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Coups d'etat in French History as Portrayed by 19th and early 20th Century Encyclopedias

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Lee, Jaehyun
Term Paper, AP European History Class, December 2009

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
II. Definition
II.1 Time Frame and the Term Coup d'etat
II.2 Selection of Events
III. Method of Study
III.1 Method Overview
III.1.1 Goal of Method
III.1.2 Step-by-Step Layout of Method
III.1.3 Usage of Sources
III.2 Criteria
III.2.1 Historical Biographies (Articles on Hommes Politiques)
III.2.2 Articles on the History of France
IV. Timelines
IV.1 Timeline of General History of France 1815-1915
IV.2 Timeline of Coup of 1851
IV.3 Timeline of Coup of Boulanger
V. Analysis of Sources
V.1 Encyclopaedia Britannica
V.1.1 General Overview
V.1.2 The 1902 Edition
V.1.3 The 1911 Edition
V.2 Meyers Konversationslexikon
V.3 Nordisk Familje-Bok
VI. Comparison of Coverage
VI.1 Articles on Hommes Politiques
VI.1.1 Attempted Coups of 1836 & 1840
VI.1.2 Coup of 1851
VI.1.3 Forestalled Coup of Boulanger
VI.2 Articles on the History of France
VII. Relations Analysis
VII.1 France, Napoleon, and Germany
VII.2 France, Napoleon, and Sweden
VII.3 France, Napoleon, and the United States
VIII. Conclusion
VIII.1 Overall Conclusion
VIII.2 Frequent Bias Analysis
VIII.3 Conclusion by Encyclopedia

I. Introduction
            Historians cannot write history from a truly objective viewpoint. Their opinions, preferences, and values are indirectly incorporated into what they write, and this leads to the same event being portrayed from different angles. Thus, in order to grasp an unbiased understanding of the event, it is necessary to analyze the background of the source and to compare the coverage with that of other sources.
            In this paper, an analysis into coup d¡¯?tats and attempted coup d¡¯?tats will be made, analyzing the background of the source and comparing the sources with a set criteria. Through this process, it will be possible to get a thorough and overall understanding of the defining moments in the history of France.

II. Definition

II.1 Time Frame and the Term Coup d'etat
            Using encyclopedias published before World War I as primary sources, this paper covers the coup d¡¯?tats and attempted coup d¡¯?tats in French history between the period of 1815 to the First World War. The time frame excludes the events related to Napoleon I.
            The term Coup d'etat can be defined in numerous ways, but in order to set a specific scope, a clear definition had to be laid.
            In Merriam-Webster¡¯s dictionary, the term Coup d'etat is defined as "a sudden decisive exercise of force in politics; especially : the violent overthrow or alteration of an existing government by a small group" (1). In Wikipedia, Coup d'etat is defined as the sudden unconstitutional deposition of a government, usually by a small group of the existing state establishment - typically the military - to replace the deposed government with another, either civil or military" (2). According to the Cambridge Advanced Learners¡¯ Dictionary, a Coup d'etat is defined as "a sudden illegal, often violent, taking of government power, especially by (part of) an army" (3). Taking into guidance the abovementioned definitions for Coup d'etat, the following criteria was used to determine whether an event should be classified as a Coup d'etat.
            If the event fulfills the requirement of an event that occurred between 1815 and 1914, and matches the five conditions hereby mentioned, I have classified it as a Coup d'etat that will be discussed in this paper.

       A. Range - The event was an effort to change the rule of the entire French society, and thus an effort not limited to a region

       B. Time - The event took place suddenly; that is, the critical actions took place within a period of a week

       C. Actor - The leading force of the event is a small group

       D. Method - The event is not a natural succession of power, such as power shift from fair election, hereditary passing of throne between monarchs

       E. Significance - The event either conveys the strong will of the population at the time or played a critical role in shaping modern French society

            * Condition E does not go directly to test the adherence of the event to the definition of a Coup d'etat, but is a condition attached to test its suitability to be covered in this paper

II.2 Selection of Events
            Following the criteria mentioned above, many events that could possibly be argued as Coup d'etats were ruled out.

       Events Not Selected

            Historians are divided on whether to call the events related to Gambetta and the 16 May 1877 Crisis a Coup d'etat. Despite the existence of historians advocating that Gambetta's actions between 1875 and 1882 should be classified, the event clearly fails to meet condition B, and can also argued that condition C is not met.
            Gambetta¡¯s works to assume power began with the 16 May 1877 Crisis, but it was in January of 1879 that President MacMahon resigned. The time that Gambetta actually got to seize power was November 24th, 1881, when the Le Grand Minist?re was established, with Gambetta taking the lead (4). Therefore, at least four years took place in order for Gambetta to seize power gradually, clearly showing that condition B is not met. However, this was a result of his supporters winning a large majority in the election that preceded it, and thus the method in which Gambetta seized power can also go against condition D. It is also worthy to notice that with the majority supporting him before he seized complete power, and great assistance from many people coming even in the times of the 1870s, whether this event meets condition C is also doubtful.
            In summary, due to a clear failure to meet condition B, as well as doubts on condition C and D, the events surrounding Leon Gambetta fail to qualify as a Coup d'etat.

       Events Selected

       Coup of 1836 (Strasbourg)
       Coup of 1840 (Boulogne)
       Coup of 1851 (Louis Napoleon Bonaparte)
       Coup of Boulanger

            * 1, 2, and 4 are Attempted Coups, 3 is a successful Coup d'etat

III. Method of Study

III.1 Method Overview

III.1.1 Goal of Method
            This paper seeks to find out how different encyclopedias portrayed these important moments in history differently, and also attempts to find the link between the background of the source and the way it portrayed the event.

III.1.2 Step-by-Step Layout of Method
            To specify as to the method, the following steps were used;
       1. Decide the events to be covered according to the conditions listed in Section II
       2. Search through the translated biographies of Frenchmen from WHKMLA
            In this process, a search was made on three keywords, and if an entry found at least one present, it was reviewed again for its possible contribution to the paper. Some of the articles that passed this screening may have been used in this paper as sources, but quite a few of them have not been used as they lacked relevant information on the topic.
            The keywords used were Napoleon, Coup, and Boulanger.
            The articles were coded 1,2,3,4 according to the event they were covering, and one article could have more than one classification
       After the selection of historical biographies of translated articles had been made, the same entries were searched on Encyclopaedia Britannica Edition 1911.
            The same coding procedure was applied as mentioned in Step 2.
       In the three primary sources, the corresponding sections for the entry for French History were taken into examination and were checked for the criteria mentioned below in Section III.2.
       For each of the three sources, a research was done to find out its background, the relationship with the country that the encyclopedia is based in and France.
       In the Conclusion, an effort was given to provide the possible reason or explanation for the coverage of an event in a particular way.

