Back to WHKMLA Main Index . WHKMLA, Students' Papers Main Page . WHKMLA, Students' Papers, 12th Wave Index Page



Labor Conflicts as Represented in Historic Encyclopedias


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Sung, Da Eun
Term Paper, AP World History Class, June 2009



Table of Contents
I. Introduction
II. Search Criteria
II.1 Search Criteria of Encyclopedias
II.2 Search Criteria of Entries (Articles) in Encyclopedias
III. The Coverage of Historic Encyclopedias on Labor Conflicts
III.1 Perspectives of Nowadays Encyclopedia: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition (pub. 1998)
III.2 Entries and its Inference
III.2.1 Trade Unions (Labour Union)
III.2.1.1 Encyclopedia Britannica, 10th edition (pub. 1902): Trade Unions
III.2.1.2 Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition (pub. 1911): Trade Unions
III.2.1.3 Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914: Labour Unions (Moral Aspect)
III.2.1.4 Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906: Trade-Unionism
III.2.2 Strike
III.2.2.1 Encyclopedia Britannica, 10th edition (pub. 1902): Trade Unions
III.2.2.2 Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition (pub. 1911): Syndicalism
III.2.2.3 Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914: Syndicalism / Labour Unions (Moral Aspect)
III.2.2.4 Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906: Trade-Unionism
III.2.2.5 Nordisk Familje-Bok 2nd edition, 1904-1926: Strike (Strejk)
III.2.2.6 Brockhaus Konversationslexikon, 1894-1896 edition: Strike (Streik)
III.2.2.7 Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1902-1909 edition: Strike(streik) / Arbeitseinstellung
III.2.2.8 Salmonsens Konversationsleksikon, 1915-1930: Strike (strejke)
III.2.3 Socialism
III.2.3.1 Encyclopedia Britannica, 10th edition (pub. 1902): Socialism
III.2.3.2 Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition (pub. 1911): Socialism
III.2.3.3 Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914: Socialism
III.2.3.4 Other Encyclopedias
III.2.4 the Second International
III.2.4.1 Encyclopedia Britannica, 10th edition, (pub. 1902)
III.2.4.2 Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition, (pub. 1911): The International
III.2.4.3 Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914: Socialism
III.2.4.4 Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906
III.2.5 Syndicalism
III.2.5.1 Encyclopedia Britannica, 10th edition, (pub. 1902)
III.2.5.2 Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition, (pub. 1911): Syndicalism
III.2.5.3 Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914: syndicalism
III.2.5.4 Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906)
III.2.5.5 Other Encyclopedias
III.2.6 Labor Movement
IV. Content Analysis
IV.1 Criteria for Analyzing Coverage and Depth of the Articles in Encyclopedias
IV.2 Coverage and Depth of the Articles in Encyclopedias
V. Evaluation of Encyclopedias
V.1 Evaluation Criteria
V.1.1 Mark
V.1.2 Criteria for Analyzing Quality of Encyclopedias
V.2 Evaluation
VI. Conclusion
Tables
Notes
Bibliography



I. Introduction
            "No encyclopaedia perhaps has been of such political importance, or has occupied so conspicuous a place in the civil and literary history of its century. It sought not only to give information, but to guide opinion," wrote the 1911 Encyclop©¡dia Britannica.
(1) This is a part of the description of the entry "Encyclopaedia", particularly about Diderot's Encyclopedie. The Encyclopedie was a general encyclopedia published in France, symbolizing the essence and of the French Enlightenment. It had a huge intellectual influence in the French Revolution. This remark in Encyclop©¡dia Britannica shows how the people at that time understand Encyclopedias; they regarded the encyclopedias not only the source to get knowledge, but also a guide to have a rightful opinion. The Encyclopedie professed itself that its aim was to change the way people think.
            Such features of the Encyclop?die also influenced the encyclopedias later; it can be said that the Encyclop?die is the predecessor of Encyclop©¡dia Britannica, which was one of the first to realize the form we would recognize today, with a deepened and organized articles in an accessible, systematic method. This is why distinctive opinions of the authors are seen throughout some articles. We can see that trend about writing encyclopedias around the time of 18th to 19th centuries were like this: expressing one¡¯s own opinion and trying to guide the readers.
            Since encyclopedias written from late 18th century to early 20th century have such characteristic of expressing opinions, we would clearly know how the contributors of the encyclopedias, mainly the elites of the society at that time, were thinking of specific topics. This paper will focus on how the encyclopedias handle particular subjects, and compare the standpoints of each regarding the theme of the encyclopedias. For example, this paper quotes Encyclopaedia Britannica of 10th and 11th editions, and also Catholic encyclopedia and Jewish encyclopedia.
            The ultimate goal of this paper is to find out how the 19th century encyclopedias describe and handle labor conflicts. So I set up search criteria of both encyclopedias and entries; total 8 encyclopedias and 6 keywords were determined by my own criteria. I tried to pursue diversity in selecting encyclopedias; so I chose different editions of Encyclopaedia Britannica (Encyclopedia Britannica, 10th edition (pub. 1902) and Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition (pub. 1911)), two religious encyclopedias (Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914 and Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906), and 4 foreign language encyclopedia other than in English ? 2 German (Brockhaus Konversationslexikon, 1894-1896 edition and Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1902-1909 edition), 1 Swedish Nordisk Familje-Bok 2nd edition, 1904-1926), and 1 Danish. (Konversationsleksikon, 1915-1930) Each encyclopedia's characteristics were interesting enough to study.
            For the keywords, I tried to make it most relevant to the subject: Trade Unions, Strike, Socialism, the Second International, Syndicalism, and Labor Movement. Most keywords did its work well, that the enough results came up, but some keywords showed few results in several encyclopedias. I analyze all of the results I got and chose. This paper will discuss how people in late 19th and early 20th centuries considered labor conflict in European continent.

I.2 Search Criteria

I.2.1 Search Criteria of Encyclopedias
            The total number of selected encyclopedias put to use is 8. The main criterion of selecting encyclopedias was, of course, how much information each encyclopedia has about the subject. Generally speaking, the subject ¡°labor conflict¡± has the most connections with England because it is where the industrial revolution began and the center of industry and labor is located. This is why I chose firstly British encyclopedias, particularly for the basic reference to get the information needed.
            Next, Catholic Encyclopedia and Jewish Encyclopedia have specific and much detailed information related to labor conflict, particularly in different points of view from Britannica, which is caused by their own religious characteristics. This is why I chose them.
            Also, encyclopedias written in languages other than English were needed; one of the articles in English has information about countries outside English. Danish Encyclopedia I selected, though the information was rarely found, probably because labor conflict was not issued actively at that time there. Swedish encyclopedia was better; it had entry of "strike (Strejk)".
            So following is the list of encyclopedias used in the paper:
                       Encyclop©¡dia Britannica, 10th edition (pub. 1902)
                       Encyclop©¡dia Britannica, 11th edition (pub. 1911)
                       Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914 edition
                       Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906 edition
                       Nordisk Familje-Bok 2nd edition, 1904-1926
                       Brockhaus Konversationslexikon, 1894-1896 edition
                       Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1902-1909 edition
                       Salmonsens Konversationsleksikon, 1915-1930
            For the age when each encyclopedia was written, I also included those of the early 20th centuries; because that era also covers the subject. Also, encyclopedias written decades before this era, information is not enough, so I excluded them

