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Nations unhappy with foreign monarchs :
Poland under Russia, Prussia/Germany and Austria, in Historic Encyclopedias


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Lee, Si-eun
Term Paper, AP World History Class, June 2009



Table of Contents
I. Introduction / Historical Background
I.1 Introduction
I.2 Background History of Poland
I.2.1 History before and causes leading to the Polish partitions
I.2.2 The Polish partitions
I.2.3 The Polish crisis at the Vienna Congress
II. Poland under Russia, Prussia/Germany and Austria in Historic Encyclopedias
II.1 Russian Poland in Historic Encyclopedias
II.1.1 Administrative policy
II.1.1.1 Summary of Information
II.1.1.2 Analysis and Interpretation
II.1.1.3 Possible Bias
II.1.2 Economic Policy
II.1.2.1 Summary of the articles
II.1.2.2 Analysis and Interpretation
II.1.2.3 Possible Bias
II.1.3 Social and Cultural Policy
II.1.3.1 Summary of the articles
II.1.3.2 Analysis and Interpretation
II.1.3.3 Possible Bias
II.1.4 Educational Policy
II.1.4.1 Summary of the articles
II.1.4.2 Analysis and Interpretation
II.1.4.3 Possible Bias
II.2 Austrian Poland in Historic Encyclopedias
II.2.1 Administrative Policy
II.2.1.1 Summary of the Articles
II.2.1.2 Analysis and Interpretation
II.2.1.3 Possible Bias
II.2.2 Economic Policy
II.2.2.1 Summary of the Articles
II.2.2.2 Analysis and Interpretation
II.2.2.3 Possible Bias
II.2.3 Social, Cultural, and Educational Policy
II.2.3.1 Summary of the Articles
II.2.3.2 Analysis and Interpretation
II.2.3.3 Possible Bias
II.3 Prussian/German Poland in Historic Encyclopedias
II.3.1 Administrative Policy
II.3.1.1 Summary of the Articles
II.3.1.2 Analysis and Interpretation
II.3.1.3 Possible Bias
II.3.2 Economic Policy
II.3.2.1 Summary of the Articles
II.3.2.2 Analysis and Interpretation
II.3.2.3 Possible Bias
II.3.3 Cultural, Linguistic Policy
II.3.3.1 Summary of the Articles
II.3.3.2 Analysis and Interpretation
II.3.3.3 Possible Bias
II.3.4 Educational Policy
II.3.4.1 Summary of the Articles
II.3.4.2 Analysis and Interpretation
II.3.4.3 Possible Bias
III. Conclusion
Notes
Bibliography



I. Introduction / Background History of Poland

I.1 Introduction
            This paper is intended to examine and discuss the portrayal of Poland under Russia, Prussia/Germany and Austria in historic encyclopedias. It will first briefly discuss the history of Poland before the Polish partitions. Then it will move on to analyze the depiction of Poland in articles from three historic encyclopedias. A brief summary of all three articles will be followed by an individual analysis of portrayal and bias.
            The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of how Poland under the foreign powers was perceived by studying its portrayal by the most neutral contemporary source available ? encyclopedias

I.2 Background History of Poland

I.2.1 History before and Causes Leading to the Polish Partitions
            Poland, until 1795, had been part of, and largely dominated, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth since 1569. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, created by merging the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, had been one of the largest and most populous countries in Europe before the Polish partitions took place in the 1700s. Its most distinguishing characteristic was its political system; it was a monarchy in which the king was elected by the nobles (szlachta), restricting the monarch's power. The Sejm, its legislature, was comprised of these nobles. The Sejm made use of a notable device in decision-making; the liberum veto.
            The liberum veto allowed any member of the Sejm to oppose and nullify all legislation made in a particular meeting. This device was derived from a system of the Sejm that required unanimous consent of all members in order to make a decision.
            This system proved to be increasingly ineffective and prone to corruption. As one member could cancel the decision of an overwhelming majority, it was very difficult to pass legislation. Moreover, the system was open to foreign influence and bribery and easy to manipulate, since bribery of one member was enough to disrupt a session of the Sejm. This flaw in Poland's political system prevented reform and reinforced maintenance of the status quo, a probable cause in the Commonwealth's eventual downfall.
            The liberum veto caused the nobles of the Commonwealth to be controlled by foreign forces; as a result, it went into a period of decline caused by an ineffective political system and consequent ignorance of the need to reform. The situation was exacerbated during the Seven Years' War, when the Commonwealth sympathized with Russia and Austria and allowed Russian troops to use some of its lands as bases from which Russia attacked Prussia. Frederick II the Great of Prussia reacted by counterfeiting Polish currency, causing inflation and adding to the problems of the Polish economy. Although in 1764 attempts at major reform were made by Stanis©©aw II, they would soon be reversed by a session of the Sejm in 1767 dominated by Russian influence. In the Repnin Sejm of 1767, pro-Russian nobles, controlled by Catherine the Great, dictated the session and forced a new constitution which kept the Commonwealth dependent on Russia. The policies issued by the Sejm of 1767 along with resentment of Russian intervention triggered the War of the Confederation of Bar (1768-1772).

