Britain's Withdrawal from Palestine and the Arab-Zionist Conflict until 1948


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
LYH



Table of Contents


Chapter IV.2 Outline
Working Table of Contents, 2nd Update
Chapter IV.1 Outline
Working Table of Contents, 1st Update
Bibliography, 1st Update
Working Table of Contents
Bibliography



Chapter IV.2 Outline (as of December 11th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

IV.2 The Jewish Community under the British

IV.2.1 Demographics of the Jewish Community before the rise of Hitler (1933)
             The Balfour Declaration of 1917 opened up Palestine for the Jewish population over the world, and immigration into Palestine which had already been in progress for years increased. Previous to British involvement, in 1882, Palestine had a meager 24,000 religious Jewish immigrants, with an Arab population of twenty times that of the Jewish. From this point onward, Jewish immigrations occurred in sporadic waves. The first wave from 1882 to 1903 introduced 25,000 Jews into Palestine. The second wave from 1904 to 1914 witnessed roughly 35,000 more Jews immigrating. In late 1910's, the population had exceeded 80,000, and composed roughly 11% of the entire population of Palestine. After the Balfour Declaration in 1917, the effect of international legitimization for Jewish immigration was evident. The third wave between 1919 and 1923 alone brought in 85,000 Jews to Palestine. Finally, in 1931, the December 1931 Census of the country indicated that the Jewish population now constituted 16% of the entire Palestinian population of 1.04 million (1). The Jews now began to compose a significant portion of Palestine.
             It must be noted here that the British and even the Zionists did not support Jewish immigrations in its entirety. The British White Paper of 1922, which clarified the British intention and interpretation of the Balfour Declaration (2), dictated:
             "For the fulfillment of this policy it is necessary that the Jewish community in Palestine should be able to increase its numbers by immigration. This immigration cannot be so great in volume as to exceed whatever may be the economic capacity of the country at the time to absorb new arrivals. It is essential to ensure that the immigrants should not be a burden upon the people of Palestine as a whole, and that they should not deprive any section of the present population of their employment" (3)
             However, the Arabs did feel that the increasing population of Jews threatened their positions, and the British which took this factor into consideration, could see that such was the phenomenon (to be dealt with in the chapter of Conflicts, currently marked D). Also taking into the political developments which occurred in 1920 to 1922 (also to be discussed in a separate chapter), the White Paper partitioned the British Mandate of Palestine and excluded the land east of the Jordan River from any Jewish migration or settlement, although it simultaneously stated that the Balfour Declaration could not be amended. The land lying east of the Jordan River accounts for 76% of Palestine. Thus, not counting the land then given to Abdullah from the Hejaz, whom the British installed to be the Emir of Transjordan, to head "an Arab dynasty that was not Palestinian," in the words of the British Colonial Office, the Jews were only left with 23% of the original Palestine mandate. Transjordan, modern day Jordan, closed its doors to any Jewish migration (4). Though the increase of Jewish population continued, this matter certainly shaped the demographics of the region.

Notes

(1)      Farsoun, Samih K., and Zacharia, Chrstina. Palestine and the Palestinians (Boulder, Co: Westview Press, 1997), pp. 72-86, accessed through "1920-1947: The British Mandate Period." Palestine Center.
(2)      "Churchill White Paper." Wikipedia
(3)      "British White Paper of June 1922" Yale Law School: Lillian Goldman Law Library.
(4)      "The British Mandate: Creation of Jordan," and "Creation of Transjordan." Palestine Facts. http://palestinefacts.org/pf_mandate_transjordan.php



Table of Contents, 1st Update (as of November 13th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

I. Introduction
II. The Jewish Community in Palestine from 1897 to 1917
III. The Arab Community in Palestine from 1897 to 1917
IV. Palestine under the British Administration, 1917 - 1948
IV.1 The Establishment of the British Mandate
IV.2 The Jewish Community under the British
IV.2.1 Demographics of the Jewish community before the rise of Hitler (1933)
IV.2.2 Demographics of the Jewish community after the rise of Hitler
IV.3 The Arab Community under the British
IV.4 Conflicts between the Communities
IV.5 The End of the British Mandate and Settlements
V. Conclusion



Chapter IV.1 Outline (as of December 4th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

