The History of Confucian Education in China and Korea


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
KYK



Table of Contents


Chapter 12.3
Chapter 11 1st update
Chapter 11
2nd Draft
1st Draft



Chapter 12.3 (as of December 7th 2009) . . . go to Teacher's comment

XII.3 Royal English School [À°¿µ°ø¿ø(ëÀçÈÍëêÂ)]
         Motivated by the establishment of western private schools, the government also started to fund such changes. In addition, due to the increasing trade between the United States, the English interpreter was needed for Chosun government. To raise English interpreters, Chosun government established Royal English School for young bureaucrats and the sons of high bureaucrats.
         After Gap-sin coup, Chosun royal family hired three American teachers for the new Royal English School, opening the school in 1886. According to these teachers¡¯ records, the students were brilliant, obtaining English interpreting skills quickly. The students, however, were not zealous enough in their studies. They only wanted to preserve Joseon in status quo, with their family as the ruling class.
         These reforms, however, were not funded by the government, unlike China. Furthermore, Korea failed to have any long lasting national reform movement. There were two major reform movements: Gap-sin coup, and Gap-o reform. In 1884, young radical group of politicians, led by Kim Okgyun [±è¿Á±Õ(ÑÑè¬Ð³) 1851 - 1894 AD], who was by then only 33, raided the royal palace and established a new government. This is called Gap-sin coup. Kim Okgyun believed that his coup would be a modern bourgeois revolution, ensuring equality and freedom for every Joseon citizens, under a constitutional monarchy. In practice, Gap-sin coup abolished Confucian scholar nobles, meaning educational equality among all citizens. The new government, however, only lasted for 3 days, as Min [¹Î(ÚÊ)] family, a family of conservative politicians, contacted Qing for aid. Consequently, Gap-sin coup failed, and politicians involved in this coup were exiled or executed. Kim Okgyun escaped to Japan and stayed in Fukuzawa Yukichi¡¯s house. He was eventually assassinated by a gunman named Hong Jongwoo, the first Korean student to study in France.



Chapters 11-14 , First Update (as of September 26th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

XI. Korea before Modernization
         The Confucian education in Korea can be traced back to the time of Goryeo Dynasty, which lasted from 10th century to 14th century. Though there were educational institutions, they were far from Confucian educations. For example, there was Taixue in Goguryeo, but it did not serve as a Confucian education center, but a martial art education center for children of nobility. Civil Service examinations were not yet introduced in Korea. (2)

XI.1 Goryeo
         Goryeo Dynasty, in the beginning was a Buddhist state. Taizu of Goryeo emphasized the importance of Buddhism in Goryeo even in his deathbed. The country was managed by rural nobles instead of bureaucrats. Gwangjong (949-975) the forth emperor, however, adopted Civil Service Examination as an important part of selecting bureaucrats as a mean to strengthen the central authority. Before Gwangjong, bureaucrats were selected by family heritage. With the new introduction of Examination, the government could select talented young scholars.
         In addition, Goryeo established a new central university in Kaesong called Guozijian, identical to that of Song and Tang. The division within Guozijian was also identical. In 1308, Guozijian was transformed into Sungkyunkwan in Kaesong.
         Candidates had to take three tests in order to pass the whole examination. First examination was held all around the country. Candidates who passed the first examination were then allowed to take the second test. Second test was held in Guozijian, the central university. Those who passed this exam, along with students who attended Guozijian for three years, could take the final exam called Yebusi. For each test, the government selected about 50 candidates as bureaucrats: 33 for Jinshi, about 15 for Mingjing
         Nevertheless the Examination was not fully appreciated during Goryeo. Candidates from high-class could be selected without any examination using a system called Yumseoje eventually forming families of nobility that monopolized the civil service. Still, compared to before Goryeo Dynasty, the introduction of Civil Service Examination rationalized the system of selecting the bureaucrats.

XI.2 Joseon
         In 1392, old Goryeo Dynasty was dissolved by a young general named Lee Sunggye. He built new Joseon dynasty that would last until 1910. During Joseon Dynasty, Confucian education in Korea reached at its peak. Joseon Dynasty, in contrast to Buddhist Goryeo Dynasty, was a Confucian state. One of its early main goals was to promote Confucianism and repress Buddhism (3). Thus, Confucian education was crucial in Joseon government.
         Joseon government first reformed the class system. By law, there were only two classes: peasants and slaves. In reality, there were four classes: Confucian scholars, middle class, peasants and slaves. Since the law granted equal class between Confucian scholars, middle class and peasants, even peasants were allowed to take Civil Service Examination and become part of bureaucracy. By entering a certain level bureaucracy, one could become a member of Confucian scholars. In contrast, those who were born in the Confucian scholar family had the obligation to pass the examination. If there were no bureaucrats for two generations in a row, one would become a middle-class.
         With this new reformed class system, there was a high incentive of taking the Civil Service Examination. Almost everyone from the Confucian scholar family took the examination.
         Joseon also denied the social status of monks. In Goryeo, Monks were regarded equally as nobility. Monks were exempted from military service, drafted labor and taxation. Since there was a large incentive of becoming a monk, a large portion of Goryeo population became monk, weakening the national defenses and economy. To prevent such phenomenon, Joseon decided to deny the monks¡¯ status. Instead, Joseon exempted Confucian scholars from military service and drafted labor.
         With all these efforts to promote Confucianism, Joseon successfully transformed Korea which had been under Buddhist rule for about a millennium.
         Joseon¡¯s new Civil Service Examination was different from other Civil Service Examinations. Goryeo¡¯s Civil Service Examination was modeled directly after Tang's Imperial Examination with Jinshi and Mingjing Examinations. Joseon's Civil Service Examination, on the other hand, combined Jinshi and Mingjing and had more levels of examination.
         The first level, Sogua, consisted of two examinations: Sengwongua and Jinsagua. After passing one of these examinations, the candidate could become a low bureaucrat in the provincial government or enter a Sungkyunkwan, the central university. In Sungkyunkwan, students were taught with Confucian classics by renowned scholars in Korea. The students were awarded with points for each attendance in class. After earning more than 300 points, students were then qualified for Daegua which was held every 3 years.
         Daegua consisted of three tests: chosi, boksi and finally Junsi. Chosi was held in autumn and was open to everybody who passed Sogua. Chosi was separated into three kinds: Guansi for Sungkyunkwan students, Hangsungsi for scholars not from Sungkyunkwan but living near Seoul, and Hyangsi for scholars in areas other than Seoul. 250 candidates were selected in Chosi, with quotas for each kind of test. Sungkyunkwan students were granted with high quota, thus all Sungkyunkwan students could pass the test.
         250 candidates then took Boksi in next spring. Boksi selected 33 candidates for Junsi, which was intended for ranking, not selecting. 33 candidates were ranked from 1st to 33rd, and were categorized according to their ranks. Those in the highest category were selected to be the middle ranking bureaucrats, which were considered a high position for a young man of 20s.
         Some prominent scholars took the test more than necessary. Lee Yulgok, for example, took his first Sogua when he was twelve. After he passed his first test, he constantly engaged in special tests that were held to celebrate auspicious occasions such as the birth of a royal heir. Including the three final tests for Daegua, he was in the first place in 9 tests. Lee Yulgok, famous throughout his contemporaries for his accomplishment in Civil Service Examinations, became a widely known Confucian scholar in East Asia. As a sign of respect towards this renowned scholar, Koreans printed his face on 5000 won banknote.
         In early Joseon, Shuyuan also started to appear in Joseon, as Seowon. Like in China, Seowon also became the head of academic centers, forming new philosophical schools. Scholars, after retiring from politics, usually went to Seowons to train new generation of scholars.
         Early Seowons were not exempted from taxation. However, Lee Hwang, the famous academic rival of Lee Yulgok, persuaded the king to select several Seowons and exempt them from taxation, just like in Song and Ming Dynasty. Lee Hwang himself also built one of the most famous Seowons in Korea, called Dosan Seowon. His Seowon is so famous that it is even on the Korean 1000 Won banknote.
         At the time of Lee Hwang, Lee Yulgok (about 1500s) until Japanese invasion in 1592 (4), Seowons flourished and became the center of Confucian discussions. After the invasion, however, it became the center of corruption, as in Ming Dynasty. Scholar nobility started forming parties based on Seowons. These parties favored selecting candidates from same Seowon. Because bureaucrats from these parties were the test-graders, the test eventually became corrupted, graders favoring candidates from the same Seowon. Furthermore, because of tax exemption, hundreds of Seowons were built around the country, decreasing the national tax revenue, weakening Joseon government.

XII. Korea in the Time of Modernization
         While Joseon was suffering from corrupted bureaucracy, it was also exposed to Western influence: through either direct contact or through Qing. As a direct contact, during 17th century, Dutch sailors who were shipwrecked on their way to Japan arrived in Korea. Jan Jansz. Weltevree was the first westerner to naturalize as Korean. As a canon expert, he taught Korean Army how to make western canons that were superior to that of Chosen, a ruling Korean Dynasty from 15th to early 20th century. In 1653, Hendrik Hamel arrived in Korea. After he escaped from Korea, he wrote about Korea, introducing Korea to the west.
         These direct contacts were, however, a rare occasions, since Korean government was suspicious about westerners. Korean scholars, unable to gain information from westerners, had to obtain them from trade with Qing. Trade with Qing introduced Christianity and western science in Korea. Many scholars who were at first interested in western science eventually became involved with Christianity. One of the ambassadors to Qing named Lee Seunghun (1756 - 1801) even got baptized as Peter in 1784 by a French Jesuit missionary, Father Grammont. After his return to Korea, Christianity widely spread in Korea, carrying out weekly mass without any missionary. Since there were no missionaries in Korea, Lee Seunghun had to baptize others, forming first generation of Christians in Korea. But Christianity persecution began shortly ever it was introduced. Nevertheless, Christianity spread underground, and those who were not even interested in western culture began to converting to Christianity (more precisely Catholicism) Because of the nationwide persecution, the Jesuits refrained from sending priests in Korea, impeding the introduction of western science and education in Korea.
         Korean government remained hostile towards the western culture and education even in 19th century. Under Heungseon Daewongun (1820 - 1898) who ruled Joseon Dynasty in late 19th century instead of his son, Gojong (1852 - 1919; Reign 1863 - 1907) Korean government followed the policy of isolation, prohibiting any westerners on Korean soil. The only way for the prominent students to be educated in western way was to study abroad. The students, like Chinese students, also went to Japan, U.S and Europe dreaming of modernized Korea.
         While Korean government was following the policy of isolation, there were some politicians advocating reform and westernization. In 1882, these politicians managed to send Heungseon Daewongun to exile, ending the policy of isolation.
         With the legalization of Christianity that followed Heungseon Daewongun's abdication in 1884, Western education flourished in Korea, starting with new western schools that still remain today as universities and high schools.

XII.1 Baejae Hakdang
         Established in 1885, shortly after the legalization of Christianity in Korea, by Henry Appenzeller (1858 - 1902), an American missionary in Korea, Baejae Hakdang was the first western school in Korea. It was like the modern day secondary and high school. When it first opened in 1885, there were only two students in Baejae Hakdang. The number of students, however, increased year by year. Finally, in 1895, Korean government made a contract with the government to educate 200 government selected students. This contract shows how much the government of Korea recognized Baejae Hakdang as an educational institution.
         Baejae Hakdang introduced dozens of subjects that Koreans were unfamiliar with, including World History, Geography and Chemistry. Surprisingly, all the subjects were taught in English except for Bible and Korean, so the graduates from Baejae could communicate with foreigners fluently.
         Like in China, Baejae Hakdang raised several prominent figures in Korean history, such as Ju Sigyeong, the father of Korean modern linguistics. He entered Baejae Hakdang in 1894 and graduated in 1897.
         Rhee Syngman, the first president of Republic of Korea, also attended Baejae Hakdang. Rhee, however, was arrested in 1897 for anti-Japanese monarchy demonstration. He could not finish the curriculum in Baejae Hakdang. Instead of returning to Baejae, Lee went to America to study abroad.

