Chinese Loans 1861-1911

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy

Table of Contents

December 24th 2009
July 24th 2009
July 24th 2009
July 24th 2009
May 27th 2009
May 27th 2009
May 27th 2009
May 27th 2009
May 27th 2009
May 27th 2009
May 27th 2009
February 25th 2009
February 25th 2009
February 25th 2009
December 19th 2008
November 27th 2008
November 25th 2008
November 13th 2008
November 6th 2008
September 25th 2008
September 24th 2008
September 23rd 2008
September 6th 2008

December 24th 2009 ... Go to LSH's paper, Chinese Loans 1861-1911

(1) Grammar :
Articles are not optional. Worlds like infrastructure do not have a plural. Words such as loan do have a plural.
In the posted version I fixed a bunch of such mistakes, but I may have overlooked some.
(2) Sloppy spelling (Qialong Emperor instead of Qianlong Emperor, Boxer's Rebellion instead of Boxer Rebellion; again I fixed some of these when posting.
(3) In your reference you list two New York Times articles of December 27 1891. Reference to the New York Times of that day in notes 13 and 15 is thus ambiguous. Specify
(4) Rozman and Gilbert do not appear in your reference list .
(5) For Barry, Bland, Foster : give place of publication, publisher, year of publication
Contents :
A solid, concise overview placing China's financial history into the context of China's economic, political and diplomatic history. While you use notes sparingly, your reference list contains a number of additional academic publications. In a paper written by a high school student, the high percentage of academic books among your references is laudable.
Just one comment : the judgment of China as being "the most powerful country in the world" which you attribute to the British ambassador visiting China in 1793 may have been a Chinese perception. If the statement made there is to be attributed to the British Ambassador, I must insist on a note there.
In my mind, it is too conflicting with Napoleon's statement of China as a sleeping giant.
Also the statement that the Anglo-Chinese conflict "began" in 1793, in my mind, is an exaggeration. Perhaps better : The roots of the Anglo-Chinese conflict reach back to 1793 ...
Otherwise excellent.
I linked up the timeline you sent me earlier; I did not detect any changes.
One reference may be illegible to international readers - Baig.

July 24th 2009 ... Go to LSH's Log, Ch. III.1, Ch. III.?, Ch. III.3, Ch. III.4, Ch. III.5

your chapter titles III.2 and file title III.? did not coincide so I was not sure what to do with it

A source you may want to look into scroll down for "Colonial Atlas" most sources listed in English on this page I translated from the German, years ago
check also here

July 24th 2009 ... Go to LSH's Log, Ch. IV.1, Ch. IV.2, Ch. IV.3

In 1882 military coup in Korea, Kim Ok-kyun affair, and Gapsin coup, they revealed their interest in Korean peninsula and conflicted over it.
You write in English about China. Do not expect your readers to be experts in Korean history; give referenceds where your readers may find out about the 1882 military coup, the Kim Ok-kyun affair and the Gapsin coup. Check the spelling of Korean names; use the transscription used by the Wikipedia.

When I look into your email, all attachments appear as Foreign L....doc. if you woul label them iii6 I could infer Chapter III.6; as it is I open up surprise files.

July 24th 2009 ... Go to LSH's Log

When I look into your email, all attachments appear as Foreign L....doc. if you woul label them iii6 I could infer Chapter III.6; as it is I open up surprise files.

May 27th 2009 ... Go to LSH's Log

This deluge killed 900,000 - 2,000,000 people, destroyed homes of two million people, and destroyed agriculture settlement and commercial centers. give note
50000 square miles of low-lying plains in Northern China near
The PR China does not use miles. The Chinese Empire in the 19th century did not use miles. In this country, the mile is not used. Practically the entire world uses the Metric System. Convert !

May 27th 2009 ... Go to LSH's Log

The cost of Chinese railway construction project is estimated about 80,000,000 taels, and its time of construction several years. In the mid and late 19th century, China was the only country in the world which could practice such huge project by itself. Thus, Chinese government's ambitious railroad plan reflects its financial strength and pride as the wealthiest nation in the world (3).
I am unclear - do you give reference here for the judgment at the end, or for the figure of 80,000,000 Taels ? Give a note after 80,000,000 Taels.
Always capitalize currencies : Dollars, Euros, Mark, Won.

May 27th 2009 ... Go to LSH's Log

You use plural where it can not be used (aids, weaponries, coals) and sometimes you use singular where plural is appropriate. The English language has so little grammar; use it.
Thus, Chinese government borrowed 100,000 dollars in 1864, and also in 1884
Thus the Chinese government borrowed 100,000 Dollars in 1864, and the same sum in 1884.

May 27th 2009 ... Go to LSH's Log

content okay.

May 27th 2009 ... Go to LSH's Log

With all the new files I have a problem - I can not read your titles. In the email list of attachments they read
Foreign L... doc
when I open one I only get the end of the title, such as ..ino-Japanese War[1]Yellow river flood090526.doc
Moreover, the conclusion is not listed in your working table of contents so I can't rely on cross-checking there either. It should not be my task to guess what this chapter is about. So I labled all the following chapters as untitled.
For this one I used the title "Conclusion". However, if you lan to have chapter conclusions and a paper conclusion, think of alternative titles for some of these conclusions.

May 27th 2009 ... Go to LSH's Log

Note to be added.
In the Treaty on Nanjing, China ceded he island of Hong Kong to Britain in perpetuity. But in 1898 Britain leased the New Territories (on the mainland); in 1997 Britain had to return the New Territiories (and technically could have held on to the island), but Britain returned both.
General Observation : placenames - you use both, Nanjing and Nanking.