I.2.2 The Polish Partitions
            The War of the Confederation of Bar led Russia, Austria and Prussia to partition the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772, as a diplomatic answer for Prussia and Austria to prevent Russia from expanding too much. Russia acquired territory along the Polish-Russian border; Prussia gained West Prussia without Danzig, Elbing and Thorn; Austria won Galicia and pushed its border to the city limits of Cracow. [1]
            The following partitions of 1793 and 1795 assigned what was left of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to the three powers. The French Revolution of 1789-1799 left the powers nervous about the reformist movement occuring in what was left of Poland at the time. When the reformists proposed a new constitution, Polish noblemen asked Catherine the Great to send troops to reverse the changes. The second partition of Poland resulted in January 1793, in which only Prussia and Russia participated. Russia acquired the provinces with a Belorussian and Ukrainian majority, and Prussia acquired Danzig, Thorn and Great Poland. Although the Polish reformists established an army and resisted, they were defeated in October 1794, and the rest of the Commonwealth was partitioned once more. Russia gained Courland, Lithuania proper, Western Belorussia and Ukraine. Austria gained southern central Poland, and Prussia gained northwestern central Poland with Warsaw. [2] The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ceased to exist as a sovereign state.

I.2.3 The Polish Crisis at the Vienna Congress
            Napoleon had recreated a Polish state during his reign; the Duchy of Warsaw. At the Vienna Congress, the question of what should be done with the Duchy was debated. By the Final Act, concluded on June 9, 1815, most of the Duchy of Warsaw was granted to Russia, and a Polish Kingdom in personal union with Russia ? Congress Poland ? was created. Prussia was granted the Grand Duchy of Posen and Danzig, but Prussia and Austria were in general deprived of their previous possessions in Poland. After the Vienna Congress, Poland was divided within Russia, Prussia and Austria as Congress Poland, the province of Posen, and province of Galicia respectively.

II. Poland under Russia, Prussia/Germany and Austria in Historic Encyclopedias
            This paper will discuss articles from three encyclopedias - Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog, Meyer's Konversationslexikon, and Nordisk Familjebok. Nine articles, three for Congress Poland, German Poland, and Austrian Poland respectively, will be examined and analyzed. Also, the terms Congress Poland and Russian Poland, Posen and German Poland, and Galicia and Austrian Poland will be used interchangeably.

II.1 Russian Poland in Historic Encyclopedias

II.1.1 Administrative Policy

II.1.1.1 Summary of Information
            According to the articles, after Vienna, Congress Poland was placed under a personal union with Russia, with the Czar of Russia, Alexander I, as king. However, the constitution granted to Congress Poland guaranteed a separate administration and a stadholder was appointed by the Czar to administrate Poland. Under the stadholder a council of 8 was responsible for administration. A state secretary of Poland had a place in the cabinet in St. Petersburg as well. Under Alexander I, the Polish were provided with able ministers, and granted freedom of the press etc,. However, the situation changed in 1830, when an insurrection occurred in Poland which deposed Czar Nicholas I as King of Poland. Nicholas I then abolished the former constitution and issued the Organic Statute of 1832. The Polish army and diet were abolished, and Russian influence strengthened in the area. However, Poland was still to be administrated as a "kingdom", separate from Russia, and Polish remained the official language.
            Later, in yet another rebellion in 1863 the Poles rose up again, which called among the Russian rulers for more change in the administration of Congress Poland. As a result, the Polish administrative council was dissolved along with other central authorities, and its departments were placed under the ministries in St.Petersburg. In 1868 Congress Poland was completely incorporated into the Russian Empire, and lost its separate administration as kingdom.

