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The Dreyfus Affair as portrayed in Punch (1898-1900)

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Jang, Yoojin
Term Paper, AP European History Class, June 2008

Table of Contents
I. Introduction
II. The Dreyfus Affair - Historical Background
III. Punch Cartioons & Interpretation
III.1 The Affair Becomes an Affair : January 22, 1898
III.2 The Power of the French Army : January 11, 1899
III.3 Restrictive Function : May 3, 1899
III.4 A Revision in Need : June 7, 1899
III.5 Innocent Dreyfus : August 16, 1899
III.6 Corruption in the General Staff : August 30 and September 13, 1899
III.7 Getting Things Settled : September 20, 1899
IV. What Punch did not address of the Dreyfus Affair & the bias in the cartoons

I. Introduction
            The "Punch" magazine was first printed in 1841 to satirize political, social, economical events that occurred at that point in history. This British magazine presented the readers with witty cartoons and humorous writings. Among many international events "Punch" has dealt, one political event it covered was the Dreyfus Affair in France which approximately began in September 1894 and lasted for more than 14 years, until 1908. This paper will mainly focus on the Dreyfus Affair related cartoons published since 1898 to 1900 because the Affair itself was most actively discussed during this epoch. With a general overview on the Dreyfus Affair, a meticulous analysis of each political cartoon along with my analysis on the bias the cartoons display will be elaborated.

II. The Dreyfus Affair - Historical Background
            To put it simply, the Dreyfus Affair is a controversy that occurred with the treason conviction (1894) of Capt. Alfred Dreyfus, a French general staff officer. The case arose when a French spy in the German embassy discovered a handwritten bordereau , received by Major Max von Schwartzkoppen, German military attache in Paris, which listed secret French documents. The French army attempted to track down the traitor. Suspicion fell on Dreyfus, a wealthy Alsatian Jew, while the press raised accusations of treason. He was tried in camera by a French court-martial, convicted, and sentenced to degradation and deportation for life. He was sent to Devils Island, off the coast of French Guiana, for solitary confinement. Dreyfus protested his innocence, but public opinion generally applauded the conviction, and interest in the case died out.
            The matter flared up again in 1896 and soon divided Frenchmen into two irreconcilable factions. In 1896 Col. Georges Picquart, chief of the intelligence section, discovered evidence indicating Major Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy, who was deep in debt, as the real author of the bordereau. Picquart was silenced by army authorities, but in 1897 Dreyfus's brother, Mathieu, made the same discovery and increased pressure to reopen the case. Esterhazy was tried (Jan., 1898) by a court-martial and acquitted in a matter of minutes. A couple of days later, Emile Zola, a leading supporter of Dreyfus, promptly published an open letter (J'accuse) to the president of the French republic, F?lix Faure, accusing the judges of having obeyed orders from the war office in their acquittal of Esterhazy. Zola was tried for libel and sentenced to jail, but he escaped to England. By this time the case had become a major political issue and was fully exploited by royalist, militarist, and nationalist elements on the one hand and by republican, socialist, and anticlerical elements on the other
            Later in 1898 it was discovered that much of the evidence against Dreyfus had been forged by Colonel Henry of army intelligence. Henry committed suicide (Aug., 1898), and Esterhazy fled to England. At this point revision of Dreyfus's sentence had become imperative. The case was referred to an appeals court in September and after Waldeck-Rousseau became premier in 1899, the court of appeals ordered a new court-martial. There was worldwide indignation when the military court, unable to admit error, found Dreyfus guilty with extenuating circumstances and sentenced him to 10 years in prison.