IV. Palestine under the British Administration, 1917 ? 1948

IV.1 The Establishment of the British Mandate
             The close of World War I meant change in Palestine. The Allies, or the Entente, had won. Britain issued the Balfour Declaration in November 2, 1917, and the Jewish residents of Palestine officially came under the British. The Balfour Declaration solidified Palestine as "a national home for the Jewish people." Settlements were made at Versailles in 1919 through authorizations entitled League of Nations mandates, by which Britain legitimately gained Palestine, Iraq, and Transjordan from the Turks. Many interests and priorities on the part of the British contributed to the decision.
             With the advent of the British rule came the reestablishment of the term "Palestine," which, originated with the Romans, had been abandoned for centuries. The British used the word "Palestinian" to describe all peoples living in the region, including Muslims and Jews alike. "Arabs" were originally Arab-speaking peoples, which included Christians as well. The Arabs in the region identified themselves more with the term "Arabs" than "Palestinians." But the British brought the aforementioned changes.
             After the Balfour Declaration and the acknowledgement of Palestine as a home for the Jews, immigration started to flood. A national home prepared for them appealed to them, as they suffered immensely during World War I, and as following the war, they endured intensified violence against them, especially in areas such as Russia and Ukraine. The Arabs, predictably, were not at all content with what was happening, and this would shape the history of the region significantly. (1)

Notes

(1)      1998 by Frank E. Smitha http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch17jeru.html "Jews and Arabs in Palestine, to 1939" Macrohistory and World Report



Table of Contents, 1st Update (as of November 13th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

I. Introduction
II. The Jewish Community in Palestine from 1897 to 1917
III. The Arab Community in Palestine from 1897 to 1917
IV. Palestine under the British Administration, 1917 - 1948
IV.1 The Establishment of the British Mandate
IV.2 The Jewish Community under the British
IV.3 The Arab Community under the British
IV.4 Conflicts between the Communities
IV.5 The End of the British Mandate and Settlements
V. Conclusion



Bibliography (as of September 19th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

I. Sources most likely to be used
1.      Humphries, Hugh (ed.). Palestine and the legacy of Balfour. [Haddington?]: Scottish Friends of Palestine, 2006
2.      Huneidi, Sahar S. 'Facts of the ground : Herbert Samuel and the Balfour Declaration, 1914-1925'. In Humphries, Hugh (ed.), Palestine and the legacy of Balfour ([Haddington?]: Scottish Friends of Palestine, 2006), 73-86
3.      Rose, John. 'How Britain declared for Zionism : the Balfour Declaration'. In Humphries, Hugh (ed.), Palestine and the legacy of Balfour ([Haddington?]: Scottish Friends of Palestine, 2006), 191-203.
4.      Pappe, Ilan. 'The Balfour Declaration and its rectification'. In Humphries, Hugh (ed.), Palestine and the legacy of Balfour ([Haddington?]: Scottish Friends of Palestine, 2006), 119-123.
5.      Shlaim, Avi. 'The Balfour Declaration and its Consequences'. In Louis, William Roger (ed.), Yet more adventures with Britannia : personalities, politics, and culture in Britain (London: I.B. Tauris, 2005), 251-70.
6.      Smith, Charles D. Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, Fourth Edition: A History with Documents, 2000
7.      Laqueur, Walter. The Israel-Arab Reader: A Documentary History of the Middle East Conflict, Sixth Revised and Updated Edition.
8.      Sanders, Ronald. The High Walls of Jerusalem: A History of the Balfour Declaration and the Birth of the British Mandate for Palestine, 1984.
9.      Pappe, Ilan. A History of Modern Palestine, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
10.      Fawcett, Louise. International Relations of the Middle East, Oxford University Press, 2005.
11.      Idinopulos, Thomas A. Weathered by Miracles. 1998.
12.      Shulman, Abraham. Coming Home to Zion, 1979.
13.      Macropaedia Britannica: entries, to be determined.
14.      WHKMLA History of Palestine, British Mandate Period, http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/arabworld/xpalestine19171948.html
15.      Mattar, Philip. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians, NY : Facts on File 2000
16.      Reich, Bernard Historical Dictionary of Israel, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1992
17.      Gilmore, Curzon. Imperial Statesman, NY : Farrar, Straus & Giroux 1994
18.      Hadawi, Sami. Bitter Harvest. A Modern History of Palestine, NY : Olive Branch (1967) 1999

II. Relevant Sources not likely to be used
19.      Renton, James Edward. 'Changing languages of empire and the Orient : Britain and the invention of the Middle East, 1917-1918'. Historical Journal, 50:3 (2007), 645-67.
20.      Ben-Dror, Elad. 'The Arab struggle against partition : The international arena of summer 1947'. Middle Eastern Studies, 43:2 (2007), 259-93. Publisher: Cass; Routledge.
21.      Ariel, Yaakov. 'An Unexpected Alliance : Christian Zionism and its Historical Significance'. Modern Judaism, 26:1 (2006), 74-100. Publisher: Oxford University Press.
22.      Barr, James, 1976-. Setting the desert on fire : T.E. Lawrence and Britain's secret war in Arabia, 1916-18. London: Bloomsbury, 2006. xvi, 362 p
23.      Douglas-Hamilton, Jill, duchess of Hamilton and Brandon. God, guns and Israel : Britain, the First World War and the Jews in the Holy Land. Rev. edn. Stroud: Sutton, 2004. xx, 300 p.



