schools. Still, he was sarcastic towards Ruzi. He believed they were completely useless since they are only good at talking, not working. They could not provide good suggestions in urgent situations nor fight in the real combat. His attitude, however, changed after he met scholars who were loyal to him even until their death.
            Liu Bang who was the first to reach Qins capital, Xianyang (2), was appointed as a king of Han for his distinguished services in starting new feudalist age. The state of Han, however, was located in an isolated region of Shu (3), linked by narrow mountainous tracks. Shu was scarcely populated and evidently not a land for a strong state. It was evident that Xiang Yu deliberately allocated Liu bang harsh land to prevent Liu Bang from becoming his potential rival. Liu Bang thought he deserved all Guanzhong (4) land, as promised by the state of Chu before the conquest. To enlarge his political sphere of influence, Liu Bang invaded Guanzhong, starting Chu-Han contention. During this contention he had diverse followers with diverse skills: Zhang Liang, the legendary strategist; Han Xin, general who never lost a battle; Xiao He, experienced administrator. These three are known as Sanjie for their exceptional skills during Chu-Han contention. In addition to three legendary historical figures, Liu Bang also had several Ruzi advisors who risked their own lives to serve Liu Bang. The devotions of these advisors eventually succeeded in changing Liu Bang to appreciate the Confucian values and respect Ruzi.
            When Liu Bang, leading 560,000 troops, lost in the battle of river Si to Xiang Yu who only had 30,000 troops, Liu Bang had to retreat to a castle, finally stationing in Hengyang. Although Xiang Yu used to have only 30,000 troops, Xiang Yu succeeded in gaining more troops in Guangdong, a region loyal to Chu. With reinforcements, Xiang Yu started attacking Hengyang. Admitting that he cannot defend the castle from Xiang Yu, Liu Bang abandoned the castle. Zhu Jia and Zhong Gong, two Confucian scholars volunteered to defend the castle from Xiang Yu to buy time for Liu Bang to escape. After Xiang Yu took the castle, Zhu Jia and Zhong Gong were boiled to death. With the sacrifice of two scholars, Liu Bang could go back to Guanzhong to request reinforcements to stop Xiang Yu's further counterattack.
            Li Yiji, a Ruzi advisor of Liu Bang, went to the state of Qi for negotiation. When Li Yiji first met Liu Bang to become one of his advisors, women were washing Liu Bang's feet, a disrespectful act The king of Qi, Tian Guang, accepted his negotiation and agreed to become a servant of Han. Although the negotiation succeeded, however, Han sin who was ready to invade if negotiation fails decided to invade the state of Qi and claim it for himself. The king of Qi became furious about the Han and decided to boil Li Yiji and sent his head to the Han camp. Before his imminent death, the king persuaded Li Yiji to stay in the state of Qi as an advisor. Li Yiji refused the offer. Instead he threatened the king that the army of Han would crumble the state of Qi in triumph. Exasperated, the king ordered his execution. His loyalty was then recognized by Liu Bang. In return, Liu Bang decided to promote his younger brother, who was his general, and look after his family.
            With these sacrifices by Confucian scholars, Liu Bang started to respect Confucius and his teachings. He first employed Sunshutong as his advisor, regardless of the fact that he served for over five rulers, which seemed disloyal to his contemporaries. After the unification and the collapse of Han, Liu Bang ordered Sunshutong to organize proper style of the Imperial court. He also employed his students to educate and spread Confucianism all around China. Although he did not believe in Confucianism, Liu Bang certainly respected Confucius and his teachings.
            Liu Bang, as the first emperor of Han, also enlarged the temple for Confucius (Kong Miao) in Qufu, the birthplace of Confucius and offered sacrifices which became a tradition of Han Dynasty. Every emperor was required to visit Confucius temple after their enthronement or any big event for memory of great philosopher.