XII.2 Ehwa Hakdang
         Ewha Hakdang was established in 1886 by Mary Scranton (1834 - 1909), the first female missionary in Korea. Since it was established by a female missionary, it was for female students only. Prior to 19th century, education was not permitted for women in Korea. Most of them could not read or write. As a first female educational institution in Korea, its goal was to educate women "as a better Korean" It is not a surprising fact that Ewha woman's University that was added to Ewha Hakdang in 1910 became the center of feminism in Korea after independence.
         Like Baejae, Ewha also had distinguished school rule: Students were not allowed to marry during school years. Those wishing to marry had to drop out of school. This rule was abolished only recently in 2003
         These reforms, however, were not funded by the government, unlike China. Furthermore, Korea failed to have any long lasting national reform movement. There were two major reform movements: Gap-sin coup, and Gap-o reform. In 1884, young radical group of politicians, led by Kim Okgyun (1851 - 1894), who was by then only 33, raided the royal palace and established a new government. This is called Gap-sin coup. Kim Okgyun believed that his coup would be a modern bourgeois revolution, ensuring equality and freedom for every Joseon citizens, under a constitutional monarchy. In practice, Gap-sin coup abolished Confucian scholar nobles, meaning educational equality among all citizens. The new government, however, only lasted for 3 days, as Min family, a family of conservative politicians, contacted Qing for aid. Consequently, Gap-sin coup failed, and politicians involved in this coup were exiled or executed. Kim Okgyun escaped to Japan and stayed in Fukuzawa Yukichi¡¯s house. He was eventually assassinated by a gunman named Hong Jongwoo, the first Korean student to study in France.

XIII. Colonization of Korea and Educational Reform
         Japanese started to indirectly involve in Korean politics since Gap-O reform. In 1894, Japanese demanded Korean government to undergo major reforms together with Qing. As Japanese defeated Qing in 1895, Japanese forced a pro-Japanese cabinet, headed by Kim Hong-jib (1842-1896), a pro-Japanese politician, and purged conservative Min family. Pro-Japanese cabinet first abolished Civil Service Examination and the class system that was reintroduced after Gap-sin coup failed. They also had social, political reforms, such as prohibiting early marriage, allowing widows to remarry.
         These reforms were severely criticized by contemporaries and Min family who were conservative. Russians, in favor of such political disunity, started to interfere with Korean politics by allying with Min family. Fearing Russian influence growing in Korea, Japanese ambassador in Korea even commanded a band of Samurais to assassinate Korean Myungsung empress, a member of Min family, in 1895. As a direct consequence, more pro-Japanese new cabinet was formed. New cabinet commanded men to cut their hair short in western style, which infuriated every Korean man. The installation of western schools across the country also angered conservative Confucian scholars. In 1896, in fear of Japanese interference, Gojong called for Russian help, and took Russian embassy as his asylum. Under Russian protection, Gojong ordered the cabinet to dissolve, and formed a new pro-Russian, American cabinet. Kim Hong-jib and other pro-Japanese politicians were sentenced to death by the royal decree, but many were killed before official execution by angry mob in front of the Royal palace.
         Nevertheless the new cabinet did not last long. First, Japanese defeated Russia in Russo-Japanese war which lasted from 1904 to 1905. Consequently, Russia lost all its political influence in Korea. Second, the U.S signed a secret treaty with Japan in 1905. In this treaty, Japan allowed America to colonize Philippines. In return, America allowed Japan to rule Korea. Thus, American aid was no longer available for Korean government. As colonial power balance over Korea was shattered, Japanese annexation of Korea was a matter of time
         Japanese officials preceded the annexation step by step. In 1905, Japanese forced Gojong to sign the Eulsa Treaty which ceded the diplomatic rights of Korea to Japan. (5) About the same period, western style schools were built across the country with different purposes. Most notably, Bosung Professional School which is today¡¯s Korea University, Whimoon School, Guanlip School which is today¡¯s Kyunggi high School, Myungsin Girl¡¯s school which is today's SookMyung Girl's high school, Daesung School and so on. Some of these schools were built by collaborators, such as Whimoon school, which was established by Min Young Whi (1852-1935). Guanlip School was built by the government in 1900. Some schools, on the other hand, were established by Independence activists such as Daesung School which was built by An Chang-ho (1878-1938) a Korean independence activist in the U.S.
         In 1910, Korea was annexed by Japan, starting the Japanese colonial rule in Korea. Independence activists¡¯ schools were closed by the order of the colonial government. Government owned schools went under the colonial government. Collaborators¡¯ schools, however, became one of the best schools in Korea with notable graduates. Many of the activists had to go to exile; they went to Russia, China, and the US mainly. With the colonial rule, unlike China, national education was impossible.

XIV. Conclusion
         As explained throughout the paper, each dynasty had its own governing style. Han, starter of Confucian government, made several systems that would serve throughout the Chinese history. Sui and Tang made Imperial Examination and structured central education system, known as Guozijian. Song was the peak of Confucian education with shuyuan, and several reforms to Imperial Examination. Finally Ming, although reformed from defenseless Song, was a setback, Shuyuan being the center of the political power and corruption.
         Nevertheless, Chinese Confucian ideas were evolving through dynasties; old Confucian ideas to Neo-Confucian ideas including Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming. In Qing, it eventually evolves into a scientific philosophy, like mechanism in the West, proposing the idea of "shishiqiushi"
         Confucian ideas, unlike the common belief as conservative, inert principles, did change through two millenniums, assimilating other beliefs of Buddhism and Daoism. They also promoted education, establishing central university in Han Dynasty, a millennium faster than the west. We should acknowledge that Confucian ideas were useful and beneficial to education, unlike the common belief.

Notes

(2)      There is a record of Civil Service examination in Shilla. The examination was, however, not considered as tool of joining the bureaucracy. It was more like an academic competition.
(3)      The policy is called Sungyuukbul. This policy, however, failed since Buddhism was by then a part of Korean tradition. Only radical young Confucian scholars who were studying in Sungkyunkwan demanded the government to actually persecute Buddhism.
(4)      Invasion by Japanese Daimyo Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1592. Ended in 1598 as Toyotomi Hideyoshi ordered his troops to retreat in his deathbed. Although Korea was victorious, Korea suffered from irreversible damages: Royal Palaces, Temples, Seowons were burnt down and about 500 thousand Korean civilians were slaughtered by Japanese soldiers. Farmlands were also greatly damaged, causing famine and labor shortage for the following decades. This war, with the following wars with the Manchurians, marks the end of Early Chosun.
(5)      There are claims that Eulsa Treaty was signed by Koreans to protect themselves from other colonial powers. This is not true. Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eulsa_Treaty



Chapters 11-14 (as of September 25th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

The History of Confucian Education in China and Korea

1. Introduction
2. Before the Han Dynasty
2.1 Early Confucianism
2.2 Daoism
3. The Han Dynasty
4. Between the Han and the Sui Dynasties
5. The Sui Dynasty
6. The Tang Dynasty
7. The Song Dynasty
7.1 Xinxue Yundong
7.2 Neoconfucianism - Zhu Xi
8. The Yuan Dynasty
9. The Ming Dynasty
9.1 Yangmingxue
9.2 Caigentan
10. The Qing Dynasty
10.1 Before the Confrontation
10.2 Confrontation : the Arrival of the Jesuits
10.2.1 Western Science in China
10.2.2 "Alloy"
10.2.3 Impact on Education
10.3 Confrontation : Arrival of Protestants
10.4 Western Education
10.5 Studying Abroad
11. Korea before Modernization
11.1 Goryeo
11.2 Chosun
12. Korea in the Time of Modernization
12.1 Baejae Hakdang
12.2 Ehwa Hakdang
13. Colonization of Korea and Educational Reform
14. Conclusion

XI. Korea before Modernization
         The Confucian education in Korea can be traced back to the time of Goryeo Dynasty, which lasted from 10th century to 14th century. Though there were educational institutions, they were far from Confucian educations. For example, there was Taixue in Goguryeo, but it did not serve as a Confucian education center, but a martial art education center for children of nobility. Civil Service examinations were not yet introduced in Korea. (2)

XI.1 Goryeo
         Goryeo Dynasty, in the beginning was a Buddhist state. Taizu of Goryeo emphasized the importance of Buddhism in Goryeo even in his deathbed. The country was managed by rural nobles instead of bureaucrats. Gwangjong, the forth emperor, however, adopted Civil Service Examination as an important part of selecting bureaucrats as a mean to strengthen the central authority. Before Gwangjong, bureaucrats were selected by family heritage. With the new introduction of Examination, the government could select talented young scholars.
         Candidates had to take three tests in order to pass the whole examination. First examination was held all around the country. Candidates who passed the first examination were then allowed to take the second test. Second test was held in Guozijian, central university in Goryeo. Those who passed this exam, along with students who attended Guozijian for three years, could take the final exam called Yebusi. For each test, the government selected about 50 candidates as bureaucrats: 33 for Jinshi, about 15 for Mingjing.
         Nevertheless the Examination was not fully appreciated during Goryeo. Candidates from high-class could be selected without any examination using a system called Yumseoje eventually forming families of nobility that monopolized the civil service. Still, compared to before Goryeo Dynasty, the introduction of Civil Service Examination rationalized the system of selecting the bureaucrats.
         Goryeo had a school system identical to that of Song and Tang. Even the name of the central university, Guozijian, was identical. The division within Guozijian was also identical. In 1308, Guozijian transformed into Sungkyunkwan as it remains until today.