I.2.2 Search Criteria of Entries (Articles) in Encyclopedias
            The entries (articles) should be the ones related to the subject "labor conflicts." Unfortunately, few articles were found when using the entry "Labor Conflict", which means I should find out the other entries representing the subject.
            So I chose following entries in the above encyclopedias for searching the articles
                       Trade Unions (Labor Union)
                       Labor Organizations
                       Strike
                       Socialism
                       The Second International
                       Syndicalism
                       Labor Movement
            One thing to care about when searching was that it is not 100% assured the results will come with the exact entries; for example, in Encyclopaedia Britannica, the word "labor" hardly has results because in the British English the spelling is "labour." Also, in some encyclopedias "trade unions" appear as "labor union" or "labor organizations" or so on. I had to think of the synonyms of the words.
            Also, another thing had to be care was that one entry could include another entry in some encyclopedias. For instance, in Catholic Encyclopedia, I found the entry "Trade Unions" included the smaller item of "Strike." With these cares, all the possible entries were tried in this extent mentioned.

III. The Coverage of 19th Century Encyclopedias on Labor Conflicts
            Labor conflict actually does not appear as a direct article in most encyclopedias; instead, as I mentioned above, I had to search information using connected entries I selected myself. This part of the paper will directly quote particular fragments of the paragraphs in the articles. The entries I set up have the articles which show the most of the information needed to know about the labor conflict represented in 19th century encyclopedias. So following contents are general facts on the subject "labor conflict" described as it is in 19th century encyclopedias.
            Also, not only the clicked entries I have found, the phenomenal information helped me to infer many things about how the encyclopedias of 19th century is handling the subject; for example, the number of other search results appear on the web other than the article "Trade Unions" (which I typed in the search engine) allowed me to assume the significance of the keywords - the more the results are, the more important the keywords. In addition, the length and components of the articles were important clue to infer about the position of the subject taking in the encyclopedias. Item III.2. and item III.3. are showing those
            Furthermore, I will mention about the distinctive features of articles; which means that I will point out the features about following:
            The average length ? for example, the article ¡°trade unions¡± in Encyclopedia Britannica 10th version is very long comparing to other (unrelated) entries in the same encyclopedias. There are exactly brief articles 3 or more times shorter than the article "Trade Unions."
            Objective data ? whether they have accurate statistics and tables. Of course this varies throughout the encyclopedias, but the most recent encyclopedia such as Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th edition has actual statistics. What is more, it has added information about foreign matters related to labor conflicts. This will show the professionalism of articles and encyclopedias.

III.1 Perspectives of Nowadays Encyclopedia: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition (pub. 1998)
            The reason I put the perspectives of nowadays encyclopedia, with the search results of Encyclopaedia Britannica of 15th edition is that the knowledge in the latest version, the today's encyclopedia can be regarded as the facts established. Some of the points of views in the old encyclopedias can be distorted because of lack of information they have at that time. Also, in the case of Catholic Encyclopedia and Jewish Encyclopedia should surely be viewed through the lens of today's, because of the possibility of existence of biased perspectives of religion.
            I tried to figure out the basic facts which are not wrong, and make it the basis of analyzing contents in 19th century encyclopedias ? whether it is right or wrong, or whether they are facts or opinions. Such chronological comparison is the beginning steps which are certainly needed to lay the foundations of analysis.
            Following is the general fact described in the latest version of Encyclopedia Britannica and its analysis comparing to the facts appearing in 19th century encyclopedias.

III.1.1 Trade Unions
            Quote: Trade union, also called labour union, an association of labourers in a particular trade, industry, or plant, formed to obtain by collective action improvements in pay, benefits, working conditions, and social and political status. Trade unionism as a movement originated in Great Britain, Europe, and the United States in the 19th century. It is, in many countries, synonymous with the term labour movement.
            Inference: This is the nowaday¡¯s definition of trade union. While some 19th century's encyclopedias include consider combinations of the employer also trade unions, today they only define "an association of labourers" as trade unions. It is saying "It is, ... synonymous with the term labour movement"; proving that my selection of trade unions as a keyword was appropriate.

III.1.2 Strike
            Quote: strike, collective refusal by employees to work under the conditions required by employees
            Inference: The definition of strike these days; focusing on collective refusal (to work).
            Quote: the right to strike is granted in principle to workers in nearly all industrial countries
            Inference: in 19h century, trade unionism and strike occurred often. However, nowadays it is not.

III.1.3 International, SECOND
            Quote: International, Second, also called socialist international, federation of socialist parties and trade unions that greatly influenced the ideology, policy, and methods of the European labour movement from the last decade of the 19th century to the beginning of World War I.
            The second international was founded at a congress in Paris in 1889. Unlike the first international, it was based on the membership of national parties and trade unions only.

            Inference: As the time passed after the second international was established and dismissed, the encyclopedia can say more certainly about the second international.

III.2 Entries and its Inference
            In this part of the paper, I will actually analyze the contents of the articles in 19th century encyclopedia, and draw an inference from the exact quotes. In the inference, I will make sure to figure out the significance of the passage. I will also mention about the comparison each quote of encyclopedias because information and tone of the article varies regarding the edition and type of encyclopedias. For example, the articles "Trade Unions" of 10th and 11th edition explain that trade unions are illegal combinations ("TRADE UNIONS are combination for regulating the relations between workmen and masters, workmen and workmen, or masters and masters, or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any industry or business." (3)). However in 15th edition, the latest version, the definition is "trade union, also called labour union, an association of labourers in a particular trade, industry, or plant, formed to obtain by collective action improvements in pay, benefits, working conditions, and social and political status." (4) The difference shows the obvious content change as the time flows.