Table of Contents (as of October 31st 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

I. History of Zionism
II. The Realization of Zionism (1897-)
II.1 The Initiative Immigration
III. The Involvement of the British
III.1 World War I and the British Mandate of Palestine
III.1.1 Sykes-Picot Agreement
III.2 Conflicting Promises of the British
III.2.1 Hussein-McMahon Correspondence
III.2.2 Balfour Declaration of 1917
III.2.3 The Reasons: British interests and priorities
III.2.4 Consequent violence in response
IV. The Involvement of the United Nations
IV.1 The Partition of the British Mandate of Palestine
IV.1.1 Israeli Response
IV.1.2 Arab/Palestinian Response
IV.2 Israeli Declaration of Independence
IV.2.1 Arab-Israeli War 1948
IV.2.2 Palestinian Exodus 1948
V. After 60 Years ? Peace Process in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
V.1 The Palestinian Perspective
V.2 The Israeli Perspective
V.3 The U.S. Perspective
V.4 The Arab Perspective



Bibliography (as of September 19th 2008) . . . go to Teacher's comment

I. Sources most likely to be used
1.      Humphries, Hugh (ed.). Palestine and the legacy of Balfour. [Haddington?]: Scottish Friends of Palestine, 2006
2.      Huneidi, Sahar S. 'Facts of the ground : Herbert Samuel and the Balfour Declaration, 1914-1925'. In Humphries, Hugh (ed.), Palestine and the legacy of Balfour ([Haddington?]: Scottish Friends of Palestine, 2006), 73-86
3.      Rose, John. 'How Britain declared for Zionism : the Balfour Declaration'. In Humphries, Hugh (ed.), Palestine and the legacy of Balfour ([Haddington?]: Scottish Friends of Palestine, 2006), 191-203.
4.      Pappe, Ilan. 'The Balfour Declaration and its rectification'. In Humphries, Hugh (ed.), Palestine and the legacy of Balfour ([Haddington?]: Scottish Friends of Palestine, 2006), 119-23.
5.      Shlaim, Avi. 'The Balfour Declaration and its Consequences'. In Louis, William Roger (ed.), Yet more adventures with Britannia : personalities, politics, and culture in Britain (London: I.B. Tauris, 2005), 251-70.
6.      Smith, Charles D. Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, Fourth Edition: A History with Documents, 2000
7.      Laqueur, Walter. The Israel-Arab Reader: A Documentary History of the Middle East Conflict, Sixth Revised and Updated Edition.
8.      Sanders, Ronald. The High Walls of Jerusalem: A History of the Balfour Declaration and the Birth of the British Mandate for Palestine, 1984.
9.      Pappe, Ilan. A History of Modern Palestine, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
10.      Fawcett, Louise. International Relations of the Middle East, Oxford University Press, 2005.
11.      Idinopulos, Thomas A. Weathered by Miracles. 1998.
12.      Shulman, Abraham. Coming Home to Zion, 1979.
13.      Macropaedia Britannica: entries, to be determined.

II. Relevant Sources not likely to be used
14.      Renton, James Edward. 'Changing languages of empire and the Orient : Britain and the invention of the Middle East, 1917-1918'. Historical Journal, 50:3 (2007), 645-67.
15.      Ben-Dror, Elad. 'The Arab struggle against partition : The international arena of summer 1947'. Middle Eastern Studies, 43:2 (2007), 259-93. Publisher: Cass; Routledge.
16.      Ariel, Yaakov. 'An Unexpected Alliance : Christian Zionism and its Historical Significance'. Modern Judaism, 26:1 (2006), 74-100. Publisher: Oxford University Press.
17.      Barr, James, 1976-. Setting the desert on fire : T.E. Lawrence and Britain's secret war in Arabia, 1916-18. London: Bloomsbury, 2006. xvi, 362 p
18.      Douglas-Hamilton, Jill, duchess of Hamilton and Brandon. God, guns and Israel : Britain, the First World War and the Jews in the Holy Land. Rev. edn. Stroud: Sutton, 2004. xx, 300 p.