XI.2 Chosun
         In 1392, old Goryeo Dynasty was dissolved by a young general named Lee Sunggye. He built new Chosun dynasty that would last until 1910. During Chosun Dynasty, Confucian education in Korea reached at its peak. Chosun Dynasty, in contrast to Goryeo Dynasty which was a Buddhist state, was a Confucian state. One of its main goals was to promote Confucianism and prohibit Buddhism. Thus, Confucian education was crucial in Chosun government.
         Chosun government first reformed the class system. By law, there were only two classes: peasants and slaves. In reality, there were four classes: Confucian scholars, middle class, peasants and slaves. Since the law granted equal class between Confucian scholars, middle class and peasants, even peasants were allowed to take Civil Service Examination and become part of bureaucracy. By entering a certain level bureaucracy, one could become a member of Confucian scholars. In contrast, those who were born in the Confucian scholar family had the obligation to pass the examination. If there were no bureaucrats for two generations in a row, one would become a middle-class.
         With this new reformed class system, there was a high incentive of taking the Civil Service Examination. Almost everyone from the Confucian scholar family took the examination.
         Chosun also denied the social status of monks. In Goryeo, Monks were regarded equally as nobility. Monks were exempted from military service, drafted labor and taxation. Since there was a large incentive of becoming a monk, a large portion of Goryeo population became a monk, weakening the national defenses and economy. To prevent such phenomenon, Chosun decided to deny the monks. But Chosun exempted Confucian scholars from military service and drafted labor.
         With all these efforts to promote Confucianism, Chosun successfully transformed Korea which had been under Buddhist rule for about a millennium.
         Chosun's new Civil Service Examination was different from other Civil Service Examinations. Goryeo's Civil Service Examination was modeled directly after Tang's Imperial Examination with Jinshi and Mingjing Examinations. Chosun's Civil Service Examination, on the other hand, had a level of examination for bureaucrats.
         The first level, Sogua, consisted of two examinations: Sengwongua and Jinsagua. After passing one of these examinations, the candidate could become a low bureaucrat in the provincial government or enter a Sungkyunkwan, the central university. In Sungkyunkwan, students were taught with Confucian classics by renowned scholars in Korea. The students were awarded with points for each attendance in class. After earning more than 300 points, students were then qualified for Daegua which was held every 3 years.
         Daegua consisted of three tests: chosi, boksi and finally Junsi. Chosi was held in autumn and was open to everybody who passed Sogua. Chosi was separated into three kinds: Guansi for Sungkyunkwan students, Hangsungsi for scholars not from Sungkyunkwan but living near Seoul, and Hyangsi for scholars in areas other than Seoul. 250 candidates were selected in Chosi, with quotas for each kind of test. Sungkyunkwan students were granted with high quota, thus all Sungkyunkwan students could pass the test.
         250 candidates then took Boksi in next spring. Boksi selected 33 candidates for Junsi, which was intended for ranking, not selecting. 33 candidates were ranked from 1st to 33rd, and were categorized according to their ranks. Those in the highest category were selected to be the middle ranking bureaucrats, which were considered a high position for a young man of 20s.
         Some prominent scholars took the test more than necessary. Lee Yulgok, for example, took his first Sogua when he was twelve. After he passed his first test, he constantly engaged in special tests that were held to celebrate auspicious occasions such as the birth of a royal heir. Including the three final tests for Daegua, he was in the first place in 9 tests. Lee Yulgok, famous throughout his contemporaries for his accomplishment in Civil Service Examinations, became a widely known Confucian scholar in East Asia. As a sign of respect towards this renowned scholar, Koreans printed his face on 5000 won banknote.
         In early Chosun, Shuyuan also started to appear in Chosun, as Seowon. Like in China, Seowon also became the head of academic centers, forming new philosophical schools. Scholars, after retiring from politics, usually went to Seowons to train new generation of scholars.
         Early Seowons were not exempted from taxation. However, Lee Hwang, the famous academic rival of Lee Yulgok, persuaded the king to select several Seowons and exempt them from taxation, just like in Song and Ming Dynasty. Lee Hwang himself also built one of the most famous Seowons in Korea, called Dosan Seowon. His Seowon is so famous that it is even on the Korean 1000 Won banknote.
         At the time of Lee Hwang, Lee Yulgok (about 1500s) until Japanese invasion in 1592 (3), Seowons flourished and became the center of Confucian discussions. After the invasion, however, it became the center of corruption, as in Ming Dynasty. Scholar nobility started forming parties based on Seowons. These parties favored selecting candidates from same Seowon, which also meant corruption in Civil Service Examination. Since exams were coordinated and graded by the bureaucrats, the exams easily corrupted. Furthermore, because of tax exemption, hundreds of Seowons were built around the country, decreasing the national tax revenue, weakening Chosun government.

XII. Korea in the Time of Modernization
         While Chosun was suffering from corrupted bureaucracy, it was also exposed to Western influence: through either direct contact or through Qing. As a direct contact, during 17th century, Dutch sailors who were shipwrecked on their way to Japan arrived in Korea. Jan Jansz. Weltevree was the first westerner to naturalize as Korean. As a canon expert, he taught Korean Army how to make western canons that were superior to that of Chosen, a ruling Korean Dynasty from 15th to early 20th century. In 1653, Hendrick Hamel arrived in Korea. After he escaped from Korea, he wrote about Korea, introducing Korea to the west.
         These direct contacts were, however, a rare occasions, since Korean government was suspicious about westerners. Korean scholars, unable to gain information from westerners, had to obtain them from trade with Qing. Trade with Qing introduced Christianity and western science in Korea. Many scholars who were at first interested in western science eventually became involved with Christianity. One of the ambassadors to Qing named Lee Seunghun even got baptized as Peter. After his return to Korea, Christianity widely spread in Korea, carrying out weekly mass without any missionary. Since there were no missionary in Korea, Lee Seunghun had to baptize others. Those who were not even interested in western culture began to converting to Christianity (more precisely Catholicism)
         Since Christianity promoted equality and was believed by scholars who were far from politics, Christians in Korea advocated reforms. As Christian population increased, the conservative politicians in Korea began to persecute Christianity. These massive persecutions prevented western science and education introduced in Korea
         Korean government remained hostile towards the western culture and education even in 19th century. Under Heungseon Daewongun, who ruled Chosun Dynasty instead of his son, Gojong, Korean government followed the policy of isolation, prohibiting any westerners on Korean soil. The only way for the prominent students to be educated in western way was to study abroad. The students, like Chinese students, also went to Japan, U.S and Europe dreaming of modernized Korea.
         While Korean government was following the policy of isolation, there were some politicians advocating reform and westernization. In 1882, these politicians managed to send Heungseon Daewongun to exile, ending the policy of isolation.
         With the legalization of Christianity that followed Heungseon Daewongun¡¯s abdication, Western education flourished in Korea, starting with new western schools that still remain today as universities and high schools.

XII.1 Baejae Hakdang
         Established in 1885, shortly after the legalization of Christianity in Korea, by Henry Appenzeller, an American missionary in Korea, Baejae Hakdang was the first western school in Korea. It was like the modern day secondary and high school. When it first opened in 1885, there were only two students in Baejae Hakdang. The number of students, however, increased year by year. Finally, in 1895, Korean government made a contract with the government to educate 200 government selected students. This contract shows how much the government of Korea recognized Baejae Hakdang as an educational institution.
         Baejae Hakdang introduced dozens of subjects that Koreans were unfamiliar with, including World History, Geography and Chemistry. Surprisingly, all the subjects were taught in English except for Bible and Korean, so the graduates from Baejae could communicate with foreigners fluently.
         Like in China, Baejae Hakdang raised several prominent figures in Korean history, such as Ju Sigyeong, the father of Korean modern linguistics. He entered Baejae Hakdang in 1894 and graduated in 1897.
         Lee Seungman, the first president of Republic of Korea, also attended Baejae Hakdang. Lee, however, was arrested in 1897 for anti-Japanese monarchy demonstration. He could not finish the curriculum in Baejae Hakdang. Instead of returning to Baejae, Lee went to America to study abroad and stayed in the U.S until Korean independence in 1945.

XII.2 Ehwa Hakdang
         Ewha Hakdang was established in 1886 by Mary Scranton, the first female missionary in Korea. Since it was established by a female missionary, it was for female students only. Prior to 19th century, education was not permitted for women in Korea. Most of them could not read or write. As a first female educational institution in Korea, its goal was to educate women "as a better Korean". It is not a surprising fact that Ewha woman's University that was added to Ewha Hakdang in 1910 became the center of feminism in Korea after independence.
         Like Baejae, Ewha also had distinguished school rule: Students were not allowed to marry during school years. Those wishing to marry had to drop out of school. This rule was abolished only recently in 2003.

         These reforms, however, were not funded by the government, unlike China. Furthermore, Korea failed to have any long lasting national reform movement. There were two major reform movements: Gap-sin coup, and Gap-o reform. In 1884, young radical group of politicians, led by Kim Okgyun, who was by then only 33, raided the royal palace and established a new government. This is called Gap-sin coup. Kim Okgyun believed that his coup would be a modern bourgeois revolution, ensuring equality and freedom for every Chosun citizens, under a constitutional monarchy. In practice, Gap-sin coup abolished Confucian scholar nobles, meaning educational equality among all citizens. The new government, however, only lasted for 3 days, as Min family, a family of conservative politicians, contacted Qing for aid. Consequently, Gap-sin coup failed, and politicians involved in this coup were exiled or executed. Kim Okgyun escaped to Japan and stayed in Fukuzawa Yukichi¡¯s house. He was eventually assassinated by a gunman named Hong Jongwoo, the first Korean student to study in France.

XIII Colonization of Korea and Educational Reform
         Japanese started to directly involve in Korean politics since Gap-O reform. In 1894, Japanese demanded Korean government to undergo major reforms. As Japanese defeated Qing in 1895, Japanese built a pro-Japanese cabinet in Korea as a result of this reform. This reform is Gap-O reform. Pro-Japanese cabinet first abolished Civil Service Examination and the class system that was reintroduced after Gap-sin coup failed. They also had social, political reforms, such as prohibiting early marriage, allowing widows to remarry.
         These reforms were severely criticized by contemporaries who were rather conservative. The height of this anger reaches its apex during the third cabinet when the government commanded men to cut their hair short in western style. The installation of western schools across the country also angered conservative Confucian scholars. Russians, in favor of such chaos, started to interfere with Korean politics, ending Gap-O reform. Kim Hong-jib, the leader of all these reforms, was forced to abdicate, and was killed by angry mobs in front of Royal palace
         Russians, however, were forced to leave after Japanese won Russo-Japanese war in early 20th century, reintroducing Japanese rule and reforms. With western schools, and new Japanese bureaucratic system introduced, Confucian education was unnecessary for becoming an official.
         On the other hand, Japanese officials were readying for annexing Korea as their colony. First, they stole the diplomatic rights of the Korean government. Thus, Korean government lost its right to send ambassadors to other countries. Next, they installed the Residency-General in Korea, directly controlling the Korean politics

XIV Conclusion
         As explained throughout the paper, each dynasty had its own governing style. Han, starter of Confucian government, made several systems that would serve throughout the Chinese history. Sui and Tang made Imperial Examination and structured central education system, known as Guozijian. Song was the peak of Confucian education with shuyuan, and several reforms to Imperial Examination. Finally Ming, although reformed from defenseless Song, was a setback, Shuyuan being the center of the political power and corruption.
         Nevertheless, Chinese Confucian ideas were evolving through dynasties; old Confucian ideas to Neo-Confucian ideas including Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming. In Qing, it eventually evolves into a scientific philosophy, like mechanism in the West, proposing the idea of "shishiqiushi"
         Confucian ideas, unlike the common belief as conservative, inert principles, did change through two millenniums, assimilating other beliefs of Buddhism and Daoism. They also promoted education, establishing central university in Han Dynasty, a millennium faster than the west. We should acknowledge that Confucian ideas were useful and beneficial to education, unlike the common belief.

Notes

(2)      There is a record of Civil Service examination in Shilla. The examination was, however, not considered as tool of joining the bureaucracy. It was more like an academic competition.
(3)      Invasion by Japanese Daimyo Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1592. Ended in 1598 as Toyotomi Hideyoshi ordered his troops to retreat in his deathbed. Although Korea was victorious, Korea suffered from irreversible damages: Royal Palaces, Temples, Seowons were burnt down and about 500 thousand Korean civilians were slaughtered by Japanese soldiers. Farmlands were also greatly damaged, causing famine and labor shortage for the following decades. This war, with the following wars with the Manchurians, marks the end of Early Chosun.