III.2.1 Trade Unions (Labor Union)

III.2.1.1 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 10th edition (pub. 1902): Trade Unions
            Quote: "TRADE UNIONS are combination for regulating the relations between workmen and masters, workmen and workmen, or masters and masters, or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any industry or business."
            Inference: This part of the passage, the words "master" and "workmen" are mentioned. The word feels like hierarchy, or guild, still existed at that time. This shows atmosphere of the time.
            Quote: (omitted) all such combinations were, with certain rare and unimportant exceptions, regarded as illegal. They were considered to be contrary to public policy, and were treated as conspiracies in restraint of trade. Those who were engaged or concerned in them were liable to be criminally prosecuted by indictment or information, and to be punished on conviction by fine and imprisonment. The offence was precisely the same whether it as committed by masters or by workmen.
            Inference: Trade unions are legal these days under legally settled condition. However in 1902 encyclopedia, the encyclopedia is describing that trade unions were illegal at a certain historical time. You can even see the writer¡¯s opinion about trade unions: he (probably he, because it¡¯s early 20th century yet, and women as elites were not working actively) used the word "unimportant" mentioning about the exceptions. This means that he thought the fact that trade union is illegal is certain fact without hesitation to tell.
            Quote: The leading aims of all trade unionism are to increase wages and to diminish the labour by which it is needed to earn them, and further to secure a more equal distribution of work among the workmen in any given trade than would be the case under a r?gime of unrestricted competition.
            Inference: The passage is explaining about aims of trade unions which were recognized at that time: to increase wages and to diminish the labor.
            Quote: accomplish their end, which is in a sense the monopoly of the labour market, are either direct or indirect. The direct method is a "strike," or simultaneous cessation of labour on the part of the workmen. It is the ultimate sanction as between the employed and their employers of the demands made by the union. But, where the unionists are strong, the mere threat of a strike is often sufficient to fulfill the intended purpose, and arbitration is still more frequently found effectual for bringing about a settlement or compromise. The indirect methods to which the trade unionist resort for the reaching their aims by limiting the number of workmen to be employed in any trade repressing or discountenancing competition among those who are actually employed in it.
            Inference: This part of the passage is important because it is mentioning the subject directly by explaining ¡°strike.¡± Two methods possible at that time: stop working, or not be hired
            Quote: Nearly all of them resist the common employment of unionists, and do their best to exclude non-unionists from employment altogether.
            Inference: This part of the passage implies the writer did not like trade unionists. Unionists are described implicitly as who have unfriendly attitude
            Quote: (omitted) it appears that in 1883 the union consisted of 424 branches, chiefly in towns in the British Isles, but with a fair sprinkling in Canada the United States, Australia, India, and other parts of the globe. The number of members was 50,418. A branch must consist of not fever than seven members or more than three hundred.
            Inference: explaining about the detail of trade unions in UK: how many branches, the place located, the number of members. note that it is mentioning about the countries outer UK, though in insignificant tone, that there are slight amount of branches of trade unions there.
            Quote: Although there are several large and influential societies among the employers of labour within the legal definition of trade unions, what are commonly as well as more accurately meant by trade unions are societies exclusively composed of the employed, - the suppliers of labour whether skilled or unskilled. Of trade unions in this sense (omitted)
            Inference: Trade unions at that time also meant societies among the employers. This is unusual reflecting to these days phenomenon, because trade unions today mainly mean combinations among the employees.

III.2.1.2 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition (pub. 1911): Trade Unions
            In the mass, most entries showed many related articles when searched in the search engine. Particularly, the entry "Trade Unions" showed lots of results, which are largely related ones. Actually, this led me to select a new entry to search, for example "Syndicalism"; I used it as a new keyword because the article "Syndicalism" continuously popped up among various encyclopedias when search the word "Trade Unions."
            Quote: Table of contents 1) Denmark 2) Sweden 3) Norway 4) Holland 5) Belgium 6) British Dominium & Colonies 7) Authorities 8) Authorities
            Inference: very important because here the countries out of UK are handled more significantly. Actually in 1902 version of encyclopedia, there is hardly any mention about other countries. This shows the expand of trade unionism and increased possibility of occurrence of labor conflicts.
            Quote: TRADE UNIONS, combinations for regulating the relations between workmen and masters, workmen and workmen, or masters and masters, or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any industry or business.
            Inference: the definition not changed much; still the change is not very big, but something obviously changed; quote 1 shows it.
            Quote: By the English common law such combinations were, with certain unimportant exceptions, regarded as illegal. They were considered to be contrary to public policy, and were History of treated as conspiracies in restraint of trade.
            Inference: While there is a word "rare" in 1902 Encyclopedia Britannica, it is not found in 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica. It implicitly shows that there increased the legal trade unions at that time.

Table 1 Quote from Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition (pub. 1911)
Year Number of Unions Combined Membership
1898 1261 1,659,480
1900 1244 1,928,035
1903 1187 1,903, 596
1905 1136 1,887,823


            Inference: This encyclopedia is using several tables and statistics for supporting materials, which give the article objectivity, unlike 10th edition (with none of those). In addition, the quality of numerical values is fine, because the values exist nearly every year (not in this table because it has omission due to its size, as I mentioned in note (5)).

III.2.1.3 Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914: Labour Unions (Moral Aspect)
            When I searched for the word "Trade Unions", the Catholic Encyclopedia showed "Labour unions" instead. They are nearly synonyms with each other, so it can be included in the item "Trade Unions."
            Catholic characteristic is seen, starting from its title, in "Labour Unions (Moral Aspect)".
            Quote: Since a labour union is a society, its moral aspects are determined by its constitution, its end, its results, and the means employed in pursuit of the end. If its constitution, that is, the conditions upon which its members become associated, be immoral, the society will be morally unlawful.
            Inference: As it is Catholic Encyclopedia, Catholic characteristics are shown in the articles; it starts with analyzing moral aspects of labour unions. Being moral or immoral, this is the question of religion.
            Quote: The two general aims, ends, or objects of the union are mutual insurance and better conditions of employment. In the opinion and procedure of the unionists, the second is much the more important.
            Inference: Different from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Catholic Encyclopedia article about "Labour Unions" starts with explaining its aims and goals, not with definition of the entry.
            Quote: Better conditions mean, in the consciousness of the unionist, not only better conditions than those now enjoyed, but better than he would have if the union did not exist.
            Inference: the word "in the consciousness of the unionist" shows objectivity in the article; quite different from some of the subjective articles in Encyclopedia Britannica of 10th and 11th versions.
            Quote: (omitted) the amount to which labour is entitled in justice, this, the chief aim of the union, is morally justified. The morality of the insurance feature is obvious.
            Inference: this part of the article uses the word "justice", "morality", "morally" kind of words ? these words show the religious traits of the encyclopedia.
            Quote: While the unions are a necessity of our present industrial system, they are nevertheless, both in spirit and in many of their methods, a necessary evil. They are too often established and maintained on the theory or conviction that the competition between employer and employee is a veritable warfare, in which each is at liberty to strive for all that he can possibly secure, and in which the victory is always to the stronger force. (omitted) In that better, though still remote, day, most of the extreme methods of the union, such as the strike, the boycott, and the closed shop, could be discarded in favour of milder practices, such as collective bargaining, insurance, and education.
            Inference: In spite of certain signs of objectivity, the encyclopedia still has subjective aspects; the writer thinks labour unions bad, using the word "a necessary evil." He tries to lead the conclusion to 'discard of labor unions', saying "¡¦ could be discarded in favour of milder practices (omitted)"
            Though many people at that time considered trade unions ¡®evil¡¯, Catholic¡¯s focusing on moral aspects and evaluating them quite negatively implies Catholic's attitude toward British industry. This is also at least partly related to the history that Protestantism gained more power and popularity in United Kingdom than Catholic did.
            Quote: The methods of the labour union (omitted) The strike The boycott ¡¦ The closed shop, or the union shop ¡¦ Limitation of output and of apprentices
            Inference: "The methods of the labour union" is a subordinate of the article "labour unions." The other 4 mentioned beneath are again subordinates articles of "the methods of the labour union." These are types of way of labor conflicts.