V. Confucian State

V.1 Han
            After Liu Bang unified China and centered the political power in his new capital Zhang'an, Han Dynasty flourished. When Liu Bang's great-grandson Liu Che became Wudi of Han, Liu Che reformed his empire to Confucian state. Han as a Confucian state then introduced preliminary form of Civil Service Examination, one of the characteristics of Confucian state. In Civil Service examination, candidates were to demonstrate their knowledge on Confucianism, or more specifically Four Books and Five Analects (Sishuwujing), the classics of Confucianism. Thus, it was necessary for all civil officers to be Ruzi. This prevalence of Confucianism not only changed the society and the government, it also changed the way people respect Confucius.
            Han Dynasty first made the descendents of Confucius as aristocrats with titles of marquis or duke, which again became the predecessor for upcoming dynasties. The imperial court also held large ceremonies in Kong Miao. Han also built institutions for educating peasants about the virtues of Confucianism, descending from Sun Shutong's disciples who were employed by Liu Bang to spread Confucianism. Many of the tradition derived from this one uniform thought that is still continued today.

V.2 Post-Han
            After period of turmoil at the end of Han Dynasty, which was somewhat time of Buddhism and anti-Han since its strongest power Northern Zhou was so, Sui unified China. Sui then again returned order and installed Confucian institutes for education for both high and middle class officials. It also rebuilt Kong Miao in Qufu that was damaged through the years of warfare. Although the dynasty itself only lasted about 40 years (581-618 C.E) (5), the institutions the dynasty established remained in the next Tang dynasty.
            Tang Dynasty, noted for its rich culture, trade with the west and the conquest of central Asia, was also an era in which Confucianism and the evaluation of Confucius even went further. In 630, just 12 years after Tang was established by coup, Tang Dynasty ordered every school to have its own Confucian shrine. The large shrines were thus located near the famous schools. From its preliminary forms, Imperial Examinations also developed into more complex form with dozens of subjects.
            Nevertheless the support from the administrative bodies to promote Confucianism, the effects of Buddhism and traditional belief were somewhat stronger. Since Tang dynasty was the time of peace and rich Silk Road trade, Tang population began to concern about their afterlife. Confucianism, which was not concerned about afterlife, began to lose support. On the other hand, Buddhism was a religion concerning deeply about afterlife. Numerous Buddhist temples and monasteries were built with the support by nobles and imperial family. Like Christian monasteries in the middle ages, these temples were also exempt from taxation, and owned a large portion of land, even serfs.
            Concerned about the future of Confucianism, a Confucian scholar named Han Yu, the great scholar who influenced later Neo-Confucianism, petitioned the court for the abolishment of Buddhism and other foreign religion. Han Yu wrote "ԳҬ???Գ" in his Wenyizaidao. In translation, "Own way, the great teachers way, the teachings that Mencius and Yang Xiong (6) gave us" This one sentence emphasizes the importance of China's own philosophy not foreign philosophies, especially orthodox Confucianism. Han Yu, who was notably delved into politics, influenced the court and the emperor.
            While Han Yu was criticizing philosophies other than Confucianism, the war started between central Asian Khanates and Tang. To fund its army, Tang needed to have efficient tax collecting system, which was hindered by numerous temples and monasteries. Emperor Wuzong thought the properties of temple should be confiscated to defend his empire.
            Eventually, for larger tax revenue, Emperor Wuzong then outlawed Buddhism and any other foreign religion, confiscating and destroying their properties for the war against central Asian Khanates. With the illegalization of foreign religion, Confucianism and Taoism began to return to prominence. In spite of these efforts, Tang still could not from collapsing. In 60 years, Tang collapsed, again starting the era of political turmoil. Tang's collapse, however, gave rise to the peak of Confucius worship.

VI. Neo-Confucianism
            A short period of political disunity called "Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms" was followed by Song Dynasty, an era of weak defense but rich culture. Notable private institutions that are also shrines great philosophers like Confucius and Mencius were built across the country. The scholars in these institutions eventually began to build their own schools of thought like in the days of Zhuzibaijia on the basis of old Confucianism by adding their own commentary to old Classics and some Taoist teachings.
            Notable scholar of Neo-Confucianism was Zhuxi who published four Classics with his own commentaries. His edition of Classics was preferred in his time. Neo-Confucianism was also promoted by the state. Instead of old Confucianism, Neo-Confucianism began to become the orthodox Confucianism. Confucianism was being called Zhuzixue, not Ruxue, like in the days before. Still Neo-Confucian scholars respected Confucius more than Zhuxi. Song Dynasty enlarged Kong Miao by adding 400 more rooms.
            Four books and Five Classics were becoming more important in Song. With Civil Servant Examination becoming more focused on Confucianism than writing skills, even memorizing those books were thought to be mandatory.
            This tendency of respecting Confucius remains constant, except for Yuan Dynasty. In 20th century, however, China undergoes extreme changes in its stance.