Second Draft (as of September 19th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

The History of Confucian Education in China

1. Introduction
2. Before the Han Dynasty
2.1 Early Confucianism
2.2 Daoism
3. The Han Dynasty
4. Between the Han and the Sui Dynasties
5. The Sui Dynasty
6. The Tang Dynasty
7. The Song Dynasty
7.1 Xinxue Yundong
7.2 Neoconfucianism - Zhu Xi
8. The Yuan Dynasty
9. The Ming Dynasty
9.1 Yangmingxue
9.2 Caigentan
10. The Qing Dynasty
10.1 Before the Confrontation
10.2 Confrontation : the Arrival of the Jesuits
10.2.1 Western Science in China
10.2.2 "Alloy"
10.2.3 Impact on Education
10.3 Confrontation : Arrival of Protestants
10.4 Western Education
10.5 Studying Abroad
11. Korea in the Time of Modernization
12. Conclusion

I. Introduction
         Confucianism emerged in c.500 BC to become the principle philosophy in East Asia. As a governing philosophy, Confucianism was mandatory for the future officials in the government. Thus, Confucianism became highly related to education.
         Although Confucianism served as a basic belief for several dynasties, each dynasty had different characteristics in governing styles. In this paper, the characteristics of each dynasty would be discussed in detail. Mainly three topics would be discussed: National Education (Guozijian), Imperial Examination and Confucian philosophy in that era.

II. Confucianism before the Han Dynasty
         The essential Chinese academic starts from Hundred Schools of Thought before Qin unified China. Hundred Schools of thought actually emerged to provide philosophical backgrounds for warlords in this era: Spring and autumn Era and Warring Era. During this era, under the financial protection of warlords, dozens of philosophical schools were established by famous philosophers, notably Confucianism, Legalism, Daoism, Mohism.

II.1 Early Confucianism
         Confucianism was established by Confucius (551 BC ~ 479 BC) who is from Qufu in modern Shandong province. Because era he was born in was chaotic, divided, with continuing warfare, Confucius did not stay in one place for long. In his early age, he became a bureaucrat of his own country and eventually became famous for his well-management. However, frustrated by greedy warlords and politicians, and several attempts to harm him, he eventually began travelling around the whole China, giving lectures. His lectures are currently recorded as a book form known as "The Analects" By giving lectures all across China, he made hundreds of disciples.
         His teachings emphasized "yi" Although he did not directly defined what "yi" actually is, throughout "Analects", he constantly gives lectures on what yi is. "Yi" can be best interpreted as "righteousness" in English and Analects is all about explaining what is right. Some of his examples are followings: Respect for elders and ancestors (Filial Piety), doing one's own duty (Loyalty), studying, following the "Mandate of Heaven" One of the most famous lines about studying (Start of Analects) is

Chinese language sentence

This means that one should be happy when one either studies hard, or meets a friend from far away. One is an "awakened man" if one does not get upset for being ignored. This quotation depicts essential points of Confucian philosophy, emphasizing the importance of studying and friendship.
         Confucianism meets its new era under Mencius (372 BC~ 289 BC), who was born in Warring period. Although he was not a direct disciple of Confucius, he was able to get Confucian studies from Confucius' grandson. His teachings are recorded in a book "Mencius"
         In addition to Confucian teachings, he believed that all men are born moral. Giving a baby falling into a deep well as an example, he asserted that no one will leave the baby to danger since everyone is born morally good. Furthermore, he also believed that the removal a monarch who does not deserve to be a monarch (or simply a tyrant) can be justified, by the "Mandate of Heaven".

II.2 Daoism
         Daoism, like Confucianism, was based on two great philosophers: Lao zi (? -?) and Zhuang zi (Around 4th Century BC) Lao zi, however, is remained in a mystery. The existence of Lao zi is sometimes doubted by several scholars. According to a Chinese legend, before Lao zi left China, a guardsman who recognized Lao zi begged for a teaching. As an answer, he wrote a short book which is now called 'Daodejing', the "bible" of Daoism.
         Lao zi emphasized on what modern people might call "harmony" He believed that people are behaving unnaturally against ¡°Dao¡± which is the source of all problems. Men must form harmony with "Dao" and stay natural.
         Daoism was widely accepted by anti-Confucian scholars. These scholars, according to some Chinese legends, became hermit or farmer in remote regions of China. Daoism, unlike Confucianism, is now more like a religion, rather than a philosophy. Lao zi became a mythical figure worshiped by Daoist followers.

II.3 Legalism
         Developed comparatively later than other two major philosophies, it was developed by Han Fei (280 BC - 233 BC), a member of ruling class in the state of Han. Strangely, he served in Qin court, not in his own family¡¯s court. Serving as Qin Emperor¡¯s advisor, he was the one who laid the foundations of the unified China.
         Han Fei, unlike Mencius, believed that men are born evil. To control men, he asserted the usage of Fa (Law), Shu (Technique), and Shi (Power). For a monarch to successfully control his servants and bureaucrats, Han Fei believed power is necessary, just like Machiavelli in the West. This power meant strict control over the bureaucrats who are apt to betray. Technique is for the servants to serve the ruler; how to please and aid the ruler. Furthermore, technique is needed to govern the people with punishment and prize. Lastly, with law, the government can punish people who are not following to the monarch's order. With harsh punishment, Han Fei believed that everyone would submit under a powerful monarch, bringing peace.
         Han Fei, before Qin Emperor unified China, was executed due to his friend's persecutions. Nevertheless, the history records that Qin Emperor always missed Han Fei after the execution, since there were no advisor as good as Han Fei.
         Although legalism led to the systematical rule of Qin Dynasty by promoting the growth of a large Qin army, Legalism gave the means for the monarch to oppress the conquered populations. Many of them were sent to the construction of the "Great Wall" and were not allowed to regional dialects of writings. (At that time, Chinese Character was not unified in China) Only Qin¡¯s weights, measures, currency, and writings were allowed in the newly unified empire. In addition to all these, Qin Emperor also wanted to unify the philosophy of the empire. He began burning the books of Confucianism and Daoism. He then buried Confucian scholars alive. This eventually led to resistance against Qin Dynasty and the new empire only lasted for 15 years, leading to a new Han Dynasty.

III The Han Dynasty
         Han Dynasty was more than just a new dynasty. It meant a new governing philosophy. Oppressive rule of Qin triggered revolts in dozens of regions in China. As a result, Han Dynasty emerged under the rule of Liu Bang, the first emperor of Han. Han Dynasty, unlike its predecessor, was more tolerant in governing its subjects. Liu Bang, in an attempt to please its subjects, divided the country into several feudal states.
         At first, Han Dynasty pursued Daoist policies. According to Laozi, one must be natural in ruling a country. Thus, instead of being oppressive, Han pursued a policy of tolerance, ruling subjects ¡°naturally¡±. Emperor Wu of Han (157 BC - 87 BC; Reign 141 BC - 87 BC), however, thought Daoist policy was inappropriate for a bigger state. Promoting large territorial conquests throughout East Asia, Emperor Wu adopted Confucian policy instead of old Daoist policy of toleration.
         With Confucian philosophy as the official state philosophy, Han Dynasty went through a major reform. First, knowledge on Confucian Classics was compulsory for those who were to be bureaucrats. Second, aristocrats served Han Dynasty as a civil servant, under the nine-rank system.
         Emperor Wu, furthermore, established a new government Academy called "Taixue" as the highest educational academy, in Chang¡¯an, the capital of Han. Under Emperor Ping, the nationwide government school system was introduced. These institutions mainly taught Confucian teachings and Chinese poetry. Those who became qualified to become bureaucrats through test in Taixue eventually went on to a civil service, and were adept to civil services Not only that, with this system, the Han Dynasty could pick the best bureaucrats from all across the country.
         The number of students in Taixue, even during Han Dynasty, continued to grow. In the era of East Han, for example, there were so many students in Taixue that yearly examination was introduced in Taixue.

IV Between Han and Sui
         Han Dynasty eventually collapsed due to the corruption within the empire. However, the end of the empire did not mean the end of education and Confucianism. The following dynasties also adopted some of the Han¡¯s system, though not as successful as Han
         Cao Pi (187 AD - 226 AD; Reign 220 AD - 226 AD), the second son of Cao Cao, one of the main heroes in "Romance of Three Kingdoms", and the first emperor of Wei adopted the nine-rank system to his new empire. The nine-rank system showed how high one¡¯s rank is compared to other civil servants. Though Cao Pi adopted the nine-rank system, he failed to establish a education academy and pass examination. Bureaucrats were only selected by recommendation instead. Obviously, candidates from higher family inherited the higher rank. Since bureaucrats were not selected based on skills, the efficiency of government declined. With ineffective government, Wei Dynasty could not unify the Three Kingdoms.

V Sui
         Sui and Tang Dynasty periods were apex of Chinese culture development. After unifying a long period of chaos, Sui Dynasty began several reforms within the country, just like Emperor Qin did.
         First, the emperor began building a canal between Hwanghe and Yangzi River that goes through Chinese mainland. By doing so, he believed that it would foster water transportation.
         Second, he began a massive invasion conquest twice to Goguryeo and also to Vietnam. Goguryeo, with its best cavalrymen and bowmen, defeated Sui invasion, which greatly weaken Sui. Vietnam, with its war-elephants, though failed to defeat Sui army, its tropical diseases hindered Sui conquest. Sui eventually had to retreat from Vietnam
         Third, Sui began rebuilding the Great Wall to stop northern invasions, but this also required a lot of labor force
         With three massive projects, Sui became exhausted of labor force, leading to massive revolts, just like in Qin's case.
         Still, as a unified empire, Sui imposed several reforms in education. Wendi (541 - 601 AD; Reign 581 - 601 AD) established Guozisi under which there were many professional branches such as dalisi where they taught laws. Yangdi (569 - 618 AD; Reign 604 - 618 AD), the second emperor, restored Confucian education system and Confucian test system in 606 AD. He also replaced Guozisi, which was established by Wendi, the first emperor, with Guozijian in place of Taixue in Han dynasty. Guozijian was composed of Taixue and Guozixue. Taixue was for Gongsheng, students from the public. Guozixue was for the noble students.
         However, just like the Qin Dynasty, Sui did not last long, because of the revolts. The difference is that it occurred from one of Sui monarch's relatives. Losing strong central authority mainly due to failed military conquest, Li family from the North West led a coup against Sui, establishing a new Dynasty of Tang.
         Li Yuan, the first cousin of Yangdi, with his sons marched into Chang¡¯an, the capital of the empire. After Yangdi died, Li Yuan (566 - 635 AD; Reign 618 - 626 AD) claimed himself as the new Emperor in 618 as Gaozu of Tang. Soon afterwards, Gaozu was enforced to abdicate from his throne by his own son, the legendary Li Shimin (599 AD - 649 AD; Reign 626 AD - 649 AD) who soon became Taizong of Tang.
         Although it was politically unstable in the beginning, because Li family was a powerful clan, and Li Shimin was a great general for Tang's army, Tang brought peace and prosperity to China, becoming the most prosperous Dynasty ever in Chinese history.