II.1.1.2 Analysis and Interpretation

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article: Polen

            The writers of the article regard administration under Alexander I with general approval, stressing the 'responsible ministers' [3] the Polish were provided with, the freedom of the press, and other positive aspects of the administration. Its diction suggests a possible sympathy towards the Poles, calling the insurrection of 1830-1831 an 'unlucky rebellion' [4]. The article possibly expresses a negative opinion towards Czar Nicholas I, his incorporation of Poland into the Russian Empire, and his possible use of the rebellion as an excuse to curtail the autonomy of the region.

Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article: Polen

            About the administration of Congress Poland Meyer¡¯s provides minimal information, regarding the incorporation of the area into the Russian Empire after the rebellion of 1863. It does not discuss the differences the Organic Statute of 1832 brought about, such as policy on the education of the Russian language.

Nordisk Familjebok 1915, Article: Polen

            In the sections where the article provides an overall summary of the administration of Congress Poland, it attempts to maintain a critical stance about both Russians and Poles. Both Alexander I and Nicholas I's administration of Poland is regarded with a slight disapproval, suggesting that both were somewhat inept at administrating Poland, pursuing policies that did not please the Poles. It mentions something the former articles didn¡¯t; that Alexander I had, as Nicholas I did, issued a policy that undermined the constitution granted by the Vienna Congress, cooling relations between him and the Poles around the later years of his reign. In this section the article is notably more critical than the former two, also describing the Poles as noncompliant and stirring discontent among Russian rulers. Both sides are described as faulty in marring relations.
            However, when the article describes with more detail the Russian administrative policies toward the Poles, it becomes more opinionated. The vocabulary used in listing Russian policy after 1830 has negative connotations. Two such words are 'repression', and 'suspicion'. [5] They are used to describe the attitudes of the Russians in their restoration of order in Poland. Although the article is not openly critical, the extensive discussion of Russian policies of 'repression' indicates a possibly negative view towards Russia.
            In writing about the administration of Poland after 1869, the article focuses on how the administration of Poland is run mostly by Russians, and how Poles are gradually being replaced by Russians in the highest administrative positions. This indicates

II.1.1.3 Possible Bias
            The articles are biased against oppressive rule of the Russians. It is a rather common phenomenon for people to argue against oppressive rule, especially by a country other than their own. The Danish and Swedish encyclopedias are critical of administrative policies of Russian rulers; this indicates that they sympathize with whom they view as the victims of oppression ? the Poles. This particular bias does not come from any underlying enmity between Russia and the two countries; it is rather an obvious response to the idea of oppressive rule anywhere.

II.1.2 Economic policy

II.1.2.1 Summary of the Articles
            Congress Poland does conduct agriculture to a certain level, enough so that it produces surplusses for export. The most important industries are the mining industry and metal processing industry.
            The industry of Congress Poland was of a relatively high level of development before the rebellion of 1830. It experienced a large setback due to the rebellion, but the industry recovered gradually. The customs border with Russia was lifted in 1851 and since industry saw even greater levels of development. However, this is mostly due to foreign enterprise since not Russians or Poles, but Germans dominate industry in Congress Poland. Jews dominate trade. Poles and Ukranians are mostly behind both the Germans and Jewish in terms of participation in the economy, and they are involved largely in agriculture.
            Congress Poland, since its complete incorporation into the Russian empire in 1868, lost its own budget along with its separate administration.

II.1.2.2 Analysis and Interpretation

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article: Polen

            This article provides brief opinion along with statistical data concerning economic policy. It can be seen that the article regards the rebellion of 1830 a factor that hindered the development of industry in Congress Poland.

Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article: Polen

            The article provides no information concerning economic policy.

Nordisk Familjebok 1915, Article: Polen

            The article provides ample statistical data concerning agriculture and industry. Also, it provides additional information on which people were involved in which sector of the economy ? such as the Jews in trade, and the Germans in industry. The article regards the foreign (German) dominance in Polish economic affairs with disapproval, indicated by negative tone.

II.1.2.3 Possible Bias
            There is no bias in these sections, but some of the articles do provide brief opinion and criticism, especially concerning how the rebellions and crackdowns in Congress Poland affected the economy.