III.1.3 Usage of Sources
            For the primary sources, three sources in three different languages were used - German, English, and Swedish. As for the English encyclopedia of the Britannica, the work was done directly through the Britannica¡¯s online posting of its previous editions. However, as for the German and Swedish Encyclopedias, the translation provided by WHKMLA was used.
            The articles on the general history of France were directly searched through the three encyclopedias¡¯ online versions, and the help of Google Translate Toolbar was used to translate the articles in German and Swedish. In the German Encyclopedia Meyers¡¯, the search type Nur in Meyers-1905 was used
            As for the secondary sources, they are mostly used to provide a factual basis to construct Sections IV and V, which are used to provide a factual basis to judge the coverage of the events in historical encyclopedias.

III.2 Criteria

III.2.1 Historical Biographies (Articles on Hommes Politiques)
            The following five things were checked in reviewing the articles about political figures in French History.
       A. Classification
       B. Evaluation (the last few sentences in the very end that summarize the article)
       C. Omissions
       D. Usage of Words
       E. Tone
       F. General Notes
            Classification is how a person is defined in a single word. The same person may be seen as a dictator, a general, a politician, an activist, or a statesman, and the difference in nuance between these words hint at the viewpoint the article is taking towards the person.
            Evaluation is usually given in the end, which summarizes who the person is/was, and tries to summarize his features and characteristics within a few sentences. These sentences, as well, can reveal the stance of the article towards a figure.
            Omissions refer to the absence of certain information in the article. In a strict sense, no article would be able to have absolutely no omission, as recording everything about a person who has lived for over seventy years within a few pages is an impossible task. In this paper, omissions are seen as the failure to mention critical information, such as assassination attempts, way of lifestyle, defining moment in life, and other important information regarding the person.
            Usage of words plays a significant role in portraying a person. Despite the relatively small change, the impact is great, as word usage creates the tone of the article towards an individual. For instance, a case of death can be written as he passed away, he died in agony, or he carried out the action of ending his life forever or even he decided to ease his everlasting suffering. As can be seen from this example, a difference in just a few words can change how the readers perceive a person, giving word usage very great importance.
            Tone is different from word choice as it is how the article takes a position on a person throughout the article, not just in this and that section. Tone refers to the overall underlying implications of the article, such as a perception that ambition led this figure to plan and execute these series of events.
            The General Notes section was devoted to be able to analyze important sections of articles that could not be clearly categorized into the categories of A to E.
            In the great majority of such articles, it is only possible to identify defining characteristics in a few of these five criteria. Therefore, in the Content Analysis section, some articles will only be analyzed about certain criteria, for instance Word Usage and Omissions, but not Evaluation.

III.2.2 Articles on the History of France
            The criteria I used for analyzing encyclopedia articles covering French History are as follows
       1. Overall Grading on Level of Bias and Prejudice

Marks Degree of Bias and Prejudice
Very Fair (VF) The coverage is balanced and thorough, yet objective. Articles falling into this category remain objective without the need to excessively shorten its length
Fair (F) The article is written from relatively a very objective viewpoint; no prejudicial vocabulary is used, intentional omissions not found
Biased (B) The article is written from a tilted viewpoint, often favoring one side over the other. Intentional omissions can be occasionally found and vocabulary usage is sometimes prejudicial
Extremely Biased (EB) It is clear that the article strongly favors one side over the other.

       2. Checklist used to Analyze Article
       A. Omissions
       B. Exaggeration
       C. Underestimations/Underrated Portrayal
       D. Factual Mistake
       E. Biased Judgment/Conclusion

       Reference to Specific Person / Event
            Getting the facts may have to be done anyway, but it is also possible for encyclopedias of the 19th and 20th century to choose a focus, as they cannot cover everything and everyone. Therefore, when a reference to a specific person or event is made, and an evaluation of some sort is made directly by the article, it is mentioned in this paper as well.

IV. Timeline
            The timelines in this section was provided to serve as an objective source of factual information to rely on, as narratives are much easier to get subjected than timelines, which is a list of factual events.
            A timeline on the course of the Coup of 1851 and the Coup of Boulanger has been made, but as for the Coup of 1834 and 1840, the events are incorporated into the first timeline dealing with the general history of France between 1815 and 1915. The events mentioned in the first timeline consist primarily of information directly relevant to the four events covered in this paper.

IV.1 Timeline of General French History 1815-1915 (5)

1815 Napoleon¡¯s Hundred Days
1815-1830 Restored Bourbon Dynasty
1830 July Revolution
1830-1848 July Monarchy
- 1831 Palace of the Archbishop of Paris Sacked
- 1834 Parisian Workers erect barricades in Eastern Slums
- 1835 First Assassination Attempt to Kill Louis-Philippe
- 1836 Attempted Coup at Strasbourg
- 1839 The Secret Society Plot
- 1840 Attempted Coup at Lille / Second Assassination Attempt to Kill Louis Philippe
- 1845 Economic Crisis Hits France
1848 Parisian Worker Protests
Revolution of 1848
- Feb. 24 Louis Philippe abdicates
- Apr. 23 Elections Held, Louis Napoleon elected to Constituent Assembly
- Dec. 10 Presidential Election ? Napoleon elected President
1848-1852 Second Republic
- Fall 1851 Louis Napoleon declares Martial Law
- Dec. 2 '51 Coup d'etat by Louis Napoleon
- Dec. 3 '52 Louis Napoleon proclaims himself Napoleon III
1852-1870 Second Empire
1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War
1871-1940 Third Republic
- 1889 Boulanger¡¯s Attempted Coup

IV.2 Timeline of the Coup of 1851 (6)

