The History of Olympic Boycotts - Moscow 1980, Los Angeles 1984


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
JYJ



Table of Contents


October 13th 2009
September 24th 2009
September 24th 2009
September 21st 2009
September 16th 2009
September 15th 2009
September 1st 2009
August 31st 2009
December 21st 2008
December 13th 2008
December 13th 2008
November 27th 2008
November 20th 2008
October 2nd 2008
October 2nd 2008
September 23rd 2008
September 15th 2008
September 6th 2008



October 13th 2009 . Go to JYJ's Log

(1) While exhibiting an inability in many instances to effectively implement its policy, the United States nonetheless demonstrated a will to lead and persevere that many had though no longer existed.
Not a quote, so your statement. However, it reads as a pathetic statement by a US American author written for a US American readership. Carter called on the free world to boycott the Moscow Olympics. For every government, every NOC, it was their decision to make. So how do I have to interprete the "will to lead" ? If the result, 62 nations joining the boycott, is to be read as a measure of the US will to lead, then you imply U.S. pressure as that "perseverance". Write in more objective style.
(2) Administration officials could rationalize in whatever manner they desired the embarrassing failure of Western Europe to implement US policy,
not a quote.
It is not the responsibility of Western European governments to implement US policy.
This sentence is unacceptable. Write in more objective style.
(3) but the reality was that the Common Market nations acted with near unanimity in a manner directly opposed to Washington's wishes.
not a quote.
I recall the FRG immediately joining the boycott. Britain, France and Italy did so as well, but individual athletes from these countries attended. So (3a) I do not see unanimity in their action, and (3b) I don't see how the government actions were opposed to Washington's wishes - be more specific, and, where necessary, differentiate.
Overall : This page is too much written from a subjective perspective identifying with an observer from the U.S. If you write from such a perspective, identifying with the U.S. position in 1980, we can end the research project here and now. I am not interested in such a position.



September 24th 2009 . Go to JYJ's Log

Okay. As the Communist nations boycotting the 1984 Games were non-open societies with unfree media, their governments were in less of a need to discuss / justify their decisions; appendix 5 thus is expected to be shorter than appendix 4. Just watch the spelling of appendix.



September 24th 2009 . Go to JYJ's Log

Much better. Just two points : (1) Suriname (Netherlands Guiana). Suriname was granted independence in 1975; the name Netherlands' Guiana since no longer applied. (2) Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire), => Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast). The Ivorians insist on their name being written in French language.



September 21st 2009 . Go to JYJ's Log

(1) rephrase "absent from the .. boycott". Confusing; absent from a boycott I read as not partaking in the boycott
(2) list of nations : Papua, New Guinea => this is one country called Papua New Guinea
(3) I remember the 1980 Olympics. The United Kingdom NOC declared to participate in the boycott, but individual athletes travelled to Moscow and partook; I think the same was the case with France and Italy. This half-boycott should be listed at least in a footnote.
(4) 62 countries and regions did not participated in the 1980 Games:
did not participate. Non-participation does not equal boycott (and, as I listed under (3), participation does not equal non-boycott). Example : First Football (Soccer) World Cup held in Uruguay in 1930. Germany did not participate because the German Football Federation regarded the travel expenses as too high. Your list does not contain South Africa and the Vatican State. So did they send athletes ?



September 16th 2009 . Go to JYJ's Log

The chapter looks okay. You include a lot of direct quotes; I wonder, do you quote these sources directly or indirectly ? If indirectly, you will have to express this in your notes as follows :
U.S. Department of State, Bulletin, vol. 80, Mar. 1980, 52., quoted after (your source)



September 15th 2009 . Go to JYJ's Log

(1) I like the subdivision of the list.
(2) your list has two double entries (I skipped one each) and a year 981.
(3) - SUCESS OF GAMES IN LOS ANGELES LIKELY TO CHANGE FUTURE OLYMPICS August 10, 1984
contradiction; success
(4) This is not the first research paper using historic newspaper articles as a source base. Check http://www.zum.de/whkmla/sp/1011/g2/jisoo2.html she developed a system of grading her sources (newspaper articles). You may want to consider developing grading criteria. G2's method was followed by a number of students in the last semester; if you come up with workable grading criteria, your paper is more original and a possible model for future papers to follow.