II.1.3 Social and Cultural policy

II.1.3.1 Summary of the Articles
            Of social and cultural policy, all three articles are most concerned with the policy of Russification in Congress Poland. During and after the course of the rebellions in 1830-1831 and 1863, Russian attempts to wipe out Polish national identity and culture culminated. After the rebellion of 1830-1831, although Russian rulers agreed to keep Polish the official language of Congress Poland, it was a concession made in response to the requests of the western powers and frequently ignored.
            Russification reached its peak after the rebellion of 1863, however. After the Crimean War, Polish requests for reform mounted; Russian rulers were reminded of the rebellion of 1830. Because the revolutionaries were not well organized, they were quickly put down by Russian forces. Despite attempted intervention of the western powers regarding the future of Poland, Russia acted in accord with theories of Russian nationalism; a harsh policy of Russification resulted, legislation was directed against the church and Polish upper classes. Policies concerning the extermination of Polish nationality were also put into effect; Russian replaced Polish as the official language of the area, and Polish national colors were replaced by those of Russia.

II.1.3.2 Analysis and Interpretation

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article: Polen

            This encyclopedia does not provide information concerning cultural and linguistic policies.

Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article: Polen

            This article provides its view on the cultural and linguistic policy of the Russians indirectly by giving a comparison of German, Russian, and Austrian Poles. According to the article, the Poles of Posen (German Poland) are "best educated" [6], combining good German and Polish characteristics, unlike their "brethren living under Russian rule" [7]. The article expresses negative opinions of the "education" received by Russian and Austrian Polish, as indicated by the phrase : "distinguishes them (the Polish of Posen) advantageously" [8]. A negative opinion of the Poles is also revealed : as wasting their energies in 'useless' party struggle and 'miserable' clergy administration.
            This encyclopedia does not examine Russification to a significant degree.

Nordisk Familjebok 1915, Article: Polen

            This article overall describes the Russian cultural and linguistic policy regarding Poland as excessive, as it can be inferred from tone and subtle word choices. The phrase "even deprived of the title 'Kingdom of Poland', ..." [9] hints at a disapproval of Russian action. The article also fails to maintain a neutral tone throughout and stresses how Russians have tried to integrate the Polish into Russia by 'forbidding their national colors, ...' [10]. This is a discussion of Russification, which is not explicitly examined by the writers of the article but rather explained indirectly. The writers of the article are, although not openly critical of Russification, are probably trying to emphasize it.

II.1.3.3 Possible Bias
            Meyer's comparison of German, Russian and Austrian Poles is very biased; it openly describes German Poles as "best educated" which is very predictable since Meyer's is a German encyclopedia. It is biased toward positively depicting German policies. Moreover, the article is biased in its discussion of certain traits of the Poles. Poles are described as wasting their energies in 'useless' party struggle and 'miserable' clergy administration. This bias possibly arises from the tendencies of the Poles which got their country partitioned in the first place.
            Nordisk is biased in their view of Russian cultural policy and implicitly expresses this through a tone of disapproval. Their view of the Poles is one of sympathy, since they view the Poles as victims of Russification.

II.1.4 Educational Policy

II.1.4.1 Summary of the Articles
            The articles mainly list statistical information concerning education in Congress Poland. Poland is described as an 'educational district' [11], or one of the more developed areas regarding education. There are a large number of educational institutions in Poland, including the University of Warsaw which was founded by Czar Alexander I. The literacy rate of the Polish population (30.5% in 1897) is considerably higher than that of the rest of Russia (19.8% in 1897), further reinforcing the naming of Poland as an educational district.

II.1.4.2 Analysis and Interpretation

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article: Polen
Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article: Polen

            These encyclopedias do not provide information on the educational policies in Congress Poland.

Nordisk Familjebok 1915, Article: Polen

            The article describes the educational system in Congress Poland with a largely neutral viewpoint. The relatively high literacy rate of Poland compared to Russia is set aside as a factor that distinguishes Poland as an educational district; this possibly indicates a view of the Poles as more educated than the Russians.

II.1.4.3 Possible Bias
            There is no apparent bias in all three of the articles concerning educational policy. The article that actually has information on the subject mainly provides statistics and data concerning educational institutions in Congress Poland. Although it does provide that the Poles are better educated than the Russians, this opinion is not based on any kind of bias but rather is an interpretation of factors such as the literacy rate.

II.2 Austrian Poland in Historic Encyclopedias

II.2.1 Administrative Policy

II.2.1.1 Summary of the Articles
            Galicia is an Austrian province under the title "Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria with the Grand Duchy of Cracow and the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator" [12]. The Grand Duchy of Cracow had initially been established as Republic of Cracow in the Vienna Congress. Beginning in about 1830 it became the center of Polish agitation and it was annexed into the Austrian monarchy after the insurrection of 1846. The administration of Galicia is divided into two districts. The cities of Lemberg and Cracow both are separate administrative units, and Lemberg also has a stadholder. The magistrates of Lemberg and Cracow are all subject to the stadholdership in Lemberg.
            After the introduction of the February Patent as constitution, the Poles strove for and achieved complete autonomy of the Galician diet. The Poles dominated the Galician diet, taking all offices as theirs. Although the Austrian government, distrustful of the Poles, tried to use the Ruthenians to counterbalance the Poles, they failed to do so and the Ruthenians became the subject of oppression by the Poles. Poles were also very active in the Reichsrat, the Austrian parliament, to acquire privileges for Galicia.

