Environmental Policy in the Era of Colonialism

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy

Table of Contents

Oct. 18th 2011
Sept. 27th 2011
May 31st 2011

Oct. 18th 2011 . go to HSM's Paper

(1) In case of Korean language entries : author name in Hangul, then in brackets in English transcription; title in Hangul, then in brackets in translation. In a number of cases you gave it either only in Korean or only in English.
(2) your conclusion : you correctly identified socoal confusion caused by civil wars etc. as a factor contributing to urbanization. You compare three cases - would it be possible to try quantify the influence of each individual factor, by country ?
You successfully put together a lot of information. Your conclusion is a bit short, general.

Sept. 27th 2011 . go to HSM's Log

(1) your notes : in case of every book you refer to, please give the precise page(s) you refer to.
(2) Table 4 : there is something wrong with it. Destruction rate A+B / C does not work. First, logically it should be (C+B / A) times 100. And even if you apply that, the numbers do not add up to the destruction rate given in your table. Double-check your source.
(3) Table 4 : Number of completely Destroyed Buildings during the war => Numberr of buildings (which were) completely destroyed during the war
(4) Table: 1 India: Urban Population 1901 ? 2001 (Source: Ministry of Urban Affairs)
In case of all your tables : put information on your source in a footnote (with precise page number(s), please)
(5) Rapid urbanization after independence is a common outcome for many Asian countries.
replace outcome by phenomenon
(6) three representative countries were chosen from different regions in Asia for comparison. The chosen nations ? India, Indonesia, and South Korea ? were all granted their independence at similar times,
I suggest you rephrase : chosen nations => chosen countries. Do you regard India ONE nation ? It has 18 official languages. Do you regard South Korea a nation, and North Korea a different one ? Avoid raisung such issues.
(7) Before the arrival of the British, India was slowly becoming more urbanized and industrialized on its own.
The British arrived in India in the early 1600s; Industrialization in England began in the second half of the 18th century. You state here that India entered Industrialization before Britain did. Rephrase.
(8) Such phenomenon encouraged population settlement in rural areas while discouraging mass movement into cities.
"phenomenon" singular; here you need a plural. Also I regard the word in this context awkward; better : actions ..
(9) Thus urbanization during British India can be said to have been hampered from proceeding in its maximum speed; urbanization could have been quicker. at its maximum speed
(10) In 1947, the Partition of India brought birth to two new nations: the Union of India (later the Republic of India) and the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People¡¯s Republic of Bangladesh). avoid the term "nations"
(11) In Pakistani part of Punjab the Sikhs and Hindis that existed in minority rioted against the rule of Muslim majority; in part of Punjab that now belonged to the Republic of India the Muslim minority rioted against the rule of Hindi majority.
Are you sure you blame the right culprits ? As far as I understand, much of the respective minorities were expelled
(12) The situation was the same if not worse in Bengal, where the new border left some Muslim majority enclaves in the Republic of India and some Hindu or Sikh majority enclaves in Pakistan. The Sikhs are largely concentrated in the Punjab, not in Bengal
(13) Numerous quarrels that broke out between the Muslims and the Hindus and Sikhs killed thousands of people. Quarrels do not kill people, but people can get killed in a quarrel
(14) The challenges to authority include Darul Islam, Ambonese¡¯s declaration of an independent Republic of South Maluku, and rebellions in Sumatra and Sulawesi between 1955 and 1961. Skip "Ambonese's".
(15) The challenges to authority include Darul Islam, Ambonese¡¯s declaration of an independent Republic of South Maluku, and rebellions in Sumatra and Sulawesi between 1955 and 1961. Assume that your reader hasd no clue what Joseon is. Add the years for Late Joseon, in brackets.
(16) During colonial rule, rural-urban migration was frequent due to extreme plundering of rural farmlands by the Japanese; Replace "plundering" by "exploitation"
(17) However, the cities were also plagued by the Japanese¡¯s plundering, motivating many people to migrate abroad to places like Sakhalin and Manchu. Manchuria
(18) Urbanization before Korean War, from 1945 to 1949 It is possible to interprete this title as meaning the Korean War lasted from 45 to 49. So : Urbanization from 1945 to 1949, before the Korean War
(19) Nearly 1,900,000 Koreans were dead and wounded. dead or wounded
(20) Cities were bombed into ashes; 30% of the buildings in Seoul were completely destroyed. double check your table, then rephrase.
(21) At first the Korean War proved to be a counter-urbanizing factor, forcing people to flee from northern cities in South Korea. Why was this influx "counter-urbanizing" ? The northern cities are locaterd outside the area you examine.
(22) Destruction of Colonial Remnants What are colonial remnants ? unclear.
(23) where traditional Korean buildings and new housing for Koreans were located, experienced much milder attacks. what is a mild attack ? rephrase
(24) Efforts were made to move the main business center of Seoul from Japanese planned places So where did the Japanese plan Seoul's business center ? Be more precise.
(25) there was all gone with independence, and the modern technologies from colonial governments not 'from', but 'introduced under colonial administrations'
Fix, resend

May 31st 2011 . go to HSM's Log

The normal experience of a student picking a research paper is, he/she goes for something he/she wants to know more about, which means the research will turn him into more of an expert, but that does not necessarily mean, if published, it helps anyone else, because such broad accounts have already be published. Another problem, such student-formulated topics are usually broad, and if not narrowed down, can result in years of work and a multivolume publication.
My task as a teacher is to advise students to (1) find an original perspective, and (2) find a specific source base to examine.
When you gave your presentation, you have chosen both a specific topic and a managable source base without asking me for that kind of advice first. This is the first time in 8 years that I have seen a student picking such a topic (of such a complex, and non-Korean nature), that my only response was - perfect topic. Go ahead.

Now I do understand you have heard me giving advice to classmates of yours, emphasizing the need for an original perspective and a clearly defined source base all the time, so I guess you instinctively looked for that when you googled in search for a practical topic.

Now the next steps : establish, and email me :
A working table of contents
A working reference list