III. Punch Cartoons & Interpretation

Fig. 1 : Punch Vol.114 p.26 Jan. 22 1898
III.1 The Affair Becomes an Affair : January 22, 1898
            This cartoon, printed in January 22, 1898 marks the evident advance of a court case. The picture shows the Lady Justice veiled in her clothe and very cautiously entering the door. Since Iustitia, the lady God of Justice, will frequently appear throughout the essay, the next paragraph will concisely examine what characteristics distinguish a character as Justice.
            Lady Justice, an allegorical personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system, is seen carrying a sword and scales with her eyes in a blindfold. Justitia is most often depicted with a set of weighing scales typically suspended from her left hand, upon which she measures the strengths of a case's support and opposition.(1) She is also often seen carrying a double-edged sword in her right hand, symbolizing the power of Reason and Justice. The blindfold acts as a sign that justice is and should be distributed objectively, without fear or favor, regardless of the identity, power, or weakness.
            There are two important writings which tell that the cartoon is related with the Dreyfus Affair. The first indication is with the "Conseil de Guerre," French for the War Council. From the beginning to the end of the Dreyfus Affair, this particular council has been involved with the Affair. On the left of the picture, the following words read: "L'AFFAIRE ESTERHAZY ENTREE DEFNEDUE." Thus, this suggests that the cartoon is portraying the Esterhazy court case.
            Before this cartoon was published, in November 1897, Mathieu Dreyfus, the brother of the convicted officer, claimed to have found evidence that the document which Captain Dreyfus was charged with writing was in reality written by Major Esterhazy. (This document, known as the bordereau, in which the writer gave the secret information to the foreign government now became the subject of constant discussion. (2) Mathieu had discovered that the handwriting of Dreyfus' and that of Esterhazy's was strikingly similar. Thus, Esterhazy came under the light of suspicion. On top of that, Esterhazy was said to be greatly in debt and not above resorting to unscrupulous measures to escape from his embarrassment. Esterhazy immediately denied the authorship of the bordereau. In December, 1897, Major Esterhazy applied for a court-martial and it opened on January 10, 1898. The doors were closed and the council continued in secret sessions until the verdict was announced on the following day. This is why the cartoon is titled "The Real 'Veiled Lady,'" and Lady Justice quoted, "Why are my doors closed!" It was a unanimous vote for the acquittal of the defendant. Apparently, this unfair case of Esterhazy was what the cartoon described.
            There appears no evident bias in the cartoon because the cartoon merely indicated the Esterhazy court case. However, the posture of lady Justice act as a sign that the court was not conducted publicly.

Fig. 2 : Punch Vol.116 p.17 January 11, 1899
III.2 The Power of the French Army : January 11, 1899
            By the time of 1899, the Punch cartoon printed on Dreyfus Affair began to show disapproval for the War Council's decision to jail General Dreyfus. The cartoon printed in January 11, 1899 with the words "SUSPENSE" is just one among many. From this cartoon, Madame La Republique, a figure that became to represent the Third Republic of France, is threatened by a tiger.
            Madame La Republique is an important national emblem of the French Republic and also a personification of Liberty and Reason. The red Phrygian cap that she is wearing evolved into a symbol of freedom after the French Revolution and was incorporated with Marianne, another name for Madame La Republique. Madame La Republique, supposedly a very strong model, appears terrified even though she holds a whip to tame the tiger. She feels the suspense and looks troubled about whether the tiger will attack her; "Mon Dieu (My Goodness)! Will he turn on me!" As the picture shows, both Marianne and the tiger are surrounded by bars. A close look into the tiger's back shows that the black stripes on the tiger's back reads "L'armee" which translates to "army" in English.
            It is worth asking what role was played in the political choices of the government by the army. The army lived on the margin, so to speak, of civil society; the military schools were cut off from the universities; the frequent changes of garrison prevented contacts with the outside world; and progress in the cadres was made only by promotion, in which the civil authority, the ministry, never interfered. (3) The army possessed its own rules and its own jurisdiction. In this strictly hierarchical environment, with the General Staff at the summit, a service enjoyed special rights which emerged into the light of day in the Affair: the Chief of Staff and his deputy controlled the all-powerful Intelligence Service. To interfere with the General Staff or Intelligence was to attack the very highest ranks of the army. Given too much power and trust from the French government, the French army slowly grew as a threatening body to the Liberty and Reason of France; as this was the case for Dreyfus Affair.
            Whatever trick Madame La Republique wanted the tiger to perform, the tiger refuses to follow her orders. In historical context, this could symbolize the army refusing the leading politicians¡¯ instructions on the acquittal of Dreyfus. During the course of the Affair, it was evident that every effort would be made by the government in the trial of Emile Zola to suppress all attempts to exculpate Dreyfus, and this was shown by the selection of the passages in the letter on which the charge against Zola was based. ("France") All in all, the general situation in France during the Dreyfus Affair was a conflict in which the Army proved to be more powerful.