May 27th 2009 ... Go to LSH's Log


February 25th 2009 ... Go to LSH's Log

one sloppy note.
Your text : . About from a quarter to a half of silver flown in from 1700 to 1820 flew out from China because of opium trade : I want a note
Your text : Moreover, Chinese people started to store silver coins instead of using them in market. These changes caused 40 percent of deflation from 1820 to 1850 : I want a note.
You manage your time efficiently; you are a reliable producer of papers; you have an excellent understanding of the topic. However the policy of "write now, fill in the notes when you are done" may work for 12 page term papers; it is a bad habit, and may cause a major headache when you are done with a paper somewhere between 35 and 135 pages, a major headache if not full-scale panic. In the past, students gave up their projects at the "fuill in the notes" stage. Before you write the next chapter, fill in the notes - complete, with page number - of the chapters you wrote so far.

February 25th 2009 ... Go to LSH's Log

no notes.
Daoguang Emperor => Emperor Daoguang. Title always before name.
This caused minor conflict between Britain and Qing dynasty. This conflict was intensified when Britain took a marine who killed a Chinese without the agreement of Qing dynasty. Qing dynasty asked Britain to take him back, but British governor openly said he would not accept British people executed by Chinese government. Daoguang Emperor became furious and ordered to expatriate all British and to ban all kinds of trade with Britain. This order severely damaged Great Britain because its economy heavily depended on trade, so British parliament finally declared war against China (First Opium War, 1839). Note required.
Many people thought Britain would fight desperately, but British warships easily defeated
Many people ? What kind of people ? No westerner.
easily defeated Chinese Junks and attacked Nanjing, from sinking the junks to attacking Nanjing, three tears passed.
Style. You write your analysis occasionally from a Sino-Korean perspective, without expressly stating so; Among the Chinese, the general perception was that the British would have a hard time standing up to the Chinese navy .. and the text will find general acceptance. You write in English, so if you do not clarify the perspective from which you write, your readership will expect a British/Western perspective.

February 25th 2009 ... Go to LSH's Log


December 19th 2008 ... Go to LSH's Log

(1) The First Opium War did start in 1839, not 1838.
(2) Treaty of Tianjin, Treaty in Aigun, Treaty of Beijing. In consequence, give dates in brackets
(3) Chinese lost left bank of Amur River and was pushed back the border to Argun River. The Chinese lost ... ; to whom ?
(4) Chinese empires believed that they are the center of the world, .. The Chinese Empire did not, could not think anything.
(5) However, when meet Qianlong Empire, However, when he met Qianlong Emperor (or Emperor Qianlong)
(6) General observation : you have solid knowledge and understanding of history. However, you express yourself in a rather clumsy way. I am convinced that this clumsiness is the result of indifference - you don't really try - rather than of lack of proficiency. Unfortunately in our school many may overlook your displayed lack of proficiency; once you find yoursel;f in a seriously English-speaking academic environment, you will find less understanding. Try !

November 27th 2008 ... Go to LSH's Log

(1) IV. Foreign loan from 1904 to 1911 (after 2nd Sino ? Japanese war)
I corrected to "after 1st Sino-Japanese War"
(2) if you divide a chapter into subchapters, your reader will expect at least two subchapters. otrherwise the subdivision makes no sense. II.1 has only one subchapter.
(3) Capitalization : in titles, including chapter titles, capitalize all nouns ; Boxer Rebellion
(4) IV.5 : Railroad, VII.3.2 : Rail Road => Railroad
(5) conclusion, timeline, notes, bibliography
(6) you have read Habin's paper : Economic Factors in Chinese Rebellions of the 19th Century :

November 25th 2008

Harvard East Asian Series vol.17 : F.H.H. King, Money and Monetary Policy in China 1845-1895
vol.21 : Chi-ming Hou, Foreign Investment and Economic Development in China 1840-1937

November 13th 2008

While surfing the net I found the following : F.A. Dolph, Balancing Debts in the Far East (1920), posted on Internet Archive
Search Internet Archive for books on Chinese Loans

November 6th 2008 ... Go to LSH's Log

Except for rearranging the bibliography according to my instructions, the new part is section IV.
The books tempting me most are Stanley 1970 and Edward, no date.

Newspaper article search : try use combination of keywords : china loan

September 25th 2008 ... Go to LSH's Log

(1) Perhaps you created the files as gif files. When I downloaded them, they were bmp files (way oversize) which I reconverted into gif files to reduce the size by about 99 %. However, they look as if someone poured coffee over them. Legible, but unclean.
(2) Timeline looks okay to me. However, the various columns in many cases do not have titles, so partially confusing.

September 24th 2008 ... Go to LSH's Log

(1) Your timeline looks excellent. I have posted lots of tables into html, but I want to spare me the headache of converting this one. Try write it as a gif file (use paintbrush). Talk to me before you do so, because I need to give you a file so that the timetable is not divided into parts when printed out.
(2) Bibliography :
(a) Divide it into subdivisions : i. Bibliographic Sources, ii. Primary Sources, iii. Secondary Sources, iv. Sources which may be relevant, but which you decided not to access
(b) Publications on Li Hung Chang (modern transcription Li Hong Zhang) and on Sir Robert Hart are related to your topic, as Li Hung Chang was klong-time head of Tsungli Yamen, and Hart (an Irishman) of the Imperial Customs Office. Check the Mongji Bibliography for publications on both (in my office)
(3) Before you order books, do systematic bibliographic research. As yiou did not list bibliographies you used, I have to assum that you did not do this yet.

September 23rd 2008

Times of London online, all issues since 1785 annual fee for access L 74,95 - reasonable.

September 6th 2008

The first steps to be taken : Write a timeline of Chinese foreign loans.
Write a Working Reference List. Separate bibliographic sources, primary sources and secondary sources.
The third step : A Working Table of Contents.