VI. Tang
         Under Tang, Sui's educational institutions remained and flourished. Guozijian had more than 3000 students at the time of Tang's first emperor. Guozijian not only had prominent students, but also had great professors. In addition, there were students from overseas: Three kingdoms of Korea, Japan and Vietnam. Famous of all, Choi Chi Won (857 - ?) from Silla, Korea studied in Guozijian. He is recorded as one of the best writers in Korean history.
         In Guozijian, there were several separate institutes. Hongwenguan was for the descendents of the nobility, supplying most of the new students. Zongwenguan was for the descendants of bureaucrats in the first level, the highest level, Guoziyuan for above third level, Taixue for above fifth level and Xiwenxue for above seventh level. Thus Zhongwenguan and Hongwenguan were considered superior than other institutes.
         Most of the students came from the ruling class: descendents of nobility or high-ranking bureaucrats. Obviously, social structure of China impeded commoners from learning and becoming a high-class official. Commoners, from young age, had to involve in agrarian works. There was no time to actually study. Nevertheless, there were some exceptions. Those from commoners who were considered to be exceptionally brilliant were selected by the district officials to take an examination for Taixue.
         Students in Guozijian could take two kinds of courses: 6 year graduation course or 9 year graduation course, regardless of subject. To become an official, they had take three tests in Guozijian. First, test on Confucian teachings every 10 days, second, annual test on lessons during one full year, and graduation test. For the annual test, the students were separated into three groups according to their score. Those in the lowest class had to take a year again. When suspended thrice, the student was to graduate in 9 years. When suspended four times, the student was expelled.
         During Tang, not only the central education institution, but also private academies were also established all around the country, especially in the rural areas. Shuyuan, the private academy, was first introduced during Tang in 725. Though Shuyuan was a private academy, but emperors granted Shuyuans with books from Guozijian, a tradition that is also practiced during Song.
         Tang, continuing the effort of Sui's Yangdi, established Imperial examinations to select bureaucrats and reformed nine-rank system. Tang's first Imperial examination was held in 726 AD. There were two kinds of Imperial examination: Jinshi, and Mingjing. Jinshi test required candidates to write essay and poem. Mingjing, on the other hand, required candidates to have a certain level of knowledge on Confucian writings. Only 30 candidates could pass Jinshi test, whereas about 100 passed Mingjing test, thus there was more competition in Jinshi test, which made officials from Jinshi test preferred over those from Mingjing Test. Those who passed Jinshi test with high score first got the office of fifth level, and those who passed Mingjing test with high score got the office of 5th to 8th level. But, in the later period, and following dynasties, Jinshi test was less preferred.
         Later, during the reign of Empress Wu (625 - 705 AD; Reign 690 - 705 AD) a martial subject was added to Imperial Examination to select military officers in Tang's army.
         During the early period of application, Imperial Examination favored those with skills and talents. However, in the later period, Imperial Examination became useless. Relatives of high officials were placed in the high position, instead of prominent bureaucrats with high knowledge. This led to the corruption within the bureaucracy, triggering the fall of once prosperous Tang Dynasty.

VII. Song
         Song Dynasty was an era of Renaissance of Confucianism. Revisions on Confucianism were made and Imperial Examinations were finally well institutionalized. Furthermore, Shuyuans in rural areas flourished.
         With corrupted bureaucracy, the Tang government soon lost control over provinces. Prominent warlords then started to declare independence from Tang, leading to 5 dynasties and 10 kingdoms era for about 50 years from 907 AD to 960 AD. In 960 AD, Song Dynasty finally unified China after several successful military conquests by Emperor Taizu (927 - 976 AD; Reign 960 - 976) of Song.
         Taizu believed that bureaucrats should be selected according to their skills and knowledge, not by their family heritage. Therefore, Taizu promoted Confucian studies in his state. He also believed that studies and writings are more important than military power, which is quoted as "....."
         Alike Tang, Song used Guozijian as the national university, in capital, Kaifeng, without much difference. The major difference between Song and Tang was first, private academies (Shuyuan). Although Shuyuan was first introduced in late Tang Dynasty, it was during Song Dynasty when many famous Shuyuans were promoted and flourished, such as White Deer Grotto Academy.
         White Deer Grotto Academy is located in Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province. It was first established during 5 dynasties and 10 kingdoms period, as a national school under Southern Tang, one of the states in that period. The name "White Deer Grotto" derives from a famous Tang poet, Li Bo (701 - 762 AD) who used teach in JiuJiang after his retirement as a bureaucrat. Li Bo had a white deer as his pet. Honoring the great poet, people named the school after the poet. As Song unified China and promoted Confucian studies, it was transformed into an academy.
         Although it was a private institution, Song still promoted these academies. Song emperor selected several Shuyuans and gave them special honor with official rank and books. White Deer Grotto Academy is one of those academies with special honor. Some academies received calligraphic name board, written by the emperor himself. This was considered as a great honor for the academy.
         Another main difference between Song and Tang was Imperial Examination. Song was the first dynasty in Chinese history to fully utilize the examination system. There were several reforms to revolutionize Imperial Examination, called Xingxueyundong

VII.1 Xinxue Yundong
         There were three reforms. First reform in 1044 AD under Emperor Renzong (1010 - 1063 AD; Reign 1022 -1063 AD) was aimed to reform educational institutions and Imperial Examination. The number faculty in educational institutions greatly increased. Song also built schools in every province. Above all, Imperial Examination was simplified into three subjects; poem, Confucian theory and writing essay, shortening the test taking time.
         Second reform in 1071 AD under Emperor Shenzong (1048 - 1085 AD; Reign 1067 - 1085 AD) reformed Taixue, by separating the institution into three levels: Xiashe, Zhongshe, Shangshe The division was depended on the grade of the students, Xiashe being the lowest and Shangshe being the highest.
         During the second reform, there were some scholars who believed that there should be some changes regarding the Imperial Examination. Wang Anshi (1021 - 1086 AD), as one of those scholars, asserted that poetry section of the test and Mingjing test should be abolished, promoting Jinshi test and essay writing instead. Furthermore, he also addressed the need for military tactic training. His advice, however, was not accepted by the government.
         Third reform in 1102 AD was not a significant reform. It was only to expand the three levels even to district schools. Schools, like Taixue, were also categorized into three groups.

VII.2 Neoconfucianism - Zhu xi
         During Song Dynasty, new interpretation on Confucian thoughts began to emerge, as a result of thorough research on Confucius teachings, and abundant Academies. This new interpretation is known as "Neo-Confucianism"
         One of the main scholars of Neo-Confucianism was Zhu Xi (1130 - 1200 AD). Zhu Xi wrote commentaries for four main books of Confucian belief: Mencius, Analects, Daxue, Zhongyong. He then emphasized that these books should be the essentials of Confucianism.
         Zhu Xi also tried to combine Daoist and Buddhist aspects into Confucianism and created Confucian Metaphysical philosophy. He believed that everything exists because of the union of qi, physical force and li, rational law. Furthermore, li comes from Taiji, the "Great Ultimate", supreme law of the nature. Zhu Xi borrowed the idea of Taiji from Daoism. The interaction between qi and li creates yin and yang. The alternation of yin and yang creates nature's five elements: fire, water, soil, metal, wood.
         He also asserted the order of knowledge and action, the main topic for Neo-Confucian debates in the further years to come. He claimed that knowledge comes first, then action, since one must think before act. His idea, however, is disputed for the next centuries to come.
         To teach his students, he had to establish Academy (Shuyuan). He reestablished White Deer Grotto Academy, which was closed at his time. In White Deer Grotto Academy, he could establish his own school of Confucianism, now known as Zhuzixue, after his name. His school spread across the East Asia: Korea, Japan, influencing their thoughts for the next millennium. Chinese on the other hand, established their new Confucian thoughts during Ming and Qing Dynasty.

VIII Yuan
         In 13th Century, mankind witnessed one of the largest military conquests ever by the Mongols. Mongols, led by Kublai Khan (1215 - 1294 AD; Reign 1271 - 1294 AD), eventually ended Song dynasty, which even resisted against the Manchurian invasion before
         Mongols were ruthless conquerors. They discriminated against Hans by refusing them as bureaucrats. But, Mongols used Confucian governmental system to avoid resistance from Hans. They also kept Guozijian, and built their own Guozixue and professional schools teaching medicine, Mongols, and Yin and Yang. They also built Mongol style schools in rural areas to educate people in Mongolian way. In 1313, Yuan restarted Imperial Examination to select bureaucrats, testing on Four Books (1) with Zhu Xi's commentaries.
         Nevertheless, these policies could not soothe the discriminated Hans. Mongol style schools especially made peasants upset, by emphasizing that Hans are inferior to Mongols. This led to major rebellions throughout China, ending short-lived Yuan Dynasty.

IX Ming
         Through peasants' rebellion, some Han warlords gained political dominance in particular regions. Zhu Yuanzhang (1328 - 1398 AD; Reign 1368 - 1398 AD) was one of those warlords. He was a poor Buddhist monk. But by joining Red Turbans, one of the biggest revolt groups, he gained political influence. By assassination and wars, he eventually defeated other rebels and commanders in Red Turbans. Finally he seized and took the capital of Yuan, today¡¯s Beijing, uniting China and establishing new Ming Dynasty. Zhu Yuanzhang became HongWu Emperor of Ming
         Under Ming, China again went through a tremendous academic success, since Ming also emphasized the importance of Confucian studies. Unlike Song, on the other hand, Ming never neglected the importance of strong military power. Just as the suggestion by Wang Anshi during Song dynasty, Ming installed professional schools, along with Guozijian. Ming's Guozijian not only had their own students, but also students from overseas, just like Tang's Guozijian. Students from Chosun (Present Korea) and Ryukyu came to Ming to study in Guozijian. Guozijian also favored the descendents of high bureaucrats, which is just like that of Tang. Thus, it can be concluded that Tang's Guozijian and Ming's Guozijian were very similar. To enhance national defenses, Ming also installed defense schools in border regions. To promote education, all provinces also had school of their own, 1 school per 35 houses.
         Imperial Examination in Ming dynasty included Zhuzixue and both four books and five classics. By including Zhuzixue, Ming could select an official who has a profound knowledge in Confucian philosophy, since Zhuzixue was a study that integrated Confucian studies prior to Song along with Daoist and Buddhist beliefs. Although the subject of the test widened, the actual test became increasingly structured. Candidates had to use limited number of characters, write on limited topics, and even use same writing structure. Thus, selected officials were homogenous, without diversity. This was the difference between Tang Dynasty. Tang even selected foreigners as bureaucrats. There are even records and statues of Arabs who became officials in Tang.
         Academies in Ming, unlike Academies in Song era, were the source of corruption. The graduates from a particular academy began to form groups in politics, allowing officials from certain Shuyuans to dominate the office. They impeded practical debate over national affairs, eventually leading to the fall of Ming Dynasty over Manchurians. In the last days of Ming, some scholars who were disgusted with these politics ironically went into Donglin Academies, refraining from dirty politics.
         Though Ming's Confucian seems rather degenerated, there were several major achievements: Yangmingxue.

IX 1 Yangmingxue
         Yangmingxue, like Zhouzixue, is a branch of Neo-Confucianism by Wang Yangming (1472 - 1529 AD), a Ming philosopher, opposing Zhouzixue. When it first started, Wang Yangming was considered a heretic.
         Unlike Zhou Xi, Wang believed that knowledge does not come before one¡¯s action. He believed that knowledge and action are simultaneous, and it is impossible to know before action, since it is not real but delusion. Furthermore, he also asserted that every person has innate morality. Every man can distinguish between good and evil since they are born. Zhou Xi said it is li and qi, thus outside forces that shapes the world. Wang refuted this idea. He believed it is our mind that shapes the world, by perceiving the way it is.
         Wang's idea was essentially different from Zhou's idea. In Korea, Wang¡¯s idea was not accepted by scholars, since it was considered "not right". In Japan, Wang's idea was accepted by some scholars trying to link Shinto and Confucianism. It was a sensation to the whole East Asia academic society.

IX 2 Caigentan
         Caigentan is a well quoted book on how to behave morally, written by Hongzicheng. Hongzicheng was a student who failed for Imperial Examination because of the corruption of the officials. As he was not a member of a prominent Shuyuan, he failed the every test he applied.
         Critical about Confucian ideas, he then tried to combine Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism in his book, teaching readers how to actually behave in certain situations. Thus, it can be argued that Daoism and Buddhism were also seen as an alternative to Confucianism, in some aspects better, breaking the inert academic ambience.
         Although his book is well written, due to his failures in tests, he is not well known. This shows the absurd aspects of Ming Dynasty.