Fig.3 : Punch Vol.116 p.206. May 3, 1899
III.3 Restrictive Function : May 3, 1899
            Truth. "I must come out." French Generals "Not if we know it." The following words are printed with the Punch cartoon in May 3rd 1899. Another phrase spells out 'A bas La Verite' which means "down the truth." The title of this cartoon, a play on the words of a slogan which originally means "up with the truth," explicitly shows what was going on in France with the Dreyfus Affair.
            The figure in the middle of the cartoon, a lady holding up a mirror and trying to rise up from the well, has a significant meaning. The title of the cartoon indicates that this woman is the goddess of truth. Her mirror, which also symbolizes truth, serves to reflect the soul of its viewers. Blinded by the reflection of light, the generals are trying their best to force the truth down the well, but their effort proves futile in the eyes of the cartoonist. The sensory perception of light plays a central role in spirituality (indicating vision or enlightenment), and the presence of light as opposed to its absence (darkness) is a common Western metaphor of good and evil, knowledge and ignorance.(4) Also, the water well may have significance in that a well is the center of social gathering. The Bible, especially the Old Testament, has referred to the water well to symbolize both spiritual and physical salvation ? precisely what France needed.
            With numerous trials related with the Dreyfus Affair, the French generals and especially the War Council did all they could to conceal court cases such as the Esterhazy court-martial. A news article in The New York Times reported that the court is being intimidated by the army in April 25, about a week before the cartoon was printed. "Conspiring Against Dreyfus" said that a trustworthy source discovered that the Superior Council of War, including General de Negrier, General Zurlinden, General Giovannienelli, General Duchesne, and General Jamont has decided that under no circumstances whatever, shall Dreyfus be liberated. (5) The reporter stated that negotiations are proceeding between the Intelligence Bureau and the Judges of Court Cessation to secure a rejection of the request for revision, and that Judges who favor revision are being subjected to terrible intimidation. Furthermore, the article has stated that "everything has been arranged for a sham trial of Col. Picquart, who is to be degraded and sentenced to imprisonment for ten years." (6)

Fig.4 : Punch Vol.116 p.271 June 7, 1898
III.4 A Revision in Need : June 7, 1899
            Although it was crystal clear to many that Dreyfus was plainly innocent, the French generals refused to end Dreyfus' imprisonment. As the case became more controversial, advocates of Dreyfus demanded for a revision of the documents Dreyfus was accused of. The cartoon presented is portrays the situation in France.
            It was easy to categorize this cartoon as one related to the Dreyfus Affair because of the words engraved "L'affaire Dreyfus." Lady Justice again appears in the cartoon. She has a belt on with words, "IVSTITIA," the Latin word for Justice. However, unlike the previous cartoon there is significant change in posture, face expression, and the general ambience.
            First of all, her attitude seems to evoke firm confidence. She stands upright looking straight into the eyes. Seeing the broken doors behind her back, it seems that Justice had crushed open the doors. One could notice that she no longer has her blindfold on. Without her blindfold, her expression is rather an angry one. She still has a scale on her left hand. Another distinguishable feature of Lady Justice is her double-edged sword that she is holding on her right hand which seems to be ready to wield it anytime. Her sword is engraved "Revision" ? the power tool which could prove Dreyfus' innocence.
            Under her foot there are several documents that reads "Lies" and "Forgery." Considering the time frame, documents may indicate the documents forged by Colonel Henry.
            The cartoon is titled "At Last!" This phrase indicates that Dreyfus' secretive documents were finally undergoing revision. On May 28, it was announced that the reporter of the court Ballot-Baeaupre, had reported in favor of revision on the following grounds: Documents had been submitted to the judges in the court-martial 1894 which the defense had not seen; there were contradiction in the testimony of handwriting experts as to the authorship of the bordereau; the paper upon which the bordereau was written was the same as that used by Esterhazy; there was no proof that Dreyfus had ever confessed his guilt; Henry's confession changed the aspect of the affair; finally, the change of a date in the bordereau strengthened the suspicion of Esterhazy's guilt; official documents proved that there were no relations between Dreyfus and the foreign embassies. (7)
            Later, on June 3rd, the Court of Cassation rendered its decision to quash the decision of the court martial of1894 and ordered retrial. Meanwhile on June 1st, Colonel Du Paty de Clam was arrested on the charges that arose out of the testimony brought before the Court of Cassation during its investigation.
            From the beginning of 1899, the mood for a revision was already predicted with the decision of the Court of Cassation in the late 1898. Toward the close of October 1898, the Court having appointed a reporter to investigate the demand for revision took up the case for decision. It was reported on December 23 that the war office would deliver the documents. On January 31, 1899, an article from the New York Times published was titled, "French Government Wins: Chamber of Deputies Adopts Bill Concerning Trial Revision Cases - Applies to Dreyfus Case." (8) This article reported that with the bill to have revision judgments from entire court, the decision of Dreyfus' fate may turn out differently.