III.2.1.4 Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906: Trade-Unionism
            The encyclopedia has the article "Trade-Unionism", not "Trade Unions", but they are almost the same. So I put it in here.
            Quote: ARTICLE HEADINGS: - In Diamond and Cigar Trades. - In England: - In the Clothing Industries. - The First Strike. - Weakness of the Movement. - In the United States: - The Beginnings. - Varying Fortune. - Sweating.
            Inference: One of the notable features of Jewish Encyclopedia article of "Trade-Unionism" is that the article organizes according to products mainly, unlike the other encyclopedias. This passage mentions about United States, the country out of England. This is attributed to the fact that this encyclopedia basically does not have nationality (Only Jewish)
            Quote: Excepting in Holland, the creation of a Jewish proletariat has everywhere followed immigration from the east-European centers, where the massing of population gradually led to the formation of a Jewish laboring class. The first union in which mainly Jews were interested, the tailors' union, was founded in 1872.
            Inference: Starting the text with the historical explanation about Jews. Other encyclopedias start the article with definition of the word or aim. It also is notable that the writer explains mainly about them. Jews were not interested in trade unions generally, but in tailor¡¯s union they joined mostly.
            Quote: The First Strike. - This strike lasted six weeks, and it seems to have been to the ultimate disadvantage of the Jewish working classes.
            Inference: Jewish also participated in strikes. It is notable that the article mentions "the first strike" ? the encyclopedia is doing its duty to introduce readers the historical facts.
            Quote: (omitted) statistics show that in the tailoring trade proportionately more Jews than non-Jews are united.
            There are no accurate statistics as to the number of Jews in the various Jewish and general unions in England; and the following is merely a list of the number of organizations existing in London between 1882 and 1902: tailors, 31 unions; butchers, 1; bakers, 1; cigar-makers, 1; iron and tin-plate workers, 1; compositors, 1; brush-makers, 1; house-painters, 1; card - box makers, 1. Of these 39 unions, 6 were dissolved and 3 were merged in other organizations.

            Inference: the encyclopedia considers statistics important feature. This adds some more objectivity to the articles. Actually, prejudice is hardly found in text.
            Quote: The strength of the movement has differed at various times; to-day (1905) it is weaker than it was ten years ago. It has had its organs and its recognized leaders; but it is contended that a Jew does not make a good unionist, "because one ruling passion never leaves him - his desire to rise from his low position and be a master."
            Inference: interesting that the writer is not wholly ¡®praising¡¯ Jews, also pointing out deficient aspects of them. interesting again because it regards the year 1905 as "to-day." The dash between "to" and "day" implies antiquity.

III.2.2 Strike

III.2.2.1 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 10th edition (pub. 1902): Trade Unions
            Article of the entry "Strike" was not found in this encyclopedia; instead, there was relevant passage in the article "Trade Unions." I used Ctrl + F which helps me find the keyword "Strike" ? 4 keywords were searched. Shows its level of relevance
            Quote: The direct method is a "strike," or simultaneous cessation of labour on the part of the workmen. It is the ultimate sanction as between the employed and their employers of the demands made by the union. But, where the unionists are strong, the mere threat of a strike is often sufficient to fulfill the intended purpose, and arbitration is still more frequently found effectual for bringing about a settlement or compromise.
            Inference: Article "Trade Unions" makes mention of "strike" instead of making "strike" as a whole new article, referring it to the direct method of achieving the aims of trade unionism.
            Quote: The following table shows the number of delegates and the aggregate membership of the societies represented by them at the trade unions congresses in years from 1880 to 1886, both inclusive:
            Inference: the article "Trade Union" in 10th edition has one table. This is better than none, though not enough or better than others.

III.2.2.2 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition (pub. 1911): Syndicalism
            As the word "Strike" has many meanings, the search results are abundant in quantity, but articles which conform with the original purpose are few. When searching the word "Strike" in 11th edition, only relevant article was "Syndicalism". So I will quote some passage mentioning "Strike" among the article "Syndicalism." I also used Ctrl + F (find) and found 14 "strike" among the text.
            Quote: The strike, therefore, is the characteristic syndicalist weapon. However limited in its scope and object, it is an educative experience; successful, it inspires the workers with a sense of power; unsuccessful, it impresses upon them the servility of their lot and the necessity for better organization and wider aims. Thus every strike is a preparation for the revolutionary "day," when the workers, or a fighting minority of them (for syndicalism repudiates as bourgeois the dogma of the sacredness of majority rule), shall seize the instruments of production by an "expropriatory" strike. In the meantime, they are working out from day to day, in the ordinary course of their employment, the ethics and the jurisprudence of the new social order.
            Inference: Considering the strike as a syndicalist weapon. titling the feature caused by its limitation ¡°educative experience¡±; this is quite a new way of approaching the subject.
            Quote: Workmen had refused to follow their orthodox leaders from about 1908, as they felt that the trade union of the old Liberal-Labour school was behind the times. The Plebs League was founded by a group of labour students in Ruskin College, Oxford, about the same time, and in 1909 these seceded from Ruskin College and founded first a labour college in Oxford and then moved to London as the Central Labour College, financed by the S. Wales miners and the railwaymen. This educational movement organized classes in every mining area in S. Wales, led by tutors from these two colleges, and influenced largely by the new ideas. (omitted) ... Then followed the railway strike of 1911 and the great coal strike of 1912. It is quite clear that the National Union of Railwaymen and the Miners' Federation of Great Britain became organized as two of the most powerful unions in consequence of the new thought, not because their leaders had adopted syndicalism in the form taught by de Leon and the French group of thinkers, but because they adapted it in the peculiar British way; they made it practical and definite; they shaped it in alliance with the political and trade-union structure of Britain. They disagreed with the syndicalist view of the State, but they recognized the driving power of the theories that stated "that political power is a reflex of industrial power." The transport workers soon had a similar federation, and after the strikes of 1911 and 1912, and the Irish transport workers' strike of 1913, the Triple Alliance (of railwaymen, transport workers, and miners) was formed in 1915. The failure of this last to function during the miners' strike in the spring of 1921 discredited "direct action," and the British labour movement swung back towards constitutional and parliamentary methods.
            Inference: Labour college was first founded in Oxford. This shows how much impact the trade unions and labour movement had in England. What is more, the college was finaced by the miners and the railwaymen; they might belong to lower class than higher class, but they participated in enhancing labor movement.
            This article is impressive because it mentions and explains about the real cases relating to labor movement, such as "the railway strike of 1911 and the great coal strike of 1912" and "the strikes of 1911 and 1912 (of transporters), and the Irish transport workers' strike of 1913." Then the article is explaining about the development of labor unions and movement in England. It is notable that writer thinks syndicalism and trade unions are two different things.