September 1st 2009 . Go to JYJ's Log

Much better. Comparison of 1980, 1984 and focus on NYT should be the focus of the paper. Part E - when you try examine the Soviet reasons for boycotting the 1984 LA Games, I assume there will be much less of a variety : simply payback.
Next step : list of articles covering the 1984 boycott



August 31st 2009 . Go to JYJ's Log

New Boy, the reason why we selected a comparison of the 1980 and 1984 Olympic boycotts and the NYT as a source base was to establish a solid base for you to write a truly original paper. When I look at the table of contents you produce here, I get the following impression : (a) on the 1980 Olympics way too detailed. (b) the restriction on just one Olympic boycott takes out 50 % of the originality of your paper. (c) looking at your table of contents, I get the impression that you completely forgot about the NYT as a base.
When we took this paper, we agreed that the focus of the paper would be the NYT coverage of the boycott, not the boycoytt itself. You have posted a list of NYT articles pertaining to the boycott of the 1980 games. If I look at the very detailed table of contents - do you have articles to cover every single part of it ?
During the last semester you gave a presentation on terminology (U.S. Civil War) where you did use contemporary sources. In that presentation it turned out that you had omitted Confederate sources, which some in your audience found while your presentation still was going on (you did work them into the paper you handed in later.
Looking at this new table of contents, I get the following impression : you let the entire summer vacation pass, not thinking of the paper at all, and alarmed by my email a few days ago you decided, in order to reduce the burden, to give up all originality in your paper and to, instead, follow the ideas / theses expressed in one or two books you read on the topic.

The sole purpose of the books you acquired (secondary sources) was to give you a general background. Your primary sources are the NYT articles.
Check http://www.zum.de/whkmla/sp/0708/eunsol/eunsol2.html Eunsol's paper. You will see, it focusses on the NYT; Kazakhstan is just a sample object to establish the NYT bias.
A comparison 1980 vs. 1984 would be just perfect to examine such a bias.



December 21st 2008 . Go to JYJ's Log

(1) General advice : you are almost a senior. In the coming year you will be busy, April-June APs, SAT IIs, final terms; from September to December college application essays. So get as much done as you can in Jan-Feb and June-Sept. Remember, only 30-40 % of research projects actually get completed.
(2) Policy one : collect all articles from NYT first, write a paper based on them, then see if you can handle adding the Times of London articles & fit them in. Policy two : focus on ione boycott in both newspapers, write, then the second, and if there is time, the third. It is up to you, decide on a plan. It is important that you produce partial results at certain stages. So if we can not handle the entire project, we have some result.
(3) There is ONE New York Times archive. What you collect are individual articles from the archive.



December 13th 2008 . Go to JYJ's Log

to be continued



December 13th 2008 . Go to JYJ's Log

Double-check date of the first entry : 1975 or 1976 ?
I think the last entry should be moved into appendix 2 - the Moscow Games.



November 27th 2008

(1) Today I wrote two letters of recommendation. One of the questions I had to respond to : Do you have any doubt in the academic or personal integrity of the Student ?
If you tell me you want to look things up in the library, and your body language gives me the impression that you want to write on a paper unrelated to our class the deadline of which has passed, you make it more difficult for me to write a letter of recommendation for you one year from now. We have only one hour per week of class; I expect you to devote that hour, and more, to your research project.
(2) The fact that you have at present only one extremely short, unorganized list of NYT articles on the boycott, goes to show that lately you have only invested a rather limited amount of attention and effort in your research project.
Your project is of such a limited nature that if you really want to, you can be done with it by the end of the vacation. I expect you to shape up.



November 20th 2008 . Go to JYJ's Log

In a bibliography delete words such as Inc., Incorporated, Ltd., Limited, "the Free Encyclopedia"
instead of 670-72 : pp.670-672, instead of 69 : p.69
If you refer to one page : p (for pagina); if you refer to more than one page : pp. (for paginae)



October 2nd 2008 . Go to JYJ's Log

(1) C. 1984 Summer Olympics in Soviet Union
in Los Angeles (California, USA)
(2) a. specific sports b. opening ceremony c. media
start with the opening ceremony, then with specific sports, lastly with the media.
Perhaps you want to give a preceding chapter - campaign for boycott.
Overall your oganization makes sense. Get access to the newspapers, focus on one boycott at a time. Compile lists of relevant newspaper articles - date, newspaper, title per boycott.
Such lists we post next. Look into KIH's paper (2008/09) and Choi Eun Sol's paper (2007/08) por samples for such tables. KIH and CES used only one newspaper; you need an extra column for NYT or Times.