Fig.5 : Punch Vol.117 p.79 August 16, 1898
III.5 Innocent Dreyfus : August 16, 1899
            By August 16, 1899, even the French Court has declared Dreyfus' innocence. Now it was only a matter of time until Dreyfus was freed from jail.
            The cartoon is titled "His Strongest Witness." Apparently, Captain Dreyfus' strongest witness is Truth who encourages him to have "courage." The cartoon shows the two characters in a jail. The location is most likely a jail in the Devil¡¯s Island where Dreyfus was sentenced to life imprisonment. Partly bald, Captain Dreyfus sits, facing another direction, with his hands resting n his knees; this was the same position he sat during the court sessions in Rennes.
            Behind Dreyfus, Truth stands behind her with a document written "Justice." On August 6th and 8th of the same year, two articles in the New York Times were published: "Dreyfus' Case Clearly Reviewed - Esterhazy the Guilty Man" and "Dreyfus Before the Court-Martial." These two newspaper articles elaborate on the Rennes court cases which mostly established Dreyfus' innocence. The former article stated the following: "The truth is very simple. Esterhazy, an adventurer and mercenary, was a spy in the pay of Prussia. Captain Dreyfus was condemned in his place for two reasons: First - Because his handwriting vaguely resemble that of Esterhazy. Second ? Because his principal accuser before the court-martial was Henry, who had succeeded in gaining the confidence of all his superior officers and who was Esterhazy's partner (in treason.)" (9) In the end, justice prevails and truth ultimately reveals itself.

Fig.6 and 7 : Punch Vol.117 p.106 August 30, 1899 and p.127, Sept. 13 1899
III.6 Corruption in the General Staff : August 30 and October 13, 1899
            Cartoons published in August 30th and October 13th both seek to convey the same message to the Punch readers: the corrupted War Council. The overall d rawing attempts to show the corruption of the French generals. Especially during the trials of Dreyfus Affair, these men were under a conspiracy for a plot against Dreyfus, getting involved in forgery and calumniation.
            Just 13 days before the cartoon was published, on August 17, the Paris Figaro exposed another alleged forgery in the Dreyfus case, which caused consternation in the ranks of the anti-Dreyfusards. A severe blow has been dealt by it to the prosecution, and the general impression is that the only point in General Mercier¡¯s evidence which was dangerous to Dreyfus has been rendered of no effect. (10) The Figaro's expose consisted of the following telegram: "The letter of Nov. 30, 1897, attributed to me, and reproduced in the Figaro of Aug. 16, 1899, is a forgery." (11) The foregoing refers to a letter alleged to have been written by the Austrian Military Attache at Berlin, declaring Dreyfus had relations with Germany. It was mentioned in the testimony of Gens Mercier and Roget. The letter referred to was one from Schneider, then Austrian Military Attache at Paris, in which he was alleged to have said Schwartzkoppen and Panizzardi, respectively the German and Italian Attaches, were trying to make out that it was not Dreyfus who had given them information.
            The cartoon is titled "Les Dernieres Cartouches!" (Rennes 1899) In this cartoon, there are several words that refer to the Dreyfus Affair: "forgery," "calumny," "hate," "falsification," "general staff," "bordeau," "secret dossier," "effrontery," and so on. The wounded general in the center of the cartoon is Esterhazy, as the letters around his clothe indicates. There are other military generals this cartoon is trying to depict, although their names are hard to clearly identify. The scenery the cartoon is showing is very disorganized and messy. By the time this cartoon was published, the condition of the French army was definitely not decent; it was dreadful as the injured generals in the cartoon. A revision declared by the Court of Cassation had already revealed forged documents and it was lucid that the army was at fault. When the truth was discovered, principally by Colonel Picquart (then Chief of the Secret Intelligence Department) and Scheurer-Kestner, (Vice President of the Senate,) it seemed so extraordinary to France that people refused for a long time to believe it, in spite of evidence. The General Staff had the audacity to perpetuate its error and has concealed its action by crime and perjury.
            In this chaotic "General Staff" office, one could get the basic idea of how much Punch condemned the General Staff involved in the Dreyfus court trials.
            The other cartoon titled "The Degenerates" is trying to present the dark side of the War Council. The subtitle of this cartoon reads, "Shade of 'Le Petit Caporal.' 'Vive (the verb "to live" in French) L'armee! Yes! But it was not with generals like you that I won my campaigns!¡¯" The left side of the cartoon shows the deceased Napoleon Bonaparte. He was the man who introduced the concept of the modern professional conscript army to Europe, an innovation which other states eventually followed. He also expanded and developed the army, thus raising the social status of generals. Napoleon, as a leading figure of French army during his life time, is looking at the French generals of 1899 with contempt. The War Council, in the eyes of both Napoleon and Britain was definitely deteriorating. The generals are seen reviewing the "Secret Dossier" by themselves. Dossier is typically a briefing paper based on an individual of interest in police or intelligence circles. This paper, which should have been accessible to the public, was dealt secretly throughout the Dreyfus Affair.