II.2.1.2 Analysis and Interpretation

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article: Galizien

            About the administration of Galicia the article provides no more than objective data.

Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article: Galizien

            The Poles are portrayed as actively fighting for autonomy in the region. The article discusses the plan the Poles used to gain autonomy: by "sending deputees to the Reichsrat" and "outwardly showing loyalty to the Empire" [13], but in reality using their cooperation to push for government concessions regarding the autonomy of Galicia. The Poles are seen as strategic but clever at the same time. The article also discusses briefly how the Poles tried to "move aside Germanness" [14], suppress the Ruthenians and completely dominate. The Poles here are subtly depicted as exploiting their dominance in number.
            Overall, Austrian Poles are described as having been granted a greater degree of national identity and representation in the Austrian diet as well as assuming most of the high positions in the Galician diet.

Nordisk Familjebok 1908, Article: Galizien

            Unlike the former article, this article discusses Austrian policy more thoroughly and response to Polish dominance. The way the Austrian government tried to balance the Polish dominance by supporting Ruthenians is juxtaposed with how the Poles were inclined toward "revolution and anti-Austrian thought" [15]. The article also expounds on the Polish-Ruthenian conflict in Galicia. This encyclopedia divides its discussion of Austrian administrative policy in Galicia more evenly into categories.

II.2.1.3 Possible Bias
            Meyer¡¯s is slightly biased in its discussion of how the Poles achieved dominance over Galicia. It includes a few sentences on how they suppressed both "Germanness" and the Ruthenians, without discussing the attempts at Germanification that had been made in Austria since the 1770es. Because Meyer¡¯s is a German encyclopedia, it is probably inclined toward defending Austria which is technically a German state. Moreover, the article writes as if the Poles gained autonomy by utilizing their dominance in number, and subtly threatening the Austrian government to make concessions in return for their cooperation with the government.
            Unlike the German encyclopedia, Nordisk takes a more neutral stance in the discussion of Austrian policy, balancing Austrian attempts at reducing Polish dominance with Polish attempts to increase dominance. The fact that the article extensively discusses the rift between Poles and Ruthenians suggest that they are again taking the side of the supposed 'victim', or the Ruthenians, who suffer from suppression by an overwhelming Polish dominance in Galicia.

II.2.2 Economic policy

II.2.2.1 Summary of the Articles
            Galicia is rather behind regarding economic development. Agriculture comprises the greatest portion of its economy. Although the amount of fertile, arable land is very large, agriculture is not conducted effectively and fails to take advantage of such conditions. A major source of income for the people of Galicia is cattle breeding, and it is relatively well developed. Galicia is behind the other provinces especially in terms of industry, and has few factories. Certain industries, such as the linen and distilling industry, are fairly well developed and are an important secondary source of income. Galicia exports mainly raw material and imports almost all of its manufactured products. Transit trade between Germany, Russia and Austria is of importance, conducted through its railroads.
            The Jews dominate finances also in Galicia; they own the majority of businesses and also play a great role in trade, crafts and agriculture.

II.2.2.2 Analysis and Interpretation

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article: Galizien

            The article mostly provides objective data concerning agriculture and industry in the area. However, it can be inferred through sentences such as: "Galicia by nature is well bestowed with land suitable for grain cultivation, but agriculture is on a comparatively low level," [16] that the article views the resources of Galicia as not put to effective use.

Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article: Galizien

            This article also expresses a similar view as Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog, as it can be seen in the sentence: "If the country would be cultivated practically and worked with a sufficient number of men, harvests could be considerably larger." [17] Other than this the article only gives detailed statistical data.

Nordisk Familjebok 1908, Article: Galizien

            This article only provides statistical information concerning economic policy in Galicia.

II.2.2.3 Possible Bias
            There is no apparent bias in these sections; they do, however, provide some opinion concerning how agriculture is conducted in the area, and the amount of economic development in Galicia

II.2.3 Social, Cultural and Educational Policy
            Because the social, cultural policy and educational policy of Austrian Poland are closely linked with each other, they will be discussed in the same section.