October 2nd 2008 . Go to JYJ's Log

Bibliography sloppy - place of publication, publisher, year of publication, edition omitted on a regular basis.
Piece of advice : when you make a bibliographic reference, get it right the first time; it avoids unnecessary work toward the end when you will be tense and under time pressure.
For the next draft of the bibliography, separate into bibliographic sources, primary sources (f.ex. NYT, Times articles), Secondary sources you are cdertain to use, Secondary sources which are relevant but you may not use.



September 23rd 2008

Times of London online, all issues since 1785 http://archive.timesonline.co.uk/tol/archive/ annual fee for access L 74,95 - reasonable. Alternative to NYT



September 15th 2008

A strange file. I like

(1) Caraccioli BOYCOTT : STOLEN DREAMS OF THE 1980 MOSCOW OLYMPIC GAMES 13 USD
(2) Hulme The Political Olympics: Moscow, Afghanistan, and the 1980 U.S. Boycott 48.95 USD
(3) Kanin Political History of the Olympic Games 28.75 USD
(4) Brennan The XXII Summer Olympic Games, Moscow, 1980 1 USD
(5) Killanin The Olympic Games, 1980: Moscow and Lake Placid 1 USD
(6) Chandler The Los Angeles Times Book of the 1984 Olympic Games 1 USD

if you want go go beyond an examination of the boycotts of 1980 and 1984

(7) Ramsamy Apartheid, the Real Hurdle: Sport in South Africa & the International Boycott + THE POLITICS OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES 25 USD
(8) Bachrach Nazi Olympics, The: Berlin 1936: (tagline) United States Holocaust Museum 1.37 USD

I expect 4-6 to be photo albums of the respective olympics, irrelevant to your paper, but as they cost practically nothing .
1 and 2 essential on the boycott of the Moscow Olympics, 3 generally on political influence on the IOC
7 specific if you want to go beyond Moscow and Los Angeles
8 probably on the attempt to boycott the Brlin Olympics as the book issued by US Holocaust Museum

Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Games (twice in your list) : I have that book
Historical Dictionary of the Modern Olympic Movement no author USD 8.17 You may try this one

On Thursday last I had the impression that we agreed on limiting the research project on the 1980 Moscow and 1984 Los Angeles Olympics. For your project you have about a year; time flows fast. If you lack focus, you may invest a lot of time and effort and fail to get far. If you are able to focus, you will be able, with the investment of the same time and effort, to go much further.
Focus on the Moscow and Los Angeles Olympics alone, and use the NYT as your primary source base.

You found two and probably a half books on the boycott of the Moscow Olympics, and half one on the Los Angeles Olympics (I assume Kanin deals with both). This is about what I expected; in English language there will be many publications on the 1980 boycott, but very few on the 1984 boycott.
As your file contains images, I assume you did not use the bibliography in the Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement (in my office) in order to compile this list.
The proper way to compile a bibliography is to go through all relevant accessible bibliographic sources, to compile one list (with complete bibliographic data; your list misses the year of publication) and then to take the next step. Copy and paste of image files is inappropriate; I will not convert this file into a text file; that would have been your job.

Ganse



September 6th 2008

Cancelled Olympics Berlin 1916, Tokyo 1940
Boycotted Olympics Moscow 1980, Los Angeles 1984
Campaigns for Boycotting the Olympics : Berlin 1936, Beijing 2008
Certain Countries Excluded : London 1948 (Germany)
Campaigns to Exclude Certain Countries : PRC / Taiwan early 1970es; African Nations / Apartheid South Africa early 1970es ?

Establish a timeline emphasizing the political side of the Olympic games.
Establish a Working Reference List.
What questions do you want to answer in your paper ? Establish Working Table of Contents.