Fig.8 : Punch Vol.117 p.139 Sept. 20, 1898
III.7 Getting Things Settled : September 20, 1899
            The case of Dreyfus' treason was gradually closing by this point in history. This cartoon, named "After the Trial," shows how the personified version of Public Opinion disapproved of the Rennes Verdict, the French Army¡¯s version of Dreyfus Affair. The subtitle reads, "The voice of civilization. 'Remember your glorious past, regard the future, and once again merit my esteem.'" The voice of civilization, a female figure on the right side of the cartoon, holds up her right hand high with a frown. On her left, "Europa" holds a banner named "Iustitia" (justice in Latin.) A national figure of France stands disappointed with the disapproval Rennes Verdict.
            Although the Dreyfus Affair initiated since the 1894 and reached its peak from the years 1898 to 1899, the non-French were already aware of Captain Dreyfus' innocence. On January 24, 1898, The Minister for Foreign Affairs, Baron von Bülow, made a solemn statement before the Budget Committee of Reichstag in regard to the Dreyfus affair. He declared most emphatically that there had never been relations of any kind between German representatives or agents and Dreyfus. Continuing, the Minister said the story of the paper basket incident at the German Embassy in Paris and the finding of compromising documents affecting Dreyfus, was sheer invention. (12) The speaker knew nothing of the visit of Dreyfus to the Reichsland, and still less of the alleged special facilities given Dreyfus by German officials during this alleged visit. In addition, an article in The National Review on October 29th, 1898, written by L. J. Maxse has affirmed that the Czar has become a convinced Dreyfusard, and is taking a sympathetic interest in the prisoner, Dreyfus. (13)
            Outside France, the verdict was received with indignation. In England and United States the comments on the chiefs of the French army, and the general attitude of the majority of French men, were especially severe. In all foreign countries the prevailing opinion was that France had brought upon herself a lasting disgrace. The popular dislike of France did not, however, work its way out into official relations, which continued friendly, and gradually the talk of boycotting ht exposition died out.
            Ultimately, France, with her Dreyfus scandal, has brought herself down from her "glorious past" to complete disgrace.

IV. What Punch did not address of the Dreyfus Affair & the bias in the cartoons
            Naturally, there was bias in all Punch cartoons because the cartoonists all tried to portray a specific aspect of an event. Noting that Punch was a magazine published in Britain, one can predict that he will see disdainful attitude of Britain toward the case of Dreyfus. However, if similar magazine on satirical cartoons were printed in France during the Dreyfus Affair, the cartoons would show people supporting the generals, accusing numerous Jews of conspiracy, deriding Zola for his accusation, and continuously accusing Dreyfus as guilty. In the summer of 1898 the great majority of the French people were still so firmly convinced of the guilt of Dreyfus that they could not tolerate for an instant the thought of re-opening of the question. Anyone who dared to express a doubt of the justice of the court martial verdict, or hint at a revision of the sentence was liable to social ostracism or even worse. Citizens were insulted and threatened, civil officers degraded; military men were challenged to fight duels, all for mere expressions of opinion. The French public's support was a result of the enthusiastic devotion to the army, and their belief that the very existence of the Republic depended upon the army.
            Although Punch went over numerous events relevant to Dreyfus Affair, it failed to mention two very important aspects throughout the Affair: Zola trials and Anti-Semitism.
            Zola trials initiated early in Feburary 7th, 1898, in response to the Zola Letters, "I accuse." On January 13, after the acquittal of the Esterhazy, a daily paper edited by M, Perreus, published a letter of Zola's in which he accused by name the officers of the army and the members of the war office of deliberately falsifying in the Dreyfus case. He claimed also the complete innocence of Dreyfus. Naturally enough this letter created a great sensation in France. The friends of Dreyfus believed that a malicious conspiracy had been formed against Captain Dreyfus. On the other hand, the supporters of the army held firmly to belief in Dreyfus' guilt. Popular indignation rose to a perfect frenzy. France had not seen such an exhibition of fanaticism and popular madness since the days of 1848 revolutions. The reason for this could be largely divided into three: the agitation against Zola and the friends of Dreyfus was due to the feeling that the army had been insulted (To attack the honor of the army was regarded as no better than treason, for the success of France and her safety from attack depended solely on the strength of her military, and to declare the existence of such widespread corruption among its was to disorganize and demoralize the whole force.); secondly, it was believed that the relations of France with a friendly nation were involved; and lastly, Dreyfus being a Jew, Anti-Semitic sentiment was called into play. Punch could have printed numerous cartoons based on the Zola trials if they wanted to because the case involved many social problems in France.
            The indignation against Zola and Dreyfus gave way to a general hatred to the Jews. The leader of the Anti-Semites was Edouard Drumont of the Libre Parole. To him every Jew was an object of hatred and suspicion. The Zola trial was merely a means for furthering the Anti-Semite movement. He agitated constantly for the repeal of the laws providing for the political equality of the Jew. He would have them set apart by law from the other classes of the community, claiming that they had always remained a race apart. Anti-Semitism was a major issue that distinguished the Dreyfusards from anti-Dreyfusards, however, Punch did not deal with this issue.
            The reasons for leaving out the Zola trial and Anti-Semitism is unclear. It could have been the fact that Britain had other more important foreign affairs to deal with (such as the Boer war) or, possibly, Punch simply had not viewed Dreyfus Affair with much significance. Anyhow, the Punch succeeded in covering the most important trials during the scandal (Esterhazy and the revision trials in Rennes) with a negative connotation.