III.2.2.3 Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914: Syndicalism / Labour Unions (Moral Aspect)
            Two relevant articles appear when I searched with the word ¡°Strike.¡± ¡°Syndicalism¡± and ¡°Labour Unions (Moral Aspect). So I mixed them up and put it in here. I found the word ¡°Strike¡± in the articles, and it appeared to be total 44(10 for ¡°Syndicalism¡± and 34 for ¡°Labor Unions¡±) of number. In fact, the reason why there are many ¡°strike¡± in text "Labour Unions (Moral Aspect)" is that the article actually includes "The methods of the labour unions" as its subordinate. "The methods of the labour unions" again includes "the strike" as its subordinate. Three other subordinates are "boycott", "The closed shop, or the union shop" and "Limitation of output and of apprentices." Second is an activity of trade unions which consist of the employers, while the first and third consist of the employees. These methods are some types of labour conflicts.
            Quote: While the union itself may be morally lawful in the sense just explained, many of its actions may be unlawful. This statement is obviously true of many social institutions. In the case of the labour union, the greater part of the moral condemnation that is pronounced has reference neither to its constitution, its general aims, nor its net results, but to its actions. Since these have practical importance only in so far as they are characteristic and habitual, they will be most profit ably discussed under the head of methods or practices.
            Inference: This is the introduction to the subordinate "The methods of the labour unions." The encyclopedia is explaining why it approaches through the aims and methods. It¡¯s because "they will be most profit ably discussed under the head of methods or practices."
            Quote: This is probably the most important of the methods, from the side of morals. It can not be condemned absolutely, but it is an extreme method and ought not to be employed unless certain grave conditions are verified.
            Inference: The writer is not absolutely against strike, but he does not think it can be permitted all the time. He thinks it very extreme method to use.

III.2.2.4 Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906: "Trade-Unionism"
            When searching the word ¡°Strike¡± in Jewish Encyclopedia, a comparatively few entries were searched along. Only ¡°Trade-Unionism¡± was relevant. Like some of other encyclopedias, ¡°strike¡± was something like included in the article of ¡°Trade-Unionism¡± in Jewish Encyclopedia. "first strike" is a subordinate which is related to strike.
            Quote: Jewish unions or Jewish unionists, as such, are not nowadays found engaging in strikes. The needle industries, however, became more strongly Jewish, and in 1889 the masters confronted the organizations of their employees by forming their own union, the Jewish Masters' Society. Jewish labor combination followed logically upon the sweater, the greener, and the demand for cheap clothing. Indeed, the creative cause and the condition of Jewish labor are well told in the following demands made in the 1889 strike, in which fully 10,000 Jews participated:
            ... The First Strike. (6)
            This strike lasted six weeks, and it seems to have been to the ultimate disadvantage of the Jewish working classes. (omitted) ... Of late, however, these have exhibited a well-defined Zionist attitude. In the nineties there were a number of strikes; and in several cases these resulted in shorter hours and better wages. The strikers also made a considerable point of their desire to observe the Sabbath and the Jewish holy days; and in this way they gained the support of the rabbinate. ... With the growth of immigration there came an increase in the number of the trades in which the Jews were interested, and a corresponding growth in the strength of the trade-union organizations formed. The movement spread to Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester, and other manufacturing cities. Inter-Jewish conferences were held, an attempt was made to bring the Jewish labor movement as a whole under one organization, and the representatives of the Jewish unions were recognized and took part in the general trade-union conferences held from time to time. ...

            Inference: Explaining about the first strike and Jewish activity about it; historical development and significance also. What is more, it is telling about periodic condition in 19th century, and the results of strikes at that time. Note that this is all about Jewish history, so this is all about Jewish strikers, though first strike is not. So to speak, mostly the subjective body is Jews. For example, the subjects of "the growth of immigration" are Jews. Therefore, it is important whether the words are pointing out Jews or not. It is interesting that the passage is all saying about Jewish participation of strikes.

III.2.2.5 Nordisk Familje-Bok 2nd edition, 1904-1926: Strike(Strejk)
            Quote : Strejk (eng. strike, ...) betecknar en af ett antal arbetare, vanligen efter gemensam öfverenskommelse och utan arbetsgifvarens tillsägelse, företagen arbetsinst?llelse i syfte att genomdrifva önskningar i fråga om arbetsvillkoren.
            Translation in core: a number of workers, usually by common arrangement and without working reprimand, companies. Working appearance in order to improve in terms of working conditions. (7)
            Inference: This article continues from the page 311 to page 322. (¡°Strejk - 311-312, 313-314, 315-316, 317-318, 319-320, 321-322¡±) It is very long compared to others. In early 1900s, Sweden was also influenced by labor movement.

III.2.2.6 Brockhaus Konversationslexikon, 1894-1896 edition: Strike (Streik)
            This article was very long, too. Even at the late 1890s, Germany was influenced much by labor movement.
            Quote: Streik ... Arbeits-einstellung, Ausstand, die gemeinsam erfolgte freiwillige Niederlegung der Arbeit seitens der in einem bestimmten Berufe beschäftigten unselbständigen Personen zur Durchführung günstigerer Arbeitsbedingungen.
            Translation: Work stoppage, recusal, which was jointly voluntary resignation of the work in the certain employed professionals for implementing more favorable labor terms.
            Inference: starts with the definition and characteristics of strike. The writer is not against the strike mostly.

III.2.2.7 Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1902-1909 edition: Strike (Streik) / Arbeitseinstellung
            It appears like this: Streik (engl. strike, "Schlag, Streich"), soviel wie Arbeitseinstellung (s. d.). So I searched again with the word Arbeitseinstellung. The results were quite huge in quantity.
            Quote : Arbeitseinstellung (Ausstand, Streik, vom engl. Strike, franz. Gr?ve) ist die gemeinsam erfolgte, freiwillige Niederlegung der Arbeit seitens der Arbeiter zum Zweck der Erzielung günstigerer Arbeitsbedingungen. Die meisten Arbeitseinstellungen beziehen sich auf die Lohnhöhe, doch k?nnen auch andre Verhältnisse des Arbeitsvertrages zu Streiks führen. ... Die Streiks sind entweder Abwehrstreiks, um einer beabsichtigten Verschlechterung der Arbeitsbedingungen entgegenzutreten, oder Angriffstreiks, um selbständig vorteilhaftere Bedingungen zu erreichen.
            Translations: voluntary resignation of the work by the workers for the purpose of achieving a more favorable working conditions. Most work settings are related to wages, but also other conditions of employment lead to strikes. ... The strikes are either defensive strikes to prevent any deterioration of the proposed working conditions, oppose or attack strikes for self-favorable conditions.
            Inference: Explains the definition of strike recognized in Germany at that time. Quite elaborated, so labor movement was in those days more systemically developed in Germany than other European countries except for England.