II.2.3.1 Summary of the Articles
            Mostly Austrian social and cultural policy in Poland was more lenient than that of Prussia or Russia. Consequently, the Poles reserved a greater sense of nationality and autonomy. However, some Germanification had been in place since the 1770es through the establishment of the University of Lemberg and German gymnasia. But mostly this was on a small scale, and later the Austrians gave in to the Poles. "The Polish Club" [18] has played a great role in the Austrian parliamentarian life, and Polish members of the parliament have been considerably influential. Overall the Poles were a well represented minority in Austria, and their nationality was much less suppressed.
            In 1879 the language of instruction at the University of Lemberg became Polish, at a time when the Polish were already gaining political dominance in the region. The University of Cracow gradually turned into a center for Polish intelligentsia as well.
            There are two universities in Galicia, in Lemberg and Cracow. Various specialized schools, such as technological schools, theological colleges, an art conservatory and many gymnasia have been established as well, and elementary school is mandatory for all children. However, education is still considered low in the area, probably due to the fact that compulsory education is not properly enforced among the population.

II.2.3.2 Analysis and Interpretation

Nordisk Familjebok 1915, Article: Polen

            Despite being an article on Congress Poland, this article also discusses cultural policy in Galicia to a small degree. As it can be inferred from sentences such as these: "Only in Galicia, under Austrian rule, have the Poles found space for their nationality and culture," "Culturally Cracow and Lemberg have developed into centers of the life of the entire Polish nation, and this nation is lively and capable of development," [19] the article views the lenient Austrian policy with approval, in accord with its criticism of Germanification and Russification.

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article: Galizien

            This article contains no information on cultural, linguistic or educational policy in Austrian Poland.

Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article: Galizien

            This encyclopedia does not explicitly discuss cultural or linguistic policy in Galicia. It also leaves out any information concerning the Germanification that went on in Austrian Poland from the years right after the first Polish Partition. However, the article provides substantial information about education in Galicia, providing basic statistics concerning the kinds and number of schools, and number of students.

Nordisk Familjebok 1908, Article: Galizien

            Unlike the former two articles, this encyclopedia discusses openly the Germanification policy implemented in Austrian Poland. However, for the most part the policy is considered weakly enforced and the Poles are portrayed as getting the upper hand in such matters. Instead of being 'Germanified' the Poles increasingly harbor rebellious and 'anti-Austrian' [20] sentiment. Although seemingly neutral, this article is actually more critical of the Poles than of the Austrians. The general tone and diction differ in its discussion of Poles and Austrians. Words with negative connotations are more frequently used when it describes the Poles' rise to dominance. Moreover, it sympathizes with the Ruthenians, as it is indicated in the tone of the sentence, "Ruthenians are completely dominated by Poles; not even a professorship for Ruthenian literature exists." [21]
            This article considers education in Galicia of a low level, mostly because the percentage of students receiving compulsory education is lower than elsewhere. Other than that, the article provides no opinion or criticism. The rest of the paragraph consists mainly of statistical data about the number of educational institutions, the language of instruction at those institutions and so on.

II.2.3.3 Possible Bias
            Both the German and Swedish encyclopedias are slightly biased in their discussion of cultural and linguistic policies. Meyer's probably does not discuss Germanification in Austrian Poland because Germany had implemented the same policy more intensively in Prussian/German Poland. They probably recognize that Germanification is a policy that would be criticized, since it attempts to defend Austria by not discussing the policy.
            The Nordisk Familjebok article on Galicia is biased against the Poles mainly due to existing old national antagonisms. However, this bias is not apparent in the Nordisk article on Congress Poland, where the article is in general approval of Austrian leniency.

II.3 Prussian/German Poland in Historic Encyclopedias

II.3.1 Administrative Policy

II.3.1.1 Summary of the Articles
            Prussian/German Poland is best represented by the Prussian province of Posen. It is divided into two districts: Posen and Bromberg. It sends 15 delegates to the German Reichstag, and 29 to the Prussian parliament.

II.3.1.2 Analysis and Interpretation

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article: Posen

            The only information the article gives regarding the administration of Prussian/German Poland is that Posen is divided into the two districts of Bromberg and Posen.

Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article: Posen

            This encyclopedia only lists factual information as well, such as how many delegates are sent to the German/Prussian government.

Nordisk Familjebok 1915, Article: Posen

            Like Anskjaer and Meyer¡¯s, this encyclopedia is only concerned with facts. It does not provide any criticism on the administration of Posen.