(1)      Article : Lady Justice, from Wikipedia
(2)      Mayeur, p.193
(3)      Mayeur, p.188
(4)      Article : Mirror, from Wikipedia
(5)      Aritlce : Conspiring Against Dreyfus, from The New York Times
(6)      ibid.
(7)      Article: France, from the International Year Book
(8)      Aritcle: French Government Wins, from The New York Times
(9)      Aritcle: Dreyfus's Case Clearly Reviewed, from The New York Times
(10)      Article: Another Forgery is Exposed, from The New York Times
(11)      ibid.
(12)      Article: Dreyfus Case in Germany, from The New York Times
(13)      Article: Russian Feel for Dreyfus, from The New York Times


Primary Sources
Punch Cartoon Library, in an email dated June 2nd 2008, was so generous to permit the usage of Punch cartoons in students' papers as this one. Punch Cartoon Library does offer full-size decorative prints of individual cartoons for sale.
1.      Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol.114 p.26 Jan. 22 1898 (figure 1)
2.      Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol.116 p.17 January 11, 1899
3.      Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol.116 p.206. May 3, 1899
4.      Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol.116 p.271 June 7, 1898
5.      Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol.117 p.79 August 16, 1898
6.      Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol.117 p.106 August 30, 1899
7.      Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol.117 p.127, Sept. 13 1899
8.      Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol.117 p.139 Sept. 20, 1898
9.      "Another Forgery is Exposed." The New York Times 18 Aug. 1899.
10.      "Zola's Hopeless Crusade." The New York Times 16 Jan. 1898.
11.      "Conspiring Against Dreyfus." The New York Times 25 Apr. 1899.
12.      "French Government Wins." The New York Times 31 Jan. 1899
13.      "Dreyfus's Case Clearly Reviewed." The New York Times 6 Aug. 1899.
14.      "Dreyfus Case in Germany." The New York Times 25 Jan. 1898.
15.      "Another Forgery is Exposed." The New York Times 18 Aug. 1899.
16.      "Russians Feel for Dreyfus." The New York Times 30 Oct. 1898.
17.      France." The International Year Book, 1898. p.322~333. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1899
18.      France." The International Year Book, 1899. p.334~339. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1900
19.      Zola, Emile. The Dreyfus Affair: 'J'Accuse' and Other Writings. New Haven & London: Yale UP, 1996.

Secondary Sources
Note : websites quoted below were visited in June 2008.
20.      Article : Phrygian Cap.from Wikipedia. 4 June 2008.
21.      Mayeur, Jean-Marie, and Madeleleine Reberious. The Third Republic From Its Origins to the Great War 1871~1914. Vol. 4. Paris: Cambridge UP, 1984
22.      Article : Marianne, from Wikipedia. 4 June 2008.
23.      Article : Mirror, from Wikipedia. 4 June 2008.
24.      Article : Lady Justice, Wikipedia. 3 June 2008. .

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