III.2.2.8 Salmonsens Konversationsleksikon, 1915-1930: Strike (strejke)
            Quite many results were found, but no entry with ¡°strejke¡± was found. Maybe at that time in Denmark the influence of labor movement was yet arrived.

III.2.3 Socialism

III.2.3.1 Encyclopedia Britannica, 10th edition (pub. 1902): Socialism
            The article is very long, as it were in "Trade Unions", which implies at that time people were quite interested in socialism and labor movement and so on. The reason I selected ¡°socialism¡± as search keyword is that I thought socialism is deeply related to labor movement, so to labor conflicts. Though most encyclopedias(including this) do not directly mention labor conflict, trade-unions and so on, I could find some clues that those days people recognize socialism and labor movement relevant.
            Quote: The word "socialism" is of comparatively recent origin, having been coined in England in 1835. In that year a society which received the grandiloquent name of the "Association of all Classes of all Nations" was founded under the auspices of Robert Owen; and the words "socialist" and "socialism" were first used during the discussions which arose in connexion with it. (omitted) ... The term was borrowed from England by a distinguished French writer, Reybaud, in his well-known work the Reformateurs modernes (1839), in which he discussed the theories of Saint-Simon, Fourier, and Owen. Through Reybaud it soon gained wide currency on the Continent, and is now the accepted world-historic name for one of the most remarkable movements of the 19th century.
            Inference: The article starts with definition of socialism. with the word ¡°recent¡±, we can sense the time passed by. Explaining its historical background of coining, and where it was used first, and how it was accepted by world.
            Note that there is no precise definition of the word, but only a long description, or quote from celebrities¡¯ own definitions
            Quote: Factory legislation carried in opposition to the prevailing economic theory, trades unions, employers¡¯ combinations, industrial partnerships, boards of conciliation, the co-operative system, - all these are real, if partial, endeavours towards a new organization of society suited to the new conditions.
            Inference: this is almost the only part which directly mentions "trade unions." Socialism was recognized at least partly related to labor movement at that time.
            Quote: While recognizing the great confusion in the use of the word "socialism," we have treated it as properly a phenomenon of the 19th century, beginning in France with Saint-Simon and Fourier, in England with Robert Owen, and most powerfully represented at the present day by the school of Karl Marx. As we have seen, however, there are definitions of the word which would give it a wider range of meaning and a more ancient beginning, compared with which capitalism is but of yesterday, - which would, in fact, make it as old as human society itself.
            Inference: the writer is talking about the meaning of "socialism." The definition of "Socialism" was not established yet at that time, so they would have some confusion with it. This confusion is shown more with following quote:
            Quote: How are we to distinguish the socialism of the 19th century from these old-world phenomena, and especially from the communism1 which has played so great a part in history? To this query socialists, especially of the school of Marx, have a clear and precise answer.
            Inference: Using "We" and interrogative sentence is not a usual figure, because objectivity is one of the most important things in encyclopedia. This is very interesting; showing the recognition of encyclopedia was yet to guide readers with its own opinions, not merely a source of knowledge. Questioning readers is interesting attitude of writers. It seems that they still have confusion in establishing definition (even in the encyclopedia!) - that they are quoting celebrities' opinions.

III.2.3.2 Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition (pub. 1911): Socialism
            The article is very long; even longer than that of 10th edition. It shows great interest of people at that time in socialism.
            Quote: SOCIALISM, a term loosely formed from the Latin adjective socialis (socius, a comrade), and first used of certain doctrines of Robert Owen. "Socialist" occurs in a discussion between Robert Owen and the Rev. J. H. Roebuck at Manchester (publ. Heywood, Manchester, 1837), pp. 27, 133. From the context it seems a nickname.
            ... The new term was used in 1838 in France (by Pierre Leroux), and figures in 1840 in Reyba.ud's Socialistes modernes. Definition. - Socialism is that policy or theory which aims at securing by the action of the central democratic authority a better distribution, and in due subordination thereunto a better production, of wealth than now prevails. (omitted) ...
            This definition may not entirely cover the ancient and medieval theories to which the name has been given by modern writers (see also Anarchism, Communism, Co-Operation). It hardly covers the schemes of Robert Owen himself. But just as chemistry is not alchemy, or astronomy astrology, modern socialism is not to be identified with Utopian fancies, and need not be so defined as to embrace them. For a like reason it need not be so defined as to include every tenet of leading socialistic writers. We must disentangle their socialism from what is superadded to it and not involved in the socialistic idea.

            Inference: more like philosophic, explaining historical background; detailed explanation on definition. Actually the article changed quite much compared to the same article of the 10th edition. For example, it¡¯s the same that they still think the word ¡°socialism¡± is first used by Robert Owen, but 10th edition is not mentioning where and when it was used. In 11th edition, no more mention of periodic sense, for example to say "this is recent concept" or something. What is more, encyclopedia-established definition is found, which was not in 10th edition article, though they are not absolutely convinced with definition yet. Still using the word "We," still implying that the notion of encyclopedia as guidance of opinions for readers is still ongoing.
            Quote: Table of contents 1 Germany 2 France 3 Netherlands 4 Switzerland 5 Scandinavia 6 Russia 7 Australia 8 New Zealand 9 Canada 10 United States 11 General Criticisms 12 BIBLIOGRAPHY
            Inference: The table of contents shows the international atmosphere of 11th encyclopedia; because there is none of it mentioned in 10th one. The concept of socialism is expanded to other countries, though it mainly started and coined in England.
            Quote: The old unionists were radicals of the old type. Not so the unionists who came first into prominence with the Dock Strike in London in 1889.
            Inference: mentioning the real case of strike (¡°the Dock Strike in London in 1889), can tell that there were strikes and labor conflicts in around 1890s.
            Quote; Socialism has found a kindlier soil in Belgium and Holland, and these countries have been the favourite meeting-place in recent years of congresses of all denominations of socialists. ... The great railway strike of 1903 aroused public interest in the condition of the workman, but the legislation that followed was rather regulative than socialistic.
            Inference: There was also a huge scale of strike in Netherland; shows how much the concept of strike and socialism expanded throughout all of the Europe.

III.2.3.3 Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914: Socialism
            Quite good length of an article ? shows the world-wise interest at that time, though not England. Including the keyword of "trade unions" (once) and no other, which means it is not directly indicating labor conflicts. However the passage is meaningful because it is partly related to labor movement, that is, unavoidably, labor conflict.
            Quote: A system of social and economic organization that would substitute state monopoly for private ownership of the sources of production and means of distribution, and would concentrate under the control of the secular governing authority the chief activities of human life. The term is often used vaguely to indicate any increase of collective control over individual action, or even any revolt of the dispossessed against the rule of the possessing classes. But these are undue extensions of the term, leading to much confusion of thought.
            Inference: the definition comes the first. still much confusion is in existence during this time.