1832 Death of Duke of Reichstadt makes Louis Napoleon the recognized head of the Napoleonic Dynasty
October 1836 Plans the Strasbourg Incident to topple the July Monarchy, but arrested on October 30th, , banished to the United States
1837 Returns to Europe
August 5th, 1840 Lands on coast near Boulogne, but arrested when he tried to enter the city, sentenced to life in prison by the Chamber of Paris
May 25th, 1846 Escapes from Ham Fortress, where he was held prisoner, and flees to England
September 1848 Elected as a deputee by Paris and four departments, attends the National Assembly
Dec. 10, 1848 Elected President of France, receiving approximately four million votes more than his counterpart, Cavaignac
July 19th, 1851 The Legislative Assembly forbids Napoleon from being reelected
Dec. 1., 2. 1851 Louis Napoleon implements a coup d'etat on the French State
Dec. 20, 1851 Elected for president for a term of ten years
Dec. 2, 1852 Louis Napoleon proclaims himself Emperor of the French, Napoleon III

IV.3 Timeline of the Coup of Boulanger

1885 Called back from Military Duty in Tunisia to Paris
Jan. 7, 1886 Georges Ernest Jean Marie Boulanger becomes Minister of War
1886-1888 Introduces the Lebel Rifle into the French Military, Major Reform in service to soldiers carried out under the leadership of Boulanger
1888 Elected by Department Nord to the Chamber of Deputies
1889 Gains votes of Paris, elected to the Chamber of Deputies again
1889 Supporters of Boulanger raise political passions to the boiling point, threat of Coup d'etat is sensed by the French Government
Apr. 1, 1889 Minister of the Interior, Constans, scares Boulanger and he and his supporters flee to Brussels
1889-1890 Boulanger accused in front of the Senate and the Supreme Court for High Treason
Sept. 30, 1891 Boulanger Commits Suicide by Shooting Himself

V. Analysis of Sources

V.1 Encyclopaedia Britannica

V.1.1 General Overview (7)
            Encyclopedia Britannica is Latin for "the British Encyclopedia." It is written aimed at educated adult readers, and currently is written by about 100 full time editors and over 4,000 expert contributors.
            One point worthy of noticing is that the Britannica is not owned by the British. Since 1901, Americans managed the Britannica. Despite the American ownership, the spelling used by the Britannica remains British.

V.1.2 The 1902 Edition
            This edition is called the 10th Edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, and it is a supplement to the 9th Edition. Due to its rapid production, its reputation is not as high as the eleventh edition, but nonetheless it maintains its position as a reliable source of information

V.1.3 The 1911 Edition
            The Eleventh Edition (aka 1911 Edition) is regarded as a landmark encyclopedia for scholarship and literary style. It is a 29 volume reference work, and it marks the transition from a British to an American publication. The main difference between previous editions and the eleventh edition is that it carries substantial American influences. Higher than any other edition, eleven percent of the contributors were Americans. Another important thing is that efforts were made to give it a more popular tone. This effort, which was a continuum of similar efforts made in the tenth edition, was strengthened in the eleventh edition. Many articles were carried over from the ninth edition, some were heavily abridged, and some others were divided into smaller parts for easier reference.
            In terms of its coverage of topics, the Britannica of 1911 was the first edition to contain biographies of people still living. The background for this publication was the era where imperialism was largely unchallenged, and where the British Empire was at its top height.
            The quote that Sir Kenneth Clark attributed to the eleventh edition of the Britannica is noticeable. "It must be the last encyclopedia in the tradition of Diderot which assures that information can be made memorable only when it is slightly coloured by prejudice". (7a)

            The eleventh edition made significant efforts to bring the encyclopedia close to the mass. Its usage of language is simplified, its articles made easier to read, and its viewpoint made understandable to the reader. It is also intriguing that during the time of this edition, unlike current ones, it was believed that an article with slight prejudice was used as an effective tool to make articles memorable. Lastly, the fact that the Eleventh Edition shows the transition from a British to American centered encyclopedia provides the encyclopedia with a mixed view, where the influence of the new managers and the new contributors and that of the existing British contributors are mixed into this remarkable edition of the encyclopedia.

V.2 Encyclopedia Meyers Konversationslexikon
            Meyers was published for the intent to make it for the broad public. The editions used by this paper are the Fourth, Fifth, and the Sixth edition of the encyclopedia. The encyclopedia is based in Germany, and served an equivalent role of the Britannica in Great Britain.

V.3 Nordisk Familje-Bok
            The Nordisk Familje-Bok (The Nordic Familybook) is based in Sweden. This paper uses the first two editions of this encyclopedia. The Second Edition, consisted of 38 volumes, is the most comprehensive encyclopedia published in the Swedish language.

VI. Comparison of Coverage

VI.1 Articles on Hommes Politiques
            This section compares the coverage of political figures with relevance to the cases of the coup d¡¯?tats. In analyzing the articles posted on the WHKMLA website as well as Encyclopedia Britannica 1902 and 1911 editions, it could be found that historical biographies related to the Coup of 1851 were most prevalent, that related to Boulanger could be found occasionally, but the Coups of 1836 and 1840 could hardly be seen.
            Moreover, as the coverage of the figures Napoleon III goes to not one, but three coups, it will be analyzed before moving on to the actual cases.

VI.1.1 Coup of 1836 &1840 : Napoleon III

Napoleon III
Nordisk Familjebok (1887)

      A The classification is given as the "Emperor of the French."
      B In evaluating Napoleon III in the end of the article, it writes, Despite his great misfortune and of a serious bodily illness, Napoleon maintained an extraordinary tranquility and displayed in regard to the latter the same passive mood, which has characterized him since childhood.
      C In this encyclopedia, there is no mentioning about the assassination attempts made on the life of the emperor. Despite the attempts carrying significant value in that it shows the existence of an active opposition, this article ignores such events.
      D Regarding the Coup of 1836, it writes, "The Prince personally made an attempt to induce the officers and garrison of Strassbourg to revolt." A focus on the word personally needs to be given, as this is the only article in which such way of describing the coup is used. The word "personally" implies to the reader that the prince was at the very center of the event.
      E. In describing the nature of the Coup of 1851, this article writes, "In order to even out the impression of the treacherous way in which he gained the crown, he tried to gain popularity ..." Here, the emphasis is necessary on the phrase, :treacherous way in which he gained the crown" which clearly refers to the coup of 1851. This article clearly has a negative tone regarding the actions of Napoleon III during the Coup of 1851.

            Conclusion: In terms of political ambition, Napoleon III is viewed negatively. However, overall, this article maintains a slightly positive viewpoint towards Napoleon. It views him as a figure of strong leadership, great skill, and a decent sense of morality. The only criticism it focuses is his excessive political ambition.