X Qing
         Ming Dynasty, towards the end, suffers from uprisings all over the country. Since Ming in the later era could not suppress the rebellions, some Generals decided to betray Ming and call Manchurians for aid. Manchurians, who were by then unified by Nurhachi, one of the tribe chiefs of Manchurians, established a Houjin Kingdom (or Later Jin Kingdom). Manchurians, using their professional cavalrymen, could cross the Great Wall without any resistance, since Ming general opened the gates for them.
         Manchurians then seized the capital of Ming, which is modern day Beijing. The last emperor of Ming committed suicide just outside the Forbidden City, starting the new Qing Dynasty, the prelude to the upcoming confrontations with the western Imperial Powers.

X 1 Before the Confrontation
         The early Qing had to copy Ming's system, since Manchurians were only forming tribes before they conquered Qing. That is why Koreans and Han subjugates of Qing considered Manchurians as barbarians. Thus, it was inevitable for Qing to stick to Ming's policy. Nevertheless, like the Mongols, Qing also established separate institutions for Manchurians and Mongols, such as Zhongxue, where only Mongols and Manchurians could enter. Overall, there was not much change between Ming and Qing in Qing's early era. Even Imperial Examination was similar to that of Ming. Imperial Examination of Qing only became stricter compared to that of Ming to choose Han Intelligentsia who could aid Manchurians in ruling Qing. But the confrontation with the west greatly shakes this system of Qing.

X 2 Confrontation : Arrival of the Jesuits
         The trade between China and the West goes up to the time of Han Dynasty. The trade flourished during Yuan Dynasty, the time of Marco Polo. The academic exchange, however, was not significant. Only commodities were the objects of trade.
         In 1552, Francis Xavier, the founding member of the Society of Jesus, arrived in China. Although he was the first priest to arrive in China, he died shortly after the arrival. In 1582, Matteo Ricci, an Italian Jesuit priest, arrived in China. He was invited to the Imperial Court to introduce western mathematics, astronomy, and so on, fascinating Chinese officials. Ming officials were fascinated especially with Western Astronomy since it was considered the evidence of "Mandate of heaven" Johann Adam Schall, a German Jesuit missionary in China was even given a post in mathematical school, developing calendar for Chinese during Qing Dynasty, since it was necessary for Manchurians to legitimize their rule over China.
         Jesuits, on the other hand, introduced Chinese culture to the west by interpreting Confucian Four Books into Latin. The newly introduced Confucian philosophy influenced several philosophers. Jesuit missions, however, began to be oppressed by Vatican in 18th century. Pope was not happy with Catholicism mixing with Chinese philosophy, which was attempted by several Jesuit missionaries.

X 2.1 Western Science in China
         Western Science introduced since late Ming Dynasty had a huge impact. First, Chinese astronomy greatly improved. In the West, with the improved astronomical tools such as telescopes, astronomical phenomena were well-predicted by the scientists. They also calculated the orbit of the other planets. With all their astronomical data combined, Westerners created Gregorian calendar based on the movement of the sun
         On the other hand, Chinese used lunar calendar, which was comparatively imprecise. Chinese astronomers also did not have accurate information about either solar or lunar eclipse. To precisely predict the movement of stars and calculate the calendar, Chinese had already created a separate board, "Board of Mathematics" composed of 200 prominent mathematicians.
         When Jesuits arrived, Chinese officials were fascinated by their knowledge on astronomy. The Qing court even employed Jesuit priests to create precise calendar. One of those missionaries was Johann Adam Schall von Bell. Under ShenZhong Emperor of Qing, he created Chon\gzhen Calendar, precisely predicting the solar and lunar eclipses.

X 2.2 "Alloy"
         Some of the Jesuits believed that Chinese Philosophy had a lot of common grounds with Christianity. Matteo Ricci believed that the ultimate good explained by Confucian philosophers is "Logos" in bible. He then interpreted Four Books into Latin, introducing Confucian to the Europeans. On the other hand, he used this idea to spread Christianity in China, interpreting God as Shangdi or Tian . Since these terms were familiar to Chinese, Ricci had fewer conflicts with traditional Chinese culture.
         These attempts, however, eventually fails as Pope was not favor of Ricci¡¯s idea. He refused to permit "Shangdi" as the Chinese interpretation of God. Furthermore, the Society of Jesus [Jesuits] started to be suppressed by Vatican. Missionaries to overseas were no longer possible by 18th Century.

X 2.3 Impact on Education
         With the western influence, there were growing concerns that Confucian education is unpractical for the new age. However, Jesuits, due to the oppression and insufficient support, failed to establish any educational institution.

X 3 Confrontation : Arrival of the Protestants
         Protestants, unlike Jesuits were not much involved with the Qing court. They were more involved with building churches and schools and actually spreading Christianity in China. Before the Opium Wars, however, there were lots of restrictions by Qing court on Christianity. After the Opium Wars, the restrictions on Protestants were relieved, allowing Western style s chools in China. Unlike the Jesuits, however, Protestants did not try to actually incorporate Chinese Tradition into tradition.

X 4 Western Education
         In 1834, the first Western school called Morrison school was built in Guangzhou, named after a famous missionary, Robert Morrison who built Ying Wa college in Hong Kong. By the late 19th century, there were over 2000 western schools in China, eventually leading to the abolition of Imperial Examination in the early 20th century.
         Qing government also tried to adapt to the new waves of Western education by establishing government institutes such as Tongwen Guan. Established in 1862, Tongwen Guan, like Guozijian was a government institute. But Tongwen Guan taught foreign languages and western science instead of Confucian philosophy. To promote furthermore westernization, Qing ordered young and lower bureaucrats to study at Tongwen Guan.
         Western Education raised a new wave of Chinese Intelligentsias who are in favor of reform. This new wave also motivated Confucian scholars toward reform in every aspect of the society. This caused Hundred Days Reform in 1898.
         During Hundred Days Reform, combining Guozijian and Tongwen Guan, Imperial Capital University was established, which is now Beijing University. It was the first university established in China. Although the Reform failed, the university remains until today, as one of the top world universities.
         In the early 20th century, Qing Dynasty finally imposed its educational reform, imitating that of Japan, called Xinxue Jiaoyu. First, Qing built a modernized schooling system throughout its territory. Then it abolished Imperial Examination, allowing its first step towards modernized education

X 5 Studying Abroad
         In the late 19th century, there were a lot of Chinese students going to Western world by the influence of YangWu Yundong, the modernization movement in Qing from 1860 to 1894. Several notable Chinese intelligentsias who studied abroad would be introduced. Qing court selected several students as national scholarship student. Until 1910, Qing sent over 600 students to the US. However, Qing sent most of its students to a nearby modernized nation: Empire of Japan.
         Unlike other Asian nations, Japan successfully managed to become modernized through Meiji Reform with its philosophers, such as Fukuzawa Yukichi, emphasizing the importance of westernization. By 1900, three major universities of Japan were already established: Tokyo University, Waseda University, and Keio University.
         Furthermore, Japan won the war against Qing in 1894. Qing, who still thought they were the strongest nation in Asia, was humiliated by this defeat. Qing used to belittle Japan by calling them Wo. Growing conscious of need to reform, Qing decided to send students to Japan to practice their old saying from Art of War, "..." meaning "Know your Enemy" In 1896, just two years after the humiliating defeat, Qing sent students to Japan.
         Many notable figures in later Chinese history were actually sent to Japan by Qing government: Zhang Kai-shek, the later leader of Republic of China and Taiwan; Song Jiaoren, the founder of GuominTang; Lu Xun, the famous writer who wrote "A madman's diary" and "The true story of Ah Q"; Chen Duxiu, the founder of Chinese Communist Party; Qiu Jin, a woman revolutionary in China. But this does not mean that only students from Japan became a notable figure in Modern Chinese History. Sun Yat-sen, who is respected as the founding father of both Communist China and Taiwan, was educated in Hawaii, U.S. The difference is that he went to Hawaii without the help of the government, but with the help of his brother who was a successful merchant in Hawaii.
         Along with the abolishment of the old Imperial Examination, these students could easily hold office in Qing government. Ironically, these students eventually trigger Xinhai Revolution, ending Qing Dynasty. These students then build new China, Republic of China what is now Taiwan, and People's Republic of China, what is now China.

XI Korea in the Period of Modernization
         Before modernization, Korea also had a system similar to that of China. They had a government funded
         Like Qing, Korea was also influenced by the west through either direct contact or through Qing. As a direct contact, during 17th century, Dutch sailors who were shipwrecked on their way to Japan arrived in Korea. Jan Jansz. Weltevree was the first westerner to naturalize to Korea. As a canon expert, he taught Korean Army how to make western canons that were superior to that of Chosen, a ruling Korean Dynasty from 15th to early 20th century. In 1653, Hendrick Hamel arrived in Korea. After he escaped from Korea, he wrote about Korea, becoming the first writer to write about Korea.
         The contacts prior to 18th century were mainly of military purpose to enhance Korean army. The religious contact starts when Korean ambassadors to Qing met Matteo Ricci. One of the ambassadors got baptized. After his return to Korea, Christianity began to spread, without the help of any missionary.
         Unlike Qing, however, Chosen government oppressed Christians for political purpose. Since Christians were the opponents of the ruling party, by persecuting Christians, the politicians could eliminate their political enemies. Thus Christianity was not able to spread within Korean society along with western education.
         Korean government was hostile towards the western culture and education. Under Heungseon Daewongun, Korean government followed the policy of isolation, prohibiting any westerners on Korean soil. While Korean government was following the policy of isolation, there were some politicians advocating reform and westernization. In 1882, these politicians managed to send Heungseon Daewongun to exile, ending the policy of isolation.
         Western education then flourished in Korea, starting with new western schools that still remains today as universities and high schools.

XII Conclusion
         As explained throughout the paper, each dynasty had its own governing style. Han, starter of Confucian government, made several systems that would serve throughout the Chinese history. Sui and Tang made Imperial Examination and structured central education system, known as Guozijian. Song was the peak of Confucian education with shuyuan, and several reforms to Imperial Examination. Finally Ming, although reformed from defenseless Song, was a setback, Shuyuan being the center of the political power and corruption.
         Nevertheless, Chinese Confucian ideas were evolving through dynasties; old Confucian ideas to Neo-Confucian ideas including Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming. In Qing, it eventually evolves into a scientific philosophy, like mechanism in the West, proposing the idea of "shishiqiushi"
         Confucian ideas, unlike the common belief as conservative, inert principles, did change through two millenniums, assimilating other beliefs of Buddhism and Daoism. They also promoted education, establishing central university in Han Dynasty, a millennium faster than the west. We should acknowledge that Confucian ideas were useful and beneficial to education, unlike the common belief.

Notes

1  :nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Analects, Mencius, Daxue, Zhongyong
(Bibliography)



First Draft (as of September 9th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

The History of Confucian Education in China

1. Introduction
2. Before the Han Dynasty
3. The Han Dynasty
4. Between the Han and the Sui Dynasties
5. The Sui Dynasty
6. The Tang Dynasty
7. The Song Dynasty
8. The Yuan Dynasty
9. The Ming Dynasty
10. Conclusion

I. Introduction
         Confucianism, since 500 BC, served as a principle philosophy in North East Asia in terms of culture. As a governing philosophy, knowledge in Confucianism was mandatory for the future officials in the government. Thus, Confucianism became highly related to education.
         Although Confucianism served as a basic belief for several dynasties, each dynasty had different characteristics in governing styles. In this paper, the characteristics of each dynasty would be discussed in detail. Mainly three topics would be discussed: National Education (Guozijian), Imperial Examination and Confucian philosophy in that era.