VII. Modernization of China - Dramatic Change of the View of Confucius
            Ming and Qing China was a period of dominance of Confucianism. For Qing, unlike Yuan, was also a Confucian state with state strong Confucian bureaucracy. However, the modernization in the late 19th century and early 20th century started a new view on Confucius.

VII.1 Taiping Rebellion
            Taiping Rebellion was a rebellion against corrupt Confucian bureaucracy. Hong Xiuquan, himself a man who studied the Four Classics, converted to Christianity after failing the Imperial Examination for five times. After reading the translated version of Bible in Guangzhou, he turned himself to his vision of Christianity, preaching others that he is the brother of Jesus Christ and is here to save China for Buddhism and Confucianism. This had a broad appeal for commoners who were oppressed by the centuries of class system with Confucian bureaucracy on top.
            Hong even declared that everyone would be equal in his land (even women), and abolished private property, taking an aspect of socialism. This is against the Confucian teachings which held conservative view on class system. In Confucian writings, there are several quotations inferring Confucius' advocacy towards rigid class system. Hong burned Confucian and Buddhist writings and statues, acknowledging this disparity of view.
            Although the rebellion eventually failed, this demonstrates the start of more liberal ideas in China, against Confucius and his teachings that dominated Chinese politics for centuries. Several rebellions following Taiping rebellion also took such shape, in forms of Christianity or even Muslim (in case of Du Wenxiu Rebellion in the northwest China)

VII.2 Hundred Days of Reform
            Although there were anti-Confucian rebellions around China in this modernizing period, there were also pro-Confucian, reforming parties in Qing bureaucracy. "Hundred Days of Reform" led by Kang Yu-wei, a Confucian scholar is an example of such movement in China. These movements sought new interpretation of Confucian writings rather than conservative interpretations. Kang Yu-wei, the leader of these reformers, still believed in Confucian principles. He believed that Confucian is an utopian reformer, rather than a conservative reactionary, viewed by many rebellion leaders, who sought to overthrow contemporary Confucian social order.
            He also sought educational reforms by establishing Beijing University and other institutions. However, the reform was only supported by a group of elite radicals. Thus, it was easily thrown over by ultra-conservatives led by Dowager Empresss Cixi, just ending the reforms in 100 days in 1898.

VII.3 Boxer Rebellion
            Boxer Rebellion is a conservative, anti-Christian and anti-foreign rebellion, supported by Qing government to get rid of foreigners, who were intervening greatly in Chinese politics. The main participants were "Boxers" who were secret anti-foreign society. They were greatly trained in Wushu, the traditional Chinese martial arts.
            In 1900, Empress Dowager Cixi issued a decree protecting the boxers, to use this chance for her ultra-conservative measures. Boxers killed missionaries and one foreign ambassador.
            However, is Boxer Rebellion really related to Confucianism and ideologies, or just Dowager Cixis quest for more power to get rid of foreign influence in her court Boxer Rebellion seemed to be more of an isolationist movement since the rebellion did not contain any Confucian decrees such as social or political bureaucracy reform. The only seemingly purpose of the rebellion was getting rid of foreign influence in China, not any Confucian goals.

VII.4 Xinhai Revolution (1911)
            Xinhai Revolution is the most notable event of China in 20th century. Led by Sun Yat-sen and his nationalist followers, Sun Yat-sen sought to overthrow the Qing Dynasty and replace it with nationalist, modern, Republican government. Like Kang You-wei, he was educated in Confucian classics. But he studied in Hawaii, United States after learning the classics, unlike other conventional scholars.
            He was against the established order, and issued his own principles: Three principles of the People seeking nationalism, democracy, and populism. This is against the contemporary Confucian teachings with rigid social structures and mandate of heaven Rather following the heaven, Sun Yat-sen believed in people. Still he never pursued radical eradication of Confucian teachings in China, like burning the books and temples. This, however, became a reality 50 years later, in following Communist regime.