Grading: FAIR

Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892
      A. The classification is also given as the "Emperor of the French"
      B. The description of personal characteristics of Napoleon III is rather positive on this article. For instance, it writes, "By nature mild and benevolent, loyal and grateful to his friends and servants, not without intellectual talent, but not creative. He had a wide-ranging knowledge, knew to recognize by general criteria, and to express his view well in good language." Praising his skills in language and his ability to deal with people in a very desirable manner, the article may seem biased towards Napoleon III. However, the following sentences lead differently. "His pretendness was his doom. His fall is all the more tragic, as it caused not even pity, but only ill wishes, irony and ridicule in the entire nation. Only the Italian nation has preserved grateful memory of him and set up a monument for him in Milan." Therefore, despite the praise on personal qualities, his feats and abilities as a leader is put to serious doubt in the evaluation made by this article.
      C. No clear sign of omission could be found.
      D. "Guilt of the coup d'etat" is used a few times on this article. Here, it can also be seen that the stance of this article is positive towards his personal characteristics, but negative towards him as a monarch.
      E. "Napoleon first of all strove to bedazzle the French nation by military glory", writes this article. The tone of this article is a careful balance between positive and negative viewpoints

            Conclusion: In terms of Napoleon III to his personal level or on his goals for France, the article stands supportive. However, with the way he seized power (Coup of 1851) and the way he ran the Second Empire, the paper takes a negative view. Therefore, it is a well balanced mix between positive and negative viewpoints, serving as a trustworthy source of information.

Grade: FAIR

Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 Edition
      A Classification, like other encyclopedias, is given as "Emperor of the French"
      B. No evaluation is given in the article.
      C Doubts on Napoleon III are mentioned in this article, whereas other articles do not mention such issues. It is written, "Doubts have been cast on the legitimacy of Louis Napoleon; for the discord between Louis Bonaparte, who was ill, restless and suspicious, and his pretty and capricious wife was so violent and open as to justify all conjectures."
      D He is describe as "doux entete", meaning gentle but obstinate. Other words describing him are extraordinary skill and experienced conspirator.
      E. It is described as a very ambitious person. As Madame Cornu remarks, he already had dreams of an empire when he was twelve. Another quote from the article is that of Duke of Wellington, "This young man will not have it said that he is going to be emperor of the French. The unfortunate affair of Strasbourg has in no way shaken this strange conviction."
      F: The coverage in this article is much more thorough than the other two sources. Areas such as personal affairs and the series of events are mentioned. In terms of sheer length, it is approximately three times longer than the other two encyclopedia articles.

General Notes :
Coverage of the Coup of 1836
            Napoleon attempted to launch a Coup in 1836 at Strassbourg with the help of certain officers and his mistresses, but the conspiracy ended as a failure. No biased words are used in the coverage. The exact date (October 30th, 1836) is given, and locations of his exile and his whereabouts after being banished are specifically mentioned.

Coverage of the Coup of 1840
            Napoleon conspired to provoke a rising of the 42nd regiment in Boulogne, with fifty six followers helping him. He planned to march to Lille and then to Paris, but he was arrested on the shores of Boulogne. The coverage is different as the word pretender is used to call Napoleon. The specific date (August 6th, 1840) is given, and specific names of people involved are all mentioned.


Note: Napoleon III and the related analysis also apply to the Coup of 1851. Therefore, analyzing articles under the entry of Napoleon III will not be made on the next section.

VI.1.2 Coup of 1851

I. Napoleon and His Supporters
Napoleon III
            Analyzed in Above Section


Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899
      A. Ollivier is classified as a French Statesman.
      D. His personal skills are described as eloquent and knowledged.
      E. This article views Ollivier as someone who is skilled but does not have much faith in his belief. He is portrayed as having easily changed his position from anti-government just before the Coup of 1851 to a fervent supporter of Napoleon III. However, the description of him is not negative and rather is kept balanced.

Grading: FAIR

Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892
      A. Ollivier is classified as a French Statesman.
      D. The words most eloquent and popular are used to describe him during his time as a key member of the opposition around the year 1860.
      General Notes: Ollivier¡¯s portrayal is markedly different from that of Nordisk. The article writes, "But with his pedantic vanity utterly blinded him, bereaved him of clear insight in true conditions, so that he did not notice that he only was a tool in the hands of the Bonapartist court camarilla." Whereas Napoleon is portrayed negatively in this article, Ollivier is not. In fact, he is rather seen as someone who was used to the advantage of Napoleon.

Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911
      General Notes: This article is long, but focuses on events irrelevant to any of the coups covered by this paper, and the relationship between him and Napoleon is not covered thoroughly. On this basis, this article was excluded from the analyzing process.

Grading: FAIR

II. Opponents of Napoleon


Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911
      A. Classification is given as a French General.
      D. Suppressing the revolt in 1848 is described as "the bloodiest and the most resolute the streets of Paris have ever seen, and the general did not hesitate to inflict this severest punishment on the rebels."
      E. In discussing his reaction to the revolts of 1848, the article writes, "Cavaignac failed perhaps to appreciate the political exigencies of the moment; as a soldier; he would not strike his blow ..." As hinted from this quote, the tone of this article tries to see Cavaignac as a simple military figure.

            Conclusion: From the classification to word choice and the overall tone, he is portrayed as a military man figure.

Grading: BIASED ? The word choice is almost entirely negative. The underlying theme seems to portray Cavaignac as an unpopular figure who knew nothing much other than military affairs.

Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899
      A. Classification is made as French Dictator.
      B. In the last lines of the article, it writes, "Cavaignac was not a statesman in a strict sense, but he was a loyal soldier, honest in his republicanism and without a stain in his public and private life." Here, whereas it points out his incapability in politics, the article praises Cavaignac greatly in various aspects.
      D. Merciless Energy and Dictatorial Authority are used to describe him.
      E Tone - Neutral, just portrayed as a military figure

Grading: FAIR

Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892
      A. Classification is given as French General
      D. The suppression of the rebellion is described as a bloody struggle, which is clearly different from the way that Nordisk Familjebok describes it.
      E. Two quotes clearly indicate the positive stance this article takes on Cavaignac. First, "Cavaignac stood out because of his vigilance, patience, cold courage, and an extraordinary talent for organization." Second, "He restored order and calm in all of France" is used to describe the suppression of the 1848 rebels, a marked difference from other encyclopedias.