III.2.3.4 Other Encyclopedias
            For other encyclopedias, the text is too much in quantity, and the range is too broad, that point relevant to the subject of this paper is few. So I decided to quote only 3 encyclopedias: Britannica 10th and 11th, and Catholic Encyclopedia, for this item "Socialism." Actually with the subject "socialism", a whole new paper can be written.

III.2.4 the Second International

III.2.4.1 Encyclopedia Britannica, 10th edition, (pub. 1902)
            no entry with article ¡°the second international.¡± Few mention of only ¡°the international,¡± but yet cannot be distinguished whether it is first, second, or third international. I valued that the information related to the second international would not be enough in this encyclopedia.

III.2.4.2 Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition, (pub. 1911): The International
            Not the exact entry of "The second international", but "The International" was found. However, comparing to articles so far, it is much shorter in length. This shows not much information of the international at that time periodically. Though the Second International was in existence from 1889 to 1916, it would be hard for writers to write about contemporary issue, that this encyclopedia was written in 1911.

III.2.4.3 Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914: Socialism
            When searching "the second international," all the results were not very relevant, except for the article "socialism." So I found keyword "international" in the article, and found some of information of the second international in it.
            Quote: in 1889, the first International Congress of Socialist and Trade-Union delegates met at Paris, a "New International" came into being which exists with unimpaired or, rather, with enhanced energy to the present day. Since that first meeting seven others have been held at intervals of three or four years, at which there has been a steady growth in the number of delegates present, the variety of nationalities represented, and the extent of the Socialistic influence over its deliberations.
            Inference: Before this, there are mentions about the first international; this is the first mention of the second international here. Explaining how the second international came to reality; it was possible to write about creation of the second international, because the encyclopedia was written since 1907 and the second international was made in 1889.
            Quote: Today the international nature of the Socialistic movement is an axiom both within and without its ranks; an axiom that must not be forgotten in the estimation both of the strength and of the trend of the movement. To the International, then, modern Socialism owes much of its present power.
            Inference: Shows the periodic sense, second international as the present one.

III.2.4.4 Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906
            After the search, quite many results were found but only few were relevant; no entry of "the Second International" was found. Only "Socialism" was relevant.

III.2.5 Syndicalism

III.2.5.1 Encyclopedia Britannica, 10th edition, (pub. 1902)
            Article with entry of "Syndicalism" was not found; for other relevant articles such as "Trade Unions" and "Socialism" I explained above enough so I will not substitute the article with them.

III.2.5.2 Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition, (pub. 1911): Syndicalism
            It is interesting that in 10th edition "Syndicalism" is not found, but in 11th edition it is found. Also in Jewish Encyclopedia it is not found. All those time is around approximately 1901-1905, the early 1900s.
            Quote: "Syndicalism" is the name given to a form of socialist doctrine elaborated by, and born from the experience of, the members of the French syndicats or trade unions. On the one hand it is a body of social doctrine, or theory of social organization; on the other it is a plan of action for the realization of this ideal. Of all the social theories competing for existence it is the most purely proletarian in origin. One writer indeed has described it as "working-class Socialism" (le socialisme ouvrier) in contradistinction to the types of socialism originated and propagated by middle-class "intellectuals."
            Inference: starts with where the name originated, what it means. Different from Catholic Encyclopedia¡¯s definition.

III.2.5.3 Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914: syndicalism
            Unlike most other articles so far, this article is comparatively short. Also, when searching with "Syndicalism," only the article with the entry and "Socialism" was found. Total 10 times of "Strike" found.
            Quote: The term Syndicalism has been derived from the French syndicats, associations of workingmen uniting members of the same trade or industry for the furtherance of common economic interests. Syndicalism should therefore be synonymous with Industrial or Trades Unionism; but like "Socialism" the word has come to be used almost exclusively in a restricted sense and implies the principles expressed in theory and practice by French syndicates united in the Confederation Generale du Travail (General Confederation of Labour)
            Inference: Starts with where the term Syndicalism originated. Interesting that the article points out that syndicalism is similar to trade unionism. This helped me to extend keywords, then find more information; that I could get the new keyword "syndicalism." It is also pointing out the slight difference between them. Syndicalism was used more exclusive, something like more concrete.
            Quote: Two special theories are connected with the general strike. They are known as the minority and the myth theories. The syndicalists are only a small proportion of the French workingmen and without financial resources to sustain a prolonged strike.
            Inference: Syndicalism as related to strike (labor conflict).

III.2.5.4 Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906
            No articles were found with "Syndicalism" or "Syndicalists" or any related keyword. This probably means that syndicalism was not a familiar term to Jews and their culture.

III.2.5.5 Other Encyclopedias
            I will put together all other four encyclopedias¡¯ results in here, because some of them the results were none; actually only one encyclopedia gave me the information.
            Both German Encyclopedias (Brockhaus Konversationslexikon, 1894-1896 edition and Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1902-1909 edition) and Danish Encyclopedia (Salmonsens Konversationsleksikon, 1915-1930) showed no results, even a single unrelevant article.
            Only the Swedish Encyclopedia, Nordisk Familje-Bok 2nd edition, 1904-1926, showed the article ¡°Syndikalism.¡± I don¡¯t know why this phenomena, that only an encyclopedia has results, happens, because most encyclopedias are contemporaries. Anyway, the article ¡°Syndikalism¡± was very long, interestingly, more than a page of the encyclopedia.

III.2.6 Labor Movement
            Though I thought the keyword ¡°Labor Movement¡± is very relevant, article named ¡°labor movement¡± or as its synonyms were not found; instead, the same article found again, for example ¡°Socialism¡± and ¡°Trade Unions.¡± For the word ¡°Strike¡± it was the same, but I thought it would be meaningful to go ahead with it because it is representative of the subject ¡°labor conflict.¡± What is more, many articles were handling it massively, like making it as a subordinate.
            However, the word ¡°Labor Movement¡± was not. It was mentioned for a moment in most articles; given only a small weight. Also, the keyword itself was not concrete as a keyword representing ¡°labor conflicts¡±; it was too vague. So I did not work with it as a whole new item, but only as small fragmented parts in other items.

IV. Content Analysis

IV.1 Criteria for Analyzing Coverage and Depth of the Articles in Encyclopedias
            I made up certain criteria for analyzing coverage and depth of the articles in 19th century encyclopedias. These criteria consist of marks; it will help to judge the quality of articles in encyclopedias. The marks are divided into 3 levels: good, average, bad.