II.3.1.3 Possible Bias
            The articles are all very neutral in their discussion of Prussian/German administrative policy. The possibility is that Posen is seen mostly as a German province with a large population of Poles rather than a Polish state incorporated into Germany. There are several reasons that may have contributed to such a view: first, Posen has not seen major insurrections or outbursts of Polish nationalistic sentiment as Congress Poland has; second, it is not as dominated by Poles as Galicia is; lastly, it is not the only non-German province in Germany.

II.3.2 Economic Policy

II.3.2.1 Summary of the Articles
            Posen bears similarity to Galicia in terms of economic development. Agriculture is the main source of income in Posen as well, and industry is of importance only in a few areas. Rye is cultivated most extensively. Sugar beets are also cultivated to a considerable degree, and the sugar processing industry is one of the most prominent industries in the region. Trade is also conducted similar to that of Galicia, with its main exports raw material and grain, and imports manufactured products.

II.3.2.2 Analysis and Interpretation

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article: Posen
Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article: Posen
Nordisk Familjebok 1915, Article: Posen

            All three articles consist entirely of objective information. Detailed statistics concerning the number of cattle, amount of farmland and number of factories, etc are given, without criticism or opinion on the matter.

II.3.2.3 Possible Bias
            There is no bias in these sections of the articles, perhaps due to the mediocrity of the economy in the region. It is not far behind nor well developed. There seem to be no aspects that stand out from other provinces, and the view of the articles toward economic policy in Posen reflects this fact.

II.3.3 Social and Cultural Policy

II.3.3.1 Summary of the Articles
            At the Vienna Congress, the Prussian administration had promised to respect the Polish language and nationality. [22] However, soon, the Prussian administration, in fear of the large Polish population in Posen, took measures to reduce the Polish influence in the region. This was attempted mainly by increasing the German national element there, a process known as Germanification. Oberpr?sident Flottwell in the 1830es implemented a conscious policy of Germanification by measures such as maintaining German as language of jurisdiction in Posen. Friedrich Wilhelm IV tried to make concessions to appease the Poles, but nevertheless a rebellion broke out in 1848, and he was coerced into making even more concessions to the Poles. Many in the German government suggested breaking off the province, but this was prevented by Bismarck. Bismarck, beginning in 1872, declared war on Polonism as a renewed attempt at Germanification in Posen. These policies have not been successful and cost the Prussian state in various aspects such as heightened Polish antagonism.
            One specific policy of Germanification implemented by the Prussian/German administration was the establishment of a colonization commission in Bromberg. Established by a law of April 28 1886, the commission would, with funds provided by the German government, purchase land from Poles and divide the land to sell or rent to German colonists. However, this policy turned out to be a complete failure and the commission was dissolved in 1909.

II.3.3.2 Analysis and Interpretation

Nordisk Familjebok 1915, Article: Polen

            This article, although primarily about Congress Poland, also includes information about cultural policy in Posen. It discusses with more detail the Germanification that took place in Posen, comparing it with Russification in Congress Poland and cultural policy in Galicia as well. It is critical of Germanification in certain aspects, including the fact that Germanification caused the Poles to harbor hostile sentiment toward supporters of the German administration. It implies that Bismarck's 'war on Polonism' was not a very wise move.

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article: Posen

            In this encyclopedia Germanification is discussed, although only briefly. Before the introduction of Germanification, the article discusses how the Germans broke their promise that had been made at the Vienna Congress to respect the Polish nationality. By including that statement, the German administration is portrayed as disloyal to its promise and therefore ungrounded and without justification in its attempt at Germanification. The article also describes Germanification attempts as largely unsuccessful.

Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article: Posen

            This article actually discusses the establishment of a colonization commission. It takes a thoroughly neutral tone about this policy. Other than that there is no further discussion of Germanification in the area.

Nordisk Familjebok 1915, Article: Posen

            This article also explains matters similar to the former two articles. However, in its discussion more factors are brought into light, and it provides more criticism and analysis of the cultural policy in the area. By describing the large Polish population in Posen as the reason the German administration attempted Germanification, the article implies that the German administration was trying to stifle Polish dominance in the area.

II.3.3.3 Possible Bias
            Meyer¡¯s tends to be much more neutral and brief in its discussion of cultural policy in Posen, very predictably since it is a German encyclopedia and will attempt to protect German actions. The other two encyclopedias are not very biased, but are critical of Germanification. This reflects sympathy for those they view as ¡®victims¡¯ (the Poles in this case) of the policy.