Grading: FAIR


Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899
      A. Dufaure is classified as a statesman.
      B. The article ends with the quote, "On August 12th 1876, he was elected senator for lifetime, and as such he since has participated in the parliamentarian life of his fatherland. It views Dufaure as a positive contribution to the political body of France.
      C. Unlike other encyclopedias, it portrays Dufaure as a figure with more importance, writing that he is "one of the leaders of the Left Center."
      D. "As an active opponent of Napoleon¡¯s plans of empire, Dufaure after the coup d'etat of December 2nd 1851 had to return to his function as advocate ...". In this quote found in this article, two parts carry great significance. First, the wording active opponent clearly lays contrast with the viewpoints of other articles. Second, the article writes that he had to return to being an advocate. These words indicate that he went fiercely against Napoleon, and that Napoleon forced him out of his political role.
      E. Positive tone is conveyed throughout the article. He is portrayed as a just activist.

Grading: FAIR

Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892
      Dufaure is classified as a French Statesman.
      In relation to his relationship with Napoleon and his response after the 1851 coup, it is written that "he proved to be an active supporter of Cavaignac, resolutely hostile to the candidacy of Louis Napoleon." About his response after the coup, the article writes that "he withdrew from political life and resumed his function as an advocate." Rather than implying that his absence in political scenes following the coup was forced, this article suggests that it was a voluntary decision.

Grading: FAIR

Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 Edition
      A. Dufaure is also classified as a French Statesman.
      D. "During the second empire, he abstained from public life and practiced at the Paris bar ... is how this article writes about Dufaure's whereabouts after the Coup of 1851. It is worthy to notice that he abstained from public life, not forced out.

Grading: VERY FAIR
            Despite lacking in thoroughness, this article is very objective and focuses on giving the sequence of specific events rather than providing evaluations.

Conclusion : The focus place in the life of Dufaure was how he reacted to the Coup of 1851. Whereas Nordisk indicates that he was forced out of his political role, the other two encyclopedias approach this in a different approach that he chose to step down.


Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899
      A. Grevy is classified as a French President.
      B. Grevy's evaluation is interesting as it puts equal focus on his qualities as a normal individual, with that as a politician, even though he assumed the position of the President. "He is one of the best speakers of France. Without appealing to the sentiment or using a rich and passionate language he wins the attention of his listeners by his logically sharp and precise expression." His qualities as an eloquent speaker and as a wonderful speechmaker are described here.
            On the coverage about his political stance and actions, the article writes, "Grevy constantly defended the republic", indicating that he was a protector of the republic and against the reign of Napoleon III. Moreover, it writes, "His opposition against the government was resolute, but polite and always focused on the matter, not as a person", clearly voicing positive viewpoints about the actions of Grevy.
      D. In the quote mentioned on the analysis on Criteria B of Grevy, the word resolute is used to describe his stance, indicating that Grevy maintained his firm belief on the Republic. The words polite also indicate some positive viewpoints this article may have on Grevy.
      E. An extremely positive tone is carried throughout this paper on Grevy. The great majority of the article focuses on listing the good achievement and qualities of Grevy, and where a possible criticism was made, it is justified and Grevy is praised again. Following is the quote where this occurs, "He lacked the fire, which characterizes most French statesman, but has instead been steadfast in his views, polite, calm, selfless and free from all lust for honour." Later on in the article, it is also mentioned that his strict adherence to the law makes him better suited than anybody else to become the president of the republic.

Grading: BIASED
            This article focuses on praising Grevy that it fails to balance its viewpoint. Adjectives describing him tend to be biased and a balance between negative and positive comments is not established.

Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892
      A. Grevy is classified as a French Statesman.
      B. In the end, the article writes, "Although he often was criticized for his inactivity and thriftiness, the National Congress on December 28th 1885 reelected him as the president of the republic for another seven years, as no statesman of his stature was available." This evaluation is a rather balanced one, pointing out his major weaknesses and points he was attacked on, as well as mentioning that he nonetheless received the respect from other politicians.
      D. The words used in this article are relatively more moderate than that of the Nordisk. For instance, on Meyers it writes "he spoke out against the establishment of a dictatorship ..." Adjective usage is kept to a minimum to ensure relative objectiveness, as the wording spoke out against clearly shows.
      E. The tone is positive overall, but there is a balance of negative and positive coverage on this article.

Grading: FAIR

Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911
      A. Grevy is classified as the President of the French Republic
      D. On his actions around the Coup d'etat of 1851, the article writes, "After the coup d'etat this proposition gained Grevy a reputation for sagacity." Here, this proposition refers to a proposition he raised to restrain the powers of the president, a proposal he advocated as he feared that Louis Bonaparte may seek greater power. The word sagacity slightly leans towards a positive viewpoint.
            Yet, negative usage of words can be found easily in this article. Describing Grevy¡¯s actions in his later years as obstinate and that his resignation was inevitable, a negative portrayal is also given.
      E. Tone: Neutral - this article does not seem to lean towards a specific way of portraying Grevy.

Grading: FAIR


Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899
      A. Thiers is classified as the president of the French Republic.
      D. His skills as a politician are viewed highly. To be more specific, shining, persuasive eloquence is the phrase used to describe his skills.
            General Notes: The article argues that Thiers shifted his political belief after the coup d'etat of 1851. "He first supported Cavaignac and later Prince Louis Napoleon, but in 1851 was one of the opponents of the latter's plans of a coup d'etat" is how the article words this.

Grading: FAIR

Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892
      A. Thiers is classified as French Statesman and historian.
      B. Meyer¡¯s sums up the article with an evaluation rating Thiers very highly. It states, "But above all of these doctrine for Thiers, stood his nation. To add to its glory and greatness was his highest aim, as he was a real Frenchmen, with all virtues and weaknesses of this nation, he had indefatigable energy, refined, noble education, a sharp observation, a sanguine elastic of spirit and genuine patriotism, but also native egoism and vanity." However, the article should not be seen as biased as it does point out his weaknesses.
      C. Unlike Nordisk, Meyers writes that Thiers took 11 years way from politics following the Coup of 1851. No mention is given that Thiers was a supporter of Napoleon III, unlike Nordisk. It is also markedly different in the quote near the end, where it states, "He hated the military democracy of Napoleon III" again clearly showing that Thiers maintained his continued disapproval of Napoleon III
      E. The tone of this article is quite positive, although it is not to a degree that it creates wrong perception or prejudice.

Grading: FAIR

Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 Edition
      A. Thiers is classified as a French Statesman and Historian.
      B. In covering the events surrounding the war between France and Prussia around 1870, the article reveals its evaluation of his characteristics. It writes, "His strong personal will and inflexible opinions had much to do with the resurrection of France; but the very same facts made it inevitable that he should excite violent opposition". The evaluation is fair, and a balance between praise and criticism is well established.
      E. The tone is quite neutral, not in the way that it omits sections that may include evaluations, but rather in the aspect that it provides a well balanced perception of Thiers.