II. Confucianism prior to the Han Dynasty
         The essential Chinese academic starts from Hundred Schools of Thought before Qin unified China. Hundred Schools of thought actually emerged to provide philosophical background for warlords in this era: Spring and autumn Era and Warring Era. During this era, under the financial protection of warlords, dozens of philosophical schools were established by famous philosophers, notably Confucianism, Legalism, Taoism, Mohism.

II.1 Early Confucianism
         Confucianism was established by Confucius (551 BC ~ 479 BC) who is from nowadays Shandong province. Because era he was born in was chaotic, with continuing warfare, Confucius did not stay in one place for long. In his early age, he became a bureaucrat of his own country and eventually became famous for his well-management. However, frustrated by greedy warlords and politicians, and several attempts to harm him, he eventually began travelling around the whole China, giving lectures. His lectures are currently recorded as a book form known as "The Analects " By giving lectures all across China, he made hundreds of disciples.
         His teachings emphasized "yi" Although he did not directly defined what "yi" actually is, throughout "Analects", he constantly gives lectures on what yi is. "Yi" can be best interpreted as "righteousness" in English and Analects is all about explaining what is right. Some of his examples are followings: Respect for elders and ancestors (Filial Piety), doing one¡¯s own duty (Loyalty), studying, following the "Mandate of Heaven" One of the most famous lines about studying (Start of Analects) is

This means that one should be happy when one either studies hard, or meets a friend from far away. One is an "awakened man" if one does not get upset for being ignored. This quotation depicts essential points of Confucian philosophy, emphasizing the importance of studying and friendship.
         Confucianism meets its new era under Mencius (372 BC~ 289 BC), who was born in Warring period. Although he was not a direct disciple of Confucius, he was able to get Confucian studies from Confucius's grandson. His teachings are recorded in a book "Mencius"
         In addition to Confucian teachings, he believed that all men are born moral. Giving a baby falling into a deep well as an example, he asserted that no one will leave the baby to danger since everyone is born morally good. Furthermore, he also believed that the removal a monarch who does not deserve to be a monarch (or simply a tyrant) can be justified, by the "Mandate of Heaven".

II.2 Taoism
         Taoism, like Confucianism, was based on two great philosophers: Lao zi (? -?) and Zhuang zi (Around 4th Century BC) Lao zi, however, is remained in a mystery. The existence of Lao zi is sometimes doubted by several scholars. According to a Chinese legend, before Lao zi left China, a guardsman who recognized Lao zi begged for a teaching. As an answer, he wrote a short book which is now called 'Daodejing', the "bible" of Taoism.
         Lao zi emphasized on what modern people might call "harmony" He believed that people are behaving unnaturally against "Dao" which is the source of all problems. Men must form harmony with "Dao" and stay natural.
         Taoism was widely accepted by anti-Confucian scholars. These scholars, according to some Chinese legends, became hermit or farmer in remote regions of China. Taoism, unlike Confucianism, is now more like a religion, rather than a philosophy. Lao zi became a mythical figure worshiped by Taoist followers.

II.3 Legalism
         Developed comparatively later than other two major philosophies, it was developed by Han Fei (280 BC - 233 BC), a member of ruling class in the state of Han. Strangely, he served in Qin court, not in his own family's court. Serving as Qin Emperor's advisor, he was the one who laid the foundations of the unified China.
         Han Fei, unlike Mencius, believed that men are born evil. To control men, he asserted the usage of Fa (Law), Shu (Technique), and Shi (Power). For a monarch to successfully control his servants and bureaucrats, Han Fei believed power is necessary, just like Machiavelli in the West. This power meant strict control over the bureaucrats who are apt to betray. Technique is for the servants to serve the ruler; how to please and aid the ruler. Furthermore, technique is needed to govern the people with punishment and prize. Lastly, with law, the government can punish people who are not following to the monarch¡¯s order. With harsh punishment, Han Fei believed that everyone would submit under a powerful monarch, bringing peace.
         Han Fei, before the Qin Emperor unified China, was executed due to his friend's persecutions. Nevertheless, the history records that Qin Emperor always missed Han Fei after the execution, since there were no advisor as good as Han Fei.
         Although legalism led to the systematical rule of Qin Dynasty by promoting the growth of a large Qin army, Legalism gave the means for the monarch to oppress the conquered population. Many of them were sent to the construction of "Great Wall" and were not allowed to regional dialects of writings. (At that time, Chinese Character was not unified in China) Only Qin's weights, measures, currency, and writing were allowed in the newly unified empire. In addition to all these, Qin Emperor also wanted to unify the philosophy of the empire. He began burning the books of Confucianism and Taoism. He then buried Confucian scholars alive. This eventually led to resistance against Qin Dynasty and the new empire only lasted for 15 years, leading to a new Han Dynasty.

III. The Han Dynasty
         Han Dynasty was more than just a new dynasty. It meant a new governing philosophy. Oppressive rule of Qin triggered revolts in dozens of regions in China. As a result, Han Dynasty emerged under the rule of Liu Bang, the first emperor of Han. Han Dynasty, unlike its predecessor, was more tolerant in governing its subjects. Liu Bang, in an attempt to please its subjects, divided the country into several feudal states.
         At first, Han Dynasty pursued Taoist policies. According to Laozi, one must be natural in ruling a country. Thus, instead of being oppressive, Han pursued a policy of tolerance, ruling subjects "naturally". Emperor Wu of Han (157 BC - 87 BC; Reign 141 BC - 87 BC), however, thought Taoist policy was inappropriate for a bigger state. Promoting large territorial conquests throughout East Asia, Emperor Wu adopted Confucian policy instead of old Taoist policy of toleration.
         With Confucian philosophy as the official state philosophy, Han Dynasty went through a major reform. First, knowledge on Confucian Classics was compulsory for those who were to be bureaucrats. Second, aristocrats served Han Dynasty as a civil servant, under the nine-rank system.
         Emperor Wu, furthermore, established a new government Academy called "Taixue" as the highest educational academy, in Zhang'an, the capital of Han. Under Emperor Ping, the nationwide government school system was introduced. These institutions mainly taught Confucian teachings and Chinese poetry. Those who became qualified to become bureaucrats through test in Taixue eventually went on to a civil service, and were adept to civil services Not only that, with this system, the Han Dynasty could pick the best bureaucrats from all across the country.
         The number of students in Taixue, even during Han Dynasty, continued to grow. In the era of East Han , for example, there were so many students in Taixue that yearly examination was introduced in Taixue.

IV. Between the Han and the Sui Dynasty
         Han Dynasty eventually collapsed due to the corruption within the empire. However, the end of the empire did not mean the end of education and Confucianism. The following dynasties also adopted some of the Han¡¯s system, though not as successful as Han
         Cao Pi (187 AD - 226 AD; Reign 220 AD - 226 AD), the second son of Cao Cao , one of the main heroes in "Record of Three Kingdoms", and the first emperor of Wei adopted the nine-rank system to his new empire. The nine-rank system showed how high one¡¯s rank is compared to other civil servants. Though Cao Pi adopted the nine-rank system, he failed to establish a education academy and pass examination. Bureaucrats were only selected by recommendation instead. Obviously, candidates from higher family inherited the higher rank. Since bureaucrats were not selected based on skills, the efficiency of government declined. With ineffective government, Wei Dynasty could not unify the Three Kingdoms.

V. Sui
         Sui and Tang Dynasty periods were apex of Chinese culture development. After unifying a long period of chaos, Sui Dynasty began several reforms within the country, just like Emperor Qin did
         First, the emperor began building a canal between Hwanghe and Yangzi River that goes through Chinese mainland. By doing so, he believed that it would foster water transportation.
         Second, he began a massive invasion conquest twice to Goguryeo and also to Vietnam. Goguryeo, with its best cavalrymen and bowmen, defeated Sui invasion, which greatly weaken Sui. Vietnam, with its war-elephants, though failed to defeat Sui army, its tropical diseases hindered Sui conquest. Sui eventually had to retreat from Vietnam
         Third, Sui began rebuilding the Great Wall to stop northern invasions, but this also required a lot of labor force
         With three massive projects, Sui became exhausted of labor force, leading to massive revolts, just like in Qin's case.
         Still, as a unified empire, Sui imposed several reforms in education. Wendi (541 - 601 AD; Reign 581 - 601 AD) established Guozisi under which there were many professional branches such as dalisi where they taught laws. Yangdi (569 - 618 AD; Reign 604 - 618 AD), the second emperor, restored Confucian education system and Confucian test system in 606 AD. He also replaced Guozisi, which was established by Wendi, the first emperor, with Guozijian in place of Taixue in Han dynasty. Guozijian was composed of Taixue and Guozixue. Taixue was for Gongsheng , students from the public. Guozixue was for the noble students.
         However, just like the Qin Dynasty, Sui did not last long, because of the revolts. The difference is that it occurred from one of Sui monarch's relatives. Losing strong central authority mainly due to failed military conquest, Li family from the North West led a coup against Sui, establishing a new Dynasty of Tang.
         Li Yuan, the first cousin of Yangdi, with his sons marched into Chang'an, the capital of the empire. After Yangdi died, Li Yuan (566 - 635 AD; Reign 618 - 626 AD) claimed himself as the new Emperor in 618 as Gaozu of Tang. Soon afterwards, Gaozu was enforced to abdicate from his throne by his own son, the legendary Li Shimin (599 AD - 649 AD; Reign 626 AD - 649 AD) who soon became Taizong of Tang.
         Although it was politically unstable in the beginning, because Li family was a powerful clan, and Li Shimin was a great general for Tang¡¯s army, Tang brought peace and prosperity to China, becoming the most prosperous Dynasty ever in Chinese history.

VI. Tang
         Under Tang, Sui's educational institutions remained and flourished. Guozijian had more than 3000 students at the time of Tang's first emperor. Guozijian not only had prominent students, but also had great professors. In addition, there were students from overseas: Three kingdoms of Korea, Japan and Vietnam. Famous of all, Choi Chi Won (857 - ?) from Silla, Korea studied in Guozijian. He is recorded as one of the best writers in Korean history.
         In Guozijian, there were several separate institutes. Hongwenguan was for the descendents of the nobility, supplying most of the new students. Zongwenguan was for the descendants of bureaucrats in the first level, the highest level, Guoziyuan for above third level, Taixue for above fifth level and Xiwenxue for above seventh level. Thus Zhongwenguan and Hongwenguan were considered superior than other institutes.
         Most of the students came from the ruling class: descendents of nobility or high-ranking bureaucrats. Obviously, social structure of China impeded commoners from learning and becoming a high-class official. Commoners, from young age, had to involve in agrarian works. There was no time to actually study. Nevertheless, there were some exceptions. Those from commoners who were considered to be exceptionally brilliant were selected by the district officials to take an examination for Taixue.
         Students in Guozijian could take two kinds of courses: 6 year graduation course or 9 year graduation course, regardless of subject. To become an official, they had take three tests in Guozijian. First, test on Confucian teachings every 10 days, second, annual test on lessons during one full year, and graduation test. For the annual test, the students were separated into three groups according to their score. Those in the lowest class had to take a year again. When suspended thrice, the student was to graduate in 9 years. When suspended four times, the student was expelled.
         During Tang, not only the central education institution, but also private academies were also established all around the country, especially in the rural areas. Shuyuan, the private academy, was first introduced during Tang in 725. Though Shuyuan was a private academy, but emperors granted Shuyuans with books from Guozijian, a tradition that is also practiced during Song.
         Tang, continuing the effort of Sui's Yangdi, established Imperial examinations to select bureaucrats and reformed nine-rank system. Tang's first Imperial examination was held in 726 AD. There were two kinds of Imperial examination: Jinshi, and Mingjing Jinshi test required candidates to write essay and poem. Mingjing, on the other hand, required candidates to have a certain level of knowledge on Confucian writings. Only 30 candidates could pass Jinshi test, whereas about 100 passed Mingjing test, thus there was more competition in Jinshi test, which made officials from Jinshi test preferred over those from Mingjing Test. Those who passed Jinshi test with high score first got the office of fifth level, and those who passed Mingjing test with high score got the office of 5th to 8th level. But, in the later period, and following dynasties, Jinshi test was less preferred.
         Later, during the reign of Empress Wu (625 ~-705 AD; Reign 690 - 705 AD) a martial subject was added to Imperial Examination to select military officers in Tang's army.
         During the early period of application, Imperial Examination favored those with skills and talents. However, in the later period, Imperial Examination became useless. Relatives of high officials were placed in the high position, instead of prominent bureaucrats with high knowledge. This led to the corruption within the bureaucracy, triggering the fall of once prosperous Tang Dynasty.