VIII. Cultural Revolution
            When China was unified in 1948 by Mao Zedong and his People's liberation army a military organization analogous to the Red Army of Russia, Mao consolidated his power in communist party by applying his political ideals to reality. He started Great Leap Forward movement, influenced by Stalin's five year economy plan. This movement, however, caused great famine around China. To alleviate the severity of the problem, the communist party ousted Mao and put Liu Shaoqi in his place. Liu Shaoqi's economic success with Deng Xiaoping made Mao's political position worsened. To overcome this political situation, Mao started cultural revolution, using young students as Red Guards(HongWeiBing) to oust his political enemies for being disloyal to the communist ideals.
            The idealistic goal of the cultural revolution was to destroy so called "Four Olds" of the society: old culture, old customs, old habits, and old ideas. Obviously, Confucianism was the target of this new revolution. Red Guards, who were mainly students from all China, started burning books, destroy statues and architectures. Mao also defined Confucius as the enemy of people (renmin) for justifying the social class system thus defending the old rulers and bourgeois. From the philosophical father of the whole Chinese, Confucius became no.1 enemy of all Chinese people. His temple in Qufu even was not safe from revolutionary students. About 200 students entered the temple and broke the statues and artifacts of Confucius. No one could guard the temple since Kong family, the direct and legitimate descendents of Confucius, went to Taiwan when Jiang Kai-shek moved his government to Taiwan. More than 6000 artifacts were destroyed in Confucius temple in Qufu alone. It is not suprising that Cultural Revolution is often compared with Qin Shi Hwang's persecution of Confucius scholars.
            Instead of Confucius, Mao replaced his place in Chinese students' ideology. Mao was respected as near god. His book, like the bible, was published throughout China. This book is known as Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong (Mao Zedong yulu), or just simply Mao's Red Book. This book began to be studied by people as Confucian Classics did in the era before. It was unofficially required for every Chinese to own, read and carry the book. It was even studied in the official work hours, not to mention schools. It is recorded as the most printed book in history with 5 to 6.5 million copied during the revolution. The book contained completely different idea compared to Confucian classics. Instead of filial piety, respect for elders and the importance of knowing, equality and labor were emphasized in his book. With such discrepancy between two ideas it is obvious that Mao persecuted Confucianism.

IX. Conclusion
            The view on Confucius changed dramatically throughout Chinese history. A controversial figure from the beginning, he was revered during the time of Confucianism, highly criticized in non-Confucian era, especially during Mao's Cultural Revolution.
            Today, China is paying new attention to Confucianism. As shown in Beijing Olympic 2008, China is paying new attention Confucianism in post-Mao era. Companies are finding their marketing and management strategy from Confucianism. But feminist groups are having different view towards Confucius for being male chauvinist. Still, the impact of Confucius to Chinese and World history is never ignorable.


(1)      Peng Xing - Ancient Chinese method of execution by boiling someone to death
(2)      Near today's Xi'an, Shaanxi province
(3)      Shu is today's Sichuan province
(4)      Guanzhong is today's Shaanxi province
(5)      Ko 2009
(6)      Yang Xiong : Author during Han Dynasty. Considered first Chinese materialist.


Note : websites quoted below were visited in October 2007.
1.      Wikipedia article: Confucius
2.      Wikipedia article: Neo-Confucianism <>
3.      Wikipedia article: Liu Bang
4.      Wikipedia article: Sun Yat-sen
5.      K'ang Yu-wei. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. 5 Jul. 2009 .
6.      Ko, Young Kon, The History of Confucian Education in China and Korea, 2009 paper posted on WHKMLA, <>
7.      Chu Han Zhi, Collected by Lee Mun-Yeol, Min-yeom Press, Seoul
8.      San Guo Zhi (Romance of Three Kingdoms), Translated by Lee Mun-Yeol, Min-yeom Press, Seoul

Back to WHKMLA Main Index . WHKMLA, Students' Papers Main Page . WHKMLA, Students' Papers, 12th Wave Index Page