            General Notes: It is worthy of placing attention on the way that Britannica saw Thiers¡¯ actions surrounding the Coup of 1851. Regarding this issue, the article writes, "But consistency of his conduct, especially in voting for Prince Louis Napoleon as president, was often and sharply criticized." Thus, it can be seen that in the Britannica as well, Thiers is viewed as a person lacking a firm political stance and as someone who easily fluctuated depending on the time and event.

Grading: VERY FAIR
            On an adding remark, this article is by far the most thorough out of the three articles written about Thiers analyzed in this paper.

VI.1.3 Coup of Boulanger


Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892
      No Entry

Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926
      A. Boulanger is classified as a French Military Officer and Politician.
      B. An evaluation on Boulanger as an individual is not provided. In the evaluation of the impact of Georges Boulanger, the article writes, "The political movement he caused in France, Boulangerism, which for a time after Boulanger's flight occasionally became apparent, gradually ebbed down. "
      D. Words like wasteful lifestyle and capable officer are used throughout the paper. The article views Boulanger as a person with great skill but with the wrong motives and views him not as a model for others, but someone who led a bad lifestyle.
      E. In regard to the possible coup d'etat, the article writes, "Fearing a coup d'etat, which a leader more energetic than Boulanger might have succeeded in ..." (in this sentence the subject that fears the coup d'etat is the current government, not Boulanger). The article, as can be seen from this sentence, views Boulanger as lacking in energy and the passion to bring a great transformation to society and maintains a negative viewpoint.

Grading: BIASED
            The usage of words, the underlying tone, and the arrangement of events all lead this article to become biased.

Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 Edition
      A. Boulanger is classified as a French General.
      C. The mentioning of his extravagant and wasteful lifestyle is omitted.
      D. Also, the phrase "C'est Boulanger qu'il nous faut" , meaning "It's Boulanger that we need", is used to describe how the general public saw Boulanger. "By implementing genuine reforms for the benefits of officers and common soldier alike, the man destined to give France her revenge for the disasters of 1870" are all positive portrayals of Boulanger. One negative depiction that could be found was one related to his way of committing suicide, which is described as "by blowing out his brains on the grave of his mistress."
      E. The tone is slightly positive, but some attempts to mention his faults and problems can be seen in the article. Thus, it does not fall into the category of being biased.

            General Notes: This article is approximately two times longer than that of Nordisk. This article portrays Boulanger as someone who had great fame temporarily but was more like a one-time figure.

Grading: FAIR


Meyers Konversationslexikon 1902-1909
      A. Constans is classified as a French Minister.
      C. Explanations as to his methods in tackling the Boulangerist movement are omitted. Also, the actions he took along with Gambetta are also omitted in this article.
      D. Words like "great success, shaken republic again was stabilized" are used to describe Constans' actions against Boulanger
      E. The tone is relatively positive throughout the article

Grading: FAIR

Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926
      A. Constans is classified as a French Statesman.
      D. Words like power, trickery, crushed, scrapping all imply some negative connotation to Constans. The way in which Constans defeated the Boulanger attempts is portrayed as a series of cunning and carefully planned actions. Phrases like laws extremely useful for this purpose support this view.
      E. In covering Constans¡¯s actions against Boulanger, the article writes, (Front Omitted) "At this extremely critical point of time, where the republic was greatly threatened by General Boulanger. By power and trickery, Constans rendered the latter harmless, after which, without scruples and with an almost autocratic authority, thanks to a number of laws extremely useful for this purpose, such as scrapping election by lists, created a large Republican majority, crushed the Boulangerists and the Conservatives."
            Unlike Meyers, this article deals deep into the conflict and the methods used by Constans against Boulanger. Whereas Meyers writes that the attempt was a "great success", Nordisk instead focuses on the exact way in which Constans crushed Boulanger.
            The tone is rather negative, but the article does not fall into the category of being biased, as it maintains a rather fact-based approach in portraying the events.
      F. This article writes mostly about Constans and his involvement in French Politics. The coverage is thorough, and it mainly focuses on his relationships with other influential French political figures of the time

Grading: FAIR

Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911
      A. Constans is classified as a French Statesman.
      D. "He became prominent as a stalwart opponent of the Boulangerist Party ..." is what this article writes about Constans in relation to the Boulanger Coup attempts. The words prominent and stalwart reveal that the Article takes a positive viewpoint on Constans.
      E. The general tone is positive. In his actions against Boulanger, words like prominent and stalwart are used. In describing how he was attacked, the article portrays Constans as a victim, describing the attack as violent.
      F. The coverage is very brief, and only contains a sentence about Constans¡¯s relationship with Boulanger and his followers. The article is resembles more of a timeline than a narrative on one's life.

Grading: FAIR


Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926
      A. Ferry is classified as a French Statesman.
      B. The evaluation is rather positive. It is written that, "In energetic patriotism and parliamentary skill, Ferry in the Third Republic had few of his kind ...". Here, he is described as a person devoted to his nation. Moreover, "Perhaps, at least after Gambetta's death, the country's greatest statesman." The evaluation is extremely positive.
      C. Unlike other encyclopedias, Nordisk writes, "Ferry was influential in party life by rallying moderate Republicans around himself, and in a number of political speeches he warned of the danger which threatened the republic from the side of General Boulanger." His relationship with Boulanger and his supporter is mentioned again, "Ferry became the candidate for moderate Republicans, but the Boulangerists threatened with rebellion." This indicates his hostile relationship with the Boulangerists.

Grading: BIASED
            This article does not distort the facts or omit critical information. Rather, it emphasizes Ferry¡¯s actions against Boulangerism and portrays it as a heroic activity.

VI.2 Articles on the History of France
            This section focuses on two articles that have been devoted to the articles with the entry France - History of. Unlike the analysis of the Hommes Politiques, the analysis on Nordisk Familjebok was not held for two reasons. First, internet translation between English and Swedish created more errors than that between English and German. Second, having three encyclopedia sources is not as necessary as it is in the Hommes Politiques, as the History of France section is thorough and usually covers most of the major events and individuals.