Table 2 Marks for Criteria
Marks Criteria
Good Has an article with its own entry(synonym also) / detailed information in good quality
Average Does not have an article with its own entry, but mention only / information good
Bad Does not have any mention relevant to its entry / poor information in quality

IV.2 Coverage and Depth of the Articles in Encyclopedias

Table 3 Entries marked
Entries Britannica 1902 Britannica 1911 Catholic 1907 Jewish 1901
Trade Unions Good Good Good Good
Strike Average Average Average Average
Socialism Good Good Good Good
Second International Bad Average Average Bad
Syndicalism Bad Good Good Bad
Labor Movement Bad Bad Bad Bad

Table 3a Entries marked
Entries Nordisk 2nd Brockhaus 1894 Meyers 1902 Salmonsen 1915
Strike Good Good Meyers 1902Good (synonym) Bad

V. Evaluation of Encyclopedias
            As pointing out the particular characteristics of each encyclopedia respectively, I tried to figure out the level of quality and reliability of the encyclopedias. Following is the results of analysis.

V.1 Evaluation Criteria
            Marks will reflect how well the encyclopedias meet the requirements. (the criteria) For criteria, I set up several standards which the encyclopedias should satisfy.

V.1.1 Marks

Table 4 Marks for Evaluation
Marks Description
A Very Good
B Good
C Not Bad
D Poor
E If the necessary information to judge is deficient (8)

V.1.2 Criteria for Analyzing Quality of Encyclopedias
           
Table 5 Criteria Description
Criteria Description
1. Information in Detail How detailed information is
2. Objectivity in Tone How impartial the description is / How much less opinions in it is
3. Facts How historically true the fact is
4. Objective Materials How objective the materials support the article
5. Quantity How enough the amount of the article is

V.2 Evaluation

Table 6 Encyclopedias Evaluated
Criterion Britannica 1902 Britannica 1911 Catholic 1907 Jewish 1901
1 A A B B
2 C C D C
3 C C B A
4 D B C A
5 A A B B

Table 6a Encyclopedias Evaluated
Criterion Nordisk 2nd Brockhaus 1894 Meyers 1902 Salmonsen 1915
1 B A B D
2 ? ? ? ?
3 ? ? ? ?
4 D C C D
5 A A A D

VI. Conclusion
            19th century was quite different from nowadays; maybe because natural things today started in those days. Many new things began at that time, and labor movement is one of them. Labor movement inevitably includes labor conflicts. This paper discussed how 19th century encyclopedia, the contemporary people themselves, handled the labor conflicts
            As I used 8 various encyclopedias, it was interesting for me to focus on the difference between the descriptions of each encyclopedias. All the encyclopedias had differed opinions and way of speaking, regardless of the difference is slight or huge. Also, I found out that those days the quality of information was not the same as these days, though there were some good articles among them. Often the detail was deficient, and some of the facts described are judged nowadays to be historically wrong. Of all, the objectivity in tone was interesting point to think of. Most articles of each encyclopedia were telling their own opinions to the readers, sometimes using the word ¡°we¡± or many more emotional expressions. Contrary to present encyclopedias which try to give readers objective facts based on historical verification, 19th encyclopedias still had a purpose of enlightening and guiding leaders following particular opinions. I had to take a prudent look on this point, because sometimes the encyclopedias were biased in their opinions.
            Exploring encyclopedias of the past time was exciting as a historian. I felt like stepping into the world at that time and walking around; people were so vivid. It was fun to write this paper, particularly meaningful that it is the last European history paper I write. It was happy work though hard, but after the work done, I am now satisfied; I have not labored in vain, regardless of the final results which will come to me as a grade. I really like this paper.




Notes

(1)      Article: Encyclopaedia, from 11th edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica (pub. 1911)
(2)      Article: Trade Unions, from 11th edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica (pub. 1911)
(3)      Article: Trade Unions, from 10th edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica (pub. 1902)
(4)      Article: Trade Unions, from 15th edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica (pub. 1998)
(5)      This table is quoted with omission of certain data due to the matter of size.
(6)      This is a title of the subordinate article
(7)      Translated by Google Translator, and all other articles not in English were. http://translate.google.co.kr/?hl=ko&sl=sv&tl=ko&q=Street-Strejk#
(8)      For example, quality of translation is low when using Swedish/German/Danish Encyclopedias.



Bibliography

Note : websites quoted below were visited in May - June 2009..

Primary Sources
1.      Article: Socialism, from Encyclopedia Britannica, 10th edition (pub. 1902), posted by 1902 Encyclopedia, http://www.1902encyclopedia.com/S/SOC/socialism.html
2.      Article: Trade Unions, from from Encyclopedia Britannica, 10th edition (pub. 1902), posted by 1902 Encyclopedia http://www.1902encyclopedia.com/T/TRA/trade-unions.html
3.      Article: Trade Unions, from 11th edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica (pub. 1911), posted online by Classic Encyclopedia http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Trade_Unions
4.      Article: Encyclopaedia, from 11th edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica (pub. 1911), posted by jrank, http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/EMS_EUD/ENCYCLOPAEDIA.html
5.      Article: Syndicalism, from Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition (pub. 1911), posted by Classic Encyclopedia http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Syndicalism
6.      Article: Socialism, from Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition (pub. 1911), posted by jrank http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/SIV_SOU/SOCIALISM.html
7.      Article: Labour Unions (Moral Aspect), Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914, posted by New Advent http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08724a.htm
8.      Article: Syndicalism, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914, posted by New Advent http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14385b.htm
9.      Article: Socialism, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1914, posted by New Advent, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14062a.htm
10.      Article: Trade-Unionism, from Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906 http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=290&letter=T&search=strike
11.      Article: Socialism, from Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901-1906 http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=873&letter=S&search=Socialism
12.      Article: 311 Street-Strejk, from Nordisk Familje-Bok 2nd edition, 1904-1926, posted by Project Runeberg, http://runeberg.org/nfcg/0186.html
13.      Article: 1435 Syndaförlåtelse-Syndikalism, from Nordisk Familje-Bok 2nd edition, 1904-1926, posted by Project Runeberg, http://runeberg.org/nfcg/0772.html
14.      Article: Streik, from Brockhaus Konversationslexikon, 1894-1896 edition, posted by Retro Bibliothek, http://www.retrobibliothek.de/retrobib/seite.html?id=135185
15.      Article: Streik, from Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1902-1909 edition, posted by Zeno, http://www.zeno.org/Meyers-1905/A/Streik?hl=streik
16.      Article: Arbeitseinstellung, from Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1902-1909 edition, posted by Zeno http://www.zeno.org/Meyers-1905/A/Arbeitseinstellung?hl=streik

Secondary Sources
17.      Article: Encyclopedie, from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A9die
18.      Article: Encyclopaedia Britannica Eleventh Edition, from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica
19.      Article: Encyclopedia, from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclopedia#17th.E2.80.9319th_centuries
20.      Article: Trade Union, from 15th edition of Encyclopedia Britannica (pub. 1998), volume 8
21.      Article: Strike, from 15th edition of Encyclopedia Britannica (pub. 1998), volume 8
22.      Article: International, the SECOND, form 15th edition of Encyclopedia Britannica (pub. 1998), volume 4
23.      Article: Second International, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_International


Back to WHKMLA Main Index . WHKMLA, Students' Papers Main Page . WHKMLA, Students' Papers, 13th Wave Index Page