VII. Song
         Song Dynasty was an era of Renaissance of Confucianism. Revisions on Confucianism were made and Imperial Examinations were finally well institutionalized. Furthermore, Shuyuans in rural areas flourished.
         With corrupted bureaucracy, the Tang government soon lost control over provinces. Prominent warlords then started to declare independence from Tang, leading to 5 dynasties and 10 kingdoms era for about 50 years from 907 AD to 960 AD. In 960 AD, Song Dynasty finally unified China after several successful military conquests by Emperor Taizu (927 - 976 AD; Reign 960 - 976) of Song.
         Taizu believed that bureaucrats should be selected according to their skills and knowledge, not by their family heritage. Therefore, Taizu promoted Confucian studies in his state. He also believed that studies and writings are more important than military power, which is quoted as "...."
         Alike Tang, Song used Guozijian as the national university, in capital, Kaifeng, without much difference. The major difference between Song and Tang was first, private academies (Shuyuan). Although Shuyuan was first introduced in late Tang Dynasty, it was during Song Dynasty when many famous Shuyuans were promoted and flourished, such as White Deer Grotto Academy.
         White Deer Grotto Academy is located in Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province. It was first established during 5 dynasties and 10 kingdoms period, as a national school under Southern Tang, one of the states in that period. The name "White Deer Grotto" derives from a famous Tang poet, Li Bo (701 - 762 AD) who used teach in JiuJiang after his retirement as a bureaucrat. Li Bo had a white deer as his pet. Honoring the great poet, people named the school after the poet. As Song unified China and promoted Confucian studies, it was transformed into an academy.
         Although it was a private institution, Song still promoted these academies. Song emperor selected several Shuyuans and gave them special honor with official rank and books. White Deer Grotto Academy is one of those academies with special honor. Some academies received calligraphic name board, written by the emperor himself. This was considered as a great honor for the academy.
         Another main difference between Song and Tang was Imperial Examination. Song was the first dynasty in Chinese history to fully utilize the examination system. There were several reforms to revolutionize Imperial Examination, called Xingxueyundong.

VII.1 XinxueYundong
         There were three reforms. First reform in 1044 AD under Emperor Renzong (1010 - 1063 AD; Reign 1022 - 1063 AD) was aimed to reform educational institutions and Imperial Examination. The number faculty in educational institutions greatly increased. Song also built schools in every province. Above all, Imperial Examination was simplified into three subjects; poem, Confucian theory and writing essay, shortening the test taking time.
         Second reform in 1071 AD under Emperor Shenzong (1048 - 1085 AD; Reign 1067 - 1085 AD) reformed Taixue, by separating the institution into three levels: Xiashe, Zhongshe, Shangshe The division was depended on the grade of the students, Xiashe being the lowest and Shangshe being the highest.
         During the second reform, there were some scholars who believed that there should be some changes regarding the Imperial Examination. Wang Anshi (1021 - 1086 AD), as one of those scholars, asserted that poetry section of the test and Mingjing test should be abolished, promoting Jinshi test and essay writing instead. Furthermore, he also addressed the need for military tactic training. His advice, however, was not accepted by the government.
         Third reform in 1102 AD was not a significant reform. It was only to expand the three levels even to district schools. Schools, like Taixue, were also categorized into three groups.

VII.2 Neoconfucianism - Zhu Xi
         During Song Dynasty, new interpretation on Confucian thoughts began to emerge, as a result of thorough research on Confucius teachings, and abundant Academies. This new interpretation is known as "Neo-Confucianism"
         One of the main scholars of Neo-Confucianism was Zhu Xi (1130 - 1200 AD). Zhu Xi wrote commentaries for four main books of Confucian belief: Mencius, Analects, Daxue, Zhongyong. He then emphasized that these books should be the essentials of Confucianism.
         Zhu Xi also tried to combine Taoist and Buddhist aspects into Confucianism and created Confucian Metaphysical philosophy. He believed that everything exists because of the union of qi, physical force and li, rational law. Furthermore, li comes from Taiji, the ¡°Great Ultimate¡±, supreme law of the nature. Zhu Xi borrowed the idea of Taiji from Taoism. The interaction between qi and li creates yin and yang. The alternation of yin and yang creates nature's five elements: fire, water, soil, metal, wood.
         He also asserted the order of knowledge and action, the main topic for Neo-Confucian debates in the further years to come. He claimed that knowledge comes first, then action, since one must think before act. His idea, however, is disputed for the next centuries to come.
         To teach his students, he had to establish Academy (Shuyuan). He reestablished White Deer Grotto Academy, which was closed at his time. In White Deer Grotto Academy, he could establish his own school of Confucianism, now known as Zhuzixue, after his name. His school spread across the East Asia: Korea, Japan, influencing their thoughts for the next millennium. Chinese on the other hand, established their new Confucian thoughts during Ming and Qing Dynasty.

VIII. Yuan
         In 13th Century, mankind witnessed one of the largest military conquests ever by the Mongols. Mongols, led by Kublai Khan (1215 - 1294 AD; Reign 1271 - 1294 AD), eventually ended Song dynasty, which even resisted against the Manchurian invasion before.
         Mongols were ruthless conquerors. They discriminated against Hans by refusing them as bureaucrats. But, Mongols used Confucian governmental system to avoid resistance from Hans. They also kept Guozijian, and built their own Guozixue and professional schools teaching medicine, Mongols, and Yin and Yang. They also built Mongol style schools in rural areas to educate people in Mongolian way. In 1313, Yuan restarted Imperial Examination to select bureaucrats, testing on Four Books (1) with Zhu Xi's commentaries.
         Nevertheless, these policies could not soothe the discriminated Hans. Mongol style schools especially made peasants upset, by emphasizing that Hans are inferior to Mongols. This led to major rebellions throughout China, ending short-lived Yuan Dynasty.

IX. Ming
         Through peasants' rebellion, some Han warlords gained political dominance in particular regions. Zhu Yuanzhang (1328 - 1398 AD; Reign 1368 - 1398 AD) was one of those warlords. He was a poor Buddhist monk. But by joining Red Turbans, one of the biggest revolt groups, he gained political influence. By assassination and wars, he eventually defeated other rebels and commanders in Red Turbans. Finally he seized and took the capital of Yuan, today's Beijing, uniting China and establishing new Ming Dynasty. Zhu Yuanzhang became HongWu Emperor of Ming.
         Under Ming, China again went through a tremendous academic success, since Ming also emphasized the importance of Confucian studies. Unlike Song, on the other hand, Ming never neglected the importance of strong military power. Just as the suggestion by Wang Anshi during Song dynasty, Ming installed professional schools, along with Guozijian. Ming's Guozijian not only had their own students, but also students from overseas, just like Tang's Guozijian. Students from Chosun (Present Korea) and Ryukyu came to Ming to study in Guozijian. Guozijian also favored the descendents of high bureaucrats, which is just like that of Tang. Thus, it can be concluded that Tang's Guozijian and Ming's Guozijian were very similar. To enhance national defenses, Ming also installed defense schools in border regions. To promote education, all provinces also had school of their own, 1 school per 35 houses.
         Imperial Examination in Ming dynasty included Zhuzixue and both four books and five classics. By including Zhuzixue, Ming could select an official who has a profound knowledge in Confucian philosophy, since Zhuzixue was a study that integrated Confucian studies prior to Song along with Taoist and Buddhist beliefs. Although the subject of the test widened, the actual test became increasingly structured. Candidates had to use limited number of characters, write on limited topics, and even use same writing structure. Thus, selected officials were homogenous, without diversity. This was the difference between Tang Dynasty. Tang even selected foreigners as bureaucrats. There are even records and statues of Arabs who became officials in Tang.
         Academies in Ming, unlike Academies in Song era, were the source of corruption. The graduates from a particular academy began to form groups in politics, allowing officials from certain Shuyuans to dominate the office. They impeded practical debate over national affairs, eventually leading to the fall of Ming Dynasty over Manchurians. In the last days of Ming, some scholars who were disgusted with these politics ironically went into Donglin Academies, refraining from dirty politics.
         Though Ming's Confucian seems rather degenerated, there were several major achievements: Yangmingxue .

IX.1 Yangmingxue
         Yangmingxue, like Zhouzixue, is a branch of Neo-Confucianism by Wang Yangming (1472 - 1529 AD), a Ming philosopher, opposing Zhouzixue. When it first started, Wang Yangming was considered a heretic.
         Unlike Zhou Xi, Wang believed that knowledge does not come before one's action. He believed that knowledge and action are simultaneous, and it is impossible to know before action, since it is not real but delusion. Furthermore, he also asserted that every person has innate morality. Every man can distinguish between good and evil since they are born. Zhou Xi said it is li and qi, thus outside forces that shapes the world. Wang refuted this idea. He believed it is our mind that shapes the world, by perceiving the way it is.
         Wang's idea was essentially different from Zhou's idea. In Korea, Wang's idea was not accepted by scholars, since it was considered "not right". In Japan, Wang's idea was accepted by some scholars trying to link Shinto and Confucianism. It was a sensation to the whole East Asia academic society.

IX.2 Caigentan
         Caigentan is a well quoted book on how to behave morally, written by Hongzicheng. Hongzicheng was a student who failed for Imperial Examination because of the corruption of the officials. As he was not a member of a prominent Shuyuan, he failed the every test he applied.
         Critical about Confucian ideas, he then tried to combine Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism in his book, teaching readers how to actually behave in certain situations. Thus, it can be argued that Taoism and Buddhism were also seen as an alternative to Confucianism, in some aspects better, breaking the inert academic ambience.
         Although his book is well written, due to his failures in tests, he is not well known. This shows the absurd aspects of Ming Dynasty.

X. Conclusion
         As explained throughout the paper, each dynasty had its own governing style. Han, starter of Confucian government, made several systems that would serve throughout the Chinese history. Sui and Tang made Imperial Examination and structured central education system, known as Guozijian. Song was the peak of Confucian education with shuyuan, and several reforms to Imperial Examination. Finally Ming, although reformed from defenseless Song, was a setback, Shuyuan being the center of the political power and corruption.
         Nevertheless, Chinese Confucian ideas were evolving through dynasties; old Confucian ideas to Neo-Confucian ideas including Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming. In Qing, it eventually evolves into a scientific philosophy, like mechanism in the West, proposing the idea of "shishiqiushi"
         Confucian ideas, unlike the common belief as conservative, inert principles, did change through two millenniums, assimilating other beliefs of Buddhism and Taoism. They also promoted education, establishing central university in Han Dynasty, a millennium faster than the west. We should acknowledge that Confucian ideas were useful and beneficial to education, unlike the common belief.


Notes
         (1)
     Analects, Mencius, Daxue, Zhongyong