Encyclopaedia Britannica 1902 Version
(1) Coverage of Major Individuals
            Louis XVIII is evaluated as "one of the best of the Bourbons, a man of ability and learning, fond of literature and science, moderate and loyal in opinion and act", which is an evident positive portrayal of the monarch.
            Thiers is also covered in this article; "The ambitious little statesman, with the fire and heat of the south in him, advocate, newspaper editor historian, and politician ...".. is how the article describes Thiers.
(2) Coverage of Major Events
A. Coup of 1836
Excerpt from the Britannica
            "The new government had to face the anger of France at the failure of French troops in Algeria before the hill-fort of Constantine, and the agitation which succeeded the strange attempt (October 1836) of Prince Louis Napoleon to arouse imperialist echoes among the troops at Strasbourg."
            "Though when he showed himself and read a proclamation to the soldiers many replied with shouts of ¡°Vive l¡¯Empereur,¡± the bulk of the troops refused to listen, and he was arrested with his companion, a M. Persigny, and sent to Paris. "

            The attempts of Louis Napoleon are described as imperialist echoes. The coverage, for the most part, sticks to the facts and does not make many judgmental remarks, but it is necessary to realize that the attempt was classified as strange. This conveys the Britannica's view that the coup of 1836 seemed rather reckless and that it was destined to end in vain.

B. Coup of 1840
Excerpt from the Britannica
            "The restoration to France in 1840 of the ashes of Napoleon, a rash act due to Louis Philippe himself, woke man a slumbering echo of the old national pride; Napoleon, it was urged, had never let his country fall, as the present Government had done, out of the foremost place in the councils of Europe. The second attempt of Louis Bonaparte to win over the garrison of Boulogne, in spite of the absurdities of the tame eagle, and the utter failure of the venture, added not a little to the popular uneasiness. By shutting up the adventurer in the castle of Ham, the Government made him a martyr, and roused much dormant sympathy for him."

            The first sentence well describes the situation in France, where the desire for a leader like Napoleon was emerging. With this sentence just preceding the next sentence, the article implies that the Coup of 1840 is different from that of 1836, that it is not as strange. The article keeps this stance, as it mentions that even when ended as a total failure, the government's action of placing Louis Napoleon in prison worsened the situation and that Louis Napoleon's support grew. The phrase dormant sympathy implies that the sympathy may have helped him later to gain public support.

C. Coup of 1851
Excerpt from the Britannica
            "Louis Bonaparte was among the elected. He veiled his ambition under popular phrases, and, as had been seen before, a Bonaparte made ready to pass into absolute power by an alliance with the people and a seeming deference to its sovereignty. "My name", he said, is the symbol of order, nationality, and glory"
            "Before Louis Bonaparte had been in office a year, it was seen that he was preparing to move in the direction of absolute power. "
            "At last, on December 2nd, 1851, the prince-president, guided by a group friend sand brother-conspirators, ventured on his famous coup d¡¯?tat, and swept away the whole existing fabric of the constitution. In the most lawless manner sixteen prominent members of the Assembly were arrested."

            The article makes it evident that Napoleon had the idea of absolute power in mind well before being emperor. His confidence in himself, as can be seen from the quote by Louis Napoleon himself, "My name, is the symbol of order, nationality, and glory" adds to his strong belief. The coup d'etat brought a whole change in the system of governance, and the manner in which the coup was held is subject to criticism in this article.

Meyers Konversationslexikon 1902-1909 Edition
A. Coup of 1836 & Coup of 1840
            Only a brief mention on this event is given in Meyers. The article writes, "Although the attempts prince Louis Napoleon attempted to carry away in 1836 and 1840 failed ..." The encyclopedia does not seem to put much focus in the event, and any kind of evaluation on the event is not given.

B. Coup of 1851
            The coverage of the coup of 1851 is much more thorough than the coverage of the coup of 1836 and 1840.
            Excerpt from Meyers Konversationslexikon
            "In the army, he won many adherents, and Bonapartist Clubs had to work tirelessly for the establishment of the empire."
            "The prince then proceeded to a coup that had been prepared most carefully. In the night of December 2nd, 1851, sixty deputies and outstanding political personalities (Cavaignac, Thiers, etc) were arrested by troops. 218 deputies who were gathered in the assembly were arrested and the highest court was broken up violently."
            "On the 3rd and 4th of December, the roads of Paris witnessed a great slaughter and mass arrest where 100,000 people were out on the streets and numerous people arrested."

            This article states that the nature of the Coup of 1851 was a well planned one, but a very violent one. The process in which the coup was held is portrayed in an extremely negative manner. With the usage of the word slaughter, a strong negative message is conveyed.

VII. Relations Analysis

VII.1 France, Napoleon and Germany (9)
            Since the Napoleonic Wars, which Napoleon I, Louis Napoleon¡¯s uncle led, the relationship between the French and the Germans were that of combatants. There was a continuous struggle for balance of power between them, and with the rise of Napoleon III, this created the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. Thus, Napoleon III, having led the entire French forces against the union of Prussia and the North German Federation, was not seen positively from the perspective of the Germans.

VII.2 France, Napoleon and Sweden
            Sweden fought against Napoleon I and the French imperial forces during the second d coalition, but Napoleon III and Sweden were engaged in any big conflicts. Therefore, the perception of the Swedish towards Napoleon III and the French State was rather neutral.
            It is worthy to notice that Sweden remained as a monarchy during the publication of the encyclopedia.

VII.3 France, Napoleon, and the United States
            The only major involvement of France under Napoleon III into the USA was its assistance to confederate forces. It must be understood that this fact does not place Napoleon III into severe criticism, as the event was a civil war, with both the winning and losing sides being a part of the United States.
            It is worthy to notice that the United States was a democratic nation with no monarch or emperor.