II.3.4 Educational Policy

II.3.4.1 Summary of the Articles
            There were no universities in Posen; there were a few gymnasia and specialized institutions, including one for the blind. Overall, education was mediocre in the region.

II.3.4.2 Analysis and Interpretation

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article: Posen

            This article does not mention educational policy in the area.

Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article: Posen
Nordisk Familjebok 1915, Article: Posen

            Both articles provide basic statistics on educational institutions, but does not provide further information on the matter.

II.3.4.3 Possible Bias
            There is no significant bias in the articles concerning educational policy. The articles all do seem to presume that Posen is a 'German province' rather than a 'Polish province integrated into the German empire'. Therefore they write about it as they would all other provinces of the German empire. No special conditions or circumstances apply to Posen, not even the considerable Polish majority.

III. Conclusion
            Overall, the encyclopedic articles vary in the degrees to which they are biased or provide opinion, and how they regard the administrative, economic, and cultural policy in Poland after the partitions. The articles are without bias in certain sections such as the sections concerned with economic policy, because they only provide statistical data with no accompanying criticism. In the other sections that are concerned to a degree with politics, the articles are all biased toward either the Poles or the Russian/German/Austrian administration.
            The German articles tend to be more biased than the other articles because Germany participated in the partitions and was responsible for the administration of Posen. The Danish and Swedish articles are more balanced.
            It can be seen that even encyclopedic articles, which are supposed to be neutral in their discussions of any subject, are biased in different ways and to different degrees especially when it comes to political matters. Poland under the three foreign powers seems to evoke either sympathy toward the Poles as victims of foreign rule, or toward the administration as having to put up with Polish unrest.


Notes

(1)      The Partition of Poland, from WHKMLA
(2)      The Partition of Poland, from WHKMLA
(3)      Article: Polen, from Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863
(4)      Article: Polen, from Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863
(5)      Article: Polen, Nordisk Familjebok 1915
(6)      Article: Polen, Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892
(7)      Article: Polen, Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892
(8)      Article: Polen, Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892
(9)      Article: Polen, Nordisk Familjebok 1915
(10)      Article: Polen, Nordisk Familjebok 1915
(11)      Article: Polen, Nordisk Familjebok 1915
(12)      Article: Galizien, Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892
(13)      Article: Galizien, Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892
(14)      Article: Galizien, Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892
(15)      Article: Galizien, Nordisk Fasmiljebok 1908
(16)      Article: Galizien, Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863
(17)      Article: Galizien, Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892
(18)      Article: Polen, Nordisk Familjebok 1915
(19)      Article: Polen, Nordisk Familjebok 1915
(20)      Article: Galizien, Nordisk Fasmiljebok 1908
(21)      Article: Galizien, Nordisk Fasmiljebok 1908
(22)      Article: Posen, Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863



Bibliography

Note : websites quoted below were visited in May ? June 2009..

Primary Sources
1.      Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article: Polen; excerpts in English translation posted on WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/eceurope/cgrpolenc19.html
2.      Article : Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article: Polen (excerpts); excerpts in English translation posted on WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/eceurope/cgrpolenc19.html
3.      Article : Nordisk Familjebok 1915, Article: Polen; excerpts in English translation posted on WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/eceurope/cgrpolenc19.html
4.      Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article: Galizien, excerpts in English translation posted on WHKMLA, http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/eceurope/galenc19.html
5.      Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article: Galizien; excerpts in English translation posted on WHKMLA, http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/eceurope/galenc19.html
6.      Nordisk Fasmiljebok 1908, Article: Galizien; excerpts in English translation posted on WHKMLA, http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/eceurope/galenc19.html
7.      Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article: Posen; excerpts in English translation posted on WHKMLA, http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/eceurope/posenenc19.html
8.      Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, Article: Posen; excerpts in English translation posted on WHKMLA, http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/eceurope/posenenc19.html
9.      Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926, Article: Posen (1915); excerpts in English translation posted on WHKMLA, http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/eceurope/posenenc19.html

Secondary Sources
10.      Article: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, from: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish%E2%80%93Lithuanian_Commonwealth
11.      Article: Liberum Veto, from: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberum_Veto
12.      Article: Polish Partitions, from: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_Partitions
13.      Article: Vienna Congress, from: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vienna_Congress
14.      Article: The Partition of Poland, from: WHKMLA http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/eceurope/partitions.html
15.      Article: Grand Duchy of Posen 1815 ? 1848, from: WHKMLA



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