VIII. Conclusion

VIII.1 Overall Conclusion
            Even when the greatest effort for objectivity exists, complete objectivity is impossible to achieve. Discoveries on three main categories could be made through this analysis of coverage in French coups d'etat.
            First, the background of the encyclopedia greatly influences the depiction of certain events and people. This can be clearly seen from the different portrayal of key figures in German and non-German encyclopedias. Due to hostile relationships between the Second French Empire and the Prussian State, Napoleon III was seen badly among Germans. In this same line, Meyers tends to refrain from praising the supporters of Napoleon and praise his opposition politicians. For instance, Ollivier is portrayed with a more positive viewpoint from Meyers than in Nordisk, mostly because Ollivier is the one who advocated that the French should admit defeat to the Prussians and took a pro-German stance afterwards. Another case is with Thiers, who strongly opposed the war against Prussia and was even criticized for not being patriotic in France. Whereas the Nordisk Familjebok describes him as a pro-Napoleon figure, Meyers separates him and Napoleon and makes no links between him and Napoleon.
            Second, the nature of encyclopedias then is clearly revealed. The belief that the encyclopedia should be memorable rather than objective is conveyed clearly throughout the articles, as almost all of them contain a more biased tone than the modern encyclopedia articles.
            With the Britannica Eleventh Edition, the difference in its structure is evident throughout its articles. Biographies of living people can be found, as is the case of Ollivier. The division of long articles into numerous sections can be found in the articles about the History of France, as the time period of 1815 to 1885 falls under three sections of the article, sections 18, 19, and 20.
            Third, the result due to the nature of all encyclopedias is shown in this analysis. Due to the numerous editors and the even greater number of contributors, maintaining a single position on the whole issue is impossible. The coverage of the same event on the article about the History of France is different from that containing a single individual. It may very well be due to the fact that two different people wrote these distinct articles.

VIII.2 Frequent Bias Analysis
            Going back to what kinds of bias the encyclopedia articles had based on the checklist, the following could be found.

            A. Omissions: Omissions could be found very frequently. When discussing an emperor, attempts for his life have not been mentioned; in portraying a dictator, his wasteful lifestyle is given no attention. These omissions serve the purpose of helping to create the image of the character or event the encyclopedia desires. Omissions are common as they are first harder to find - a comparison between numerous sources are necessary to find out. The second reason for its frequency in usage is that the intent of the writer is not as obvious to the reader. Whereas exaggerations, underestimations, factual mistake, and biased judgment can all be detected without much doubt after reading the article, the case with omission always leaves the writer with the excuse that not everything can be covered. This provides a convenient way to make an excuse and to avoid being criticized.
            B. Exaggeration: Exaggeration is mostly done with word choice. The article with Grevy on Nordisk Familjebok is a case where this turns evident.
            C. Underestimations. Underrated Portrayal: As with exaggeration, this is done with word choice and selection of topics.
            D. Factual Mistakes: These are the most uncommon and hard to find.
            E. Biased Judgment/Conclusion: With bias allowed and even encouraged to make the information memorable, biased judgment is rather common.

VIII.3 Conclusion by Encyclopedia
            1. The German encyclopedia is biased in comparison to other encyclopedias and takes an Anti-Napoleon position.
            2. The Swedish encyclopedia is much less biased than that of Meyers. Its position is mostly neutral.
            3. The Britannica is thorough, but it carries much more irrelevant information unlike the other two encyclopedias it does not make many evaluations on individuals or events, but focuses on a few major events of a certain individual and thoroughly develops upon it.

(1)      Coup d'etat from Merriam-Webster¡¯s Dictionary Online
(2)      Coup d'etat from Wikipedia
(3)      Coup d'etat from Cambridge Learners¡¯ Dictionary Online
(4)      16 May 1877 Crisis from Wikipedia
(5)      Timeline: France from WHKMLA
(6)      Article : French coup of 1851, from Wikipedia
(7)      Article: Encyclopedia Britannica from Wikipedia
(7a)      Article: Encyclopedia Britannica Eleventh Edition from Wikipedia
(8)      Article: Encyclopedia Britannica Eleventh Edition from Wikipedia
(9)      Article: Franco-Prussian War from Wikipedia

Bibliography The following websites were visited in October and November of 2009

Bibliographic Sources
1.      Bibliographies on the First and Second French Empires, from Primary Sources
2.      Napoleon III from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, English trsl. from WHKMLA
3.      Napoleon III from Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 Edition, posted by jrank
4.      Napoleon III from Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, English trsl. from WHKMLA
5.      Ollivier from Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, English trsl. WHKMLA
6.      Ollivier from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, English trsl. from WHKMLA
7.      Ollivier from Encyclopedia Britannica 1911, posted by jrank
8.      Cavaignac from Encyclopedia Britannica 1911, posted by jrank
9.      Cavaignac from Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, English trsl. from WHKMLA
10.      Cavaignac from Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, English trsl. from WHKMLA
11.      Dufaure from Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, English trsl. from WHKMLA
12.      Dufaure from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, English trsl. from WHKMLA
13.      Dufaure from Encyclopedia Britannica 1911, posted by jrank
14.      Grevy from Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, English trsl. from WHKMLA
15.      Grevy from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, English trsl. from WHKMLA
16.      Grevy from Encyclopedia Britannica 1911, posted by jrank
17.      Thiers from Nordisk Familjebok 1876-1899, English trsl. from WHKMLA
18.      Thiers from Meyer¡¯s Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, English trsl. from WHKMLA
19.      Thiers from Encyclopedia Britannica 1911, posted by jrank
20.      Boulanger from Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926, English trsl. from WHKMLA,
21.      Boulanger from Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 Edition, posted by jrank,
22.      Ferry from Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, English trsl. from WHKMLA,
23.      Ferry from Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926 English trsl. from WHKMLA,
24.      France, Section 18 from Encyclopedia Britannica 1902 Edition, posted by 1902 Encyclopedia,
25.      France, Section 19 from Encyclopedia Britannica 1902 Edition, posted by 1902 Encyclopedia,
26.      France, Section 20 from Encyclopedia Britannica 1902 Edition, posted by 1902 Encyclopedia
27.      Frankreich from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1902-1909 Edition, posted by Zeno, in German,
28.      Constans from Nordisk Familjebok 1904-1926 English trsl. from WHKMLA
29.      Constans from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1902-1909 Edition, posted by WHKMLA
30.      Constans from Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 Edition, posted by jrank

Secondary Sources
31.      Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, James Chastain, Encyclopedia of the 1848 Revolutions, 2004
32.      Article: French coup of 1851 from Wikipedia,
34.      French Peasants in Revolt : The Insurrection of 1851 by T. W. Margadant, (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1979), pp. 8-38. Online Version:
35.      The History of France, W. Scott Haine, Greenwood Press, 2000, pages used pp.102-109
36.      Article: 16 May 1877 Crisis from Wikipedia
37.      Article: Leon Gambetta from Wikipedia
38.      Timeline: France from WHKMLA
39.      Article: Encyclopaedia Britannica from Wikipedia
40.      Article: Encyclopedia Britannica Eleventh Edition from Wikipedia
41.      Article: Nordisk famijebok from
42.      Article: Franco-Prussian War from Wikipedia
43.      Article: Meyers-Konversations-Lexikon from Wikipedia
44.      Article: Nordisk Familjebok from Wikipedia

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