Back to WHKMLA Main Index . WHKMLA, Students' Papers Main Page . WHKMLA, Students' Papers, 14th Wave Index Page



Medieval Doors & Windows


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Park, Hyun
Term Paper, Medieval History Class, June 2009



Table of Contents


I. Introduction
II. Observation from the Movies
II.1 Windows
II.2 Doors
III. Doors & Windows from Different Periods
III.1 Romanesque Doors & Windows
III.1.1 What is Romanesque ?
III.1.2 Romanesque Doors & Windows
III.1.2.1 Arches
III.1.2.2 Archivolts
III.1.2.3 Stained Glass
III.1.2.4 Romanesque Doors
III.1.3 Romanesque Style in the Movies
III.2 Gothic Doors & Windows
III.2.1 What is Gothic ?
III.2.2 Gothic Doors & Windows
III.2.2.1 Arches
III.2.2.2 Stained Painted Glasses
III.2.2.3 Gothic Doors
III.2.3 Gothic Style in the Movies
IV. Doors & Windows from Different Types of Architecture
IV.1 Churches
IV.1.1 Symbolism of Cathedral Architecture Expressed in Doors & Windows
IV.2 Castles
IV.3 Houses
V. Materials
V.1 Window
V.1.1 Lead
V.1.2 Glass
V.2 Doors
V.1.2 Bronze
VI. Conclusion
Notes
Bibliography



I. Introduction
            Although many people became familiar with medieval culture through countless movies, the details are easily missed out or forgotten without being noticed, sometimes making it hard to answer very simple, basic questions. This paper covers one of those questions by elaborating further on what briefly appear on 5 movies, all of different time and places, ranging from 11th century Spain to 14th century Italy. It analyzes the doors and windows of medieval ages via periods, the types of architecture, and materials

II. Observation from the Movies

II.1 Windows
            In the castle where El Cid and his wife live, certain type of windows frequently appears. They are quite different from other windows, filled with invisible white parchment so that the light comes through but it is impossible to see through. Therefore some of those windows are movable, which enables the scene in which the princess looks out the window moved aside. However, some windows are immovable, which keeps them from having any function other than the source for light.
            The parchment windows with lead frames appear only in El Cid. Other movies usually have similar types of windows continuously appearing. Almost every movie contains the simplest type of windows, the arched openings with no special decorations. More developed, there are windows with archivolts, and then windows with patterned frames. There are also round shaped windows, rose windows. The Name of the Rose, based on 14th century, shows some elaborate stained glassed windows, and other glass windows with patterned frames.

II.2 Doors
            ?In the castle of movie El Cid, several different kinds of doors are displayed. The first one to be seen is a wooden door, which is also frequently seen in other medieval movies. It is made of several vertically long wooden planks. Those planks are connected with metallic nails or long hinges. The wooden door in El Cid is decorated with curled metal which is assumed to be lead, and this horizontally long metal fixed across the door seems to be preventing the wooden planks from getting detached. There are also bronze doors, which appears also in Becket. The bronze doors are embossed with delicate images, with splendid decorations.

III. Doors & Windows from Different Periods

III.1 Romanesque Doors & Windows

III.1.1 What is Romanesque ?
            The term "Romanesque", first applied in French by the archeologist Charles de Gerville in the early 19th century, was used to Western European architecture from the 5th to the 13th centuries. It is now used for more restricted period from late 10th to the 12th century. Combining Western Roman and Byzantine buildings, Romanesque architecture can be characterized by its massive quality, thick walls, round arches, sturdy pears, groin vaults, large towers and decorative arcading. Each building has clearly defined forms frequently based on very regular, symmetrical plan so that the overall appearance is more of simplicity compared to the buildings of following Gothic architecture. Although there are regional differences, this style appeared all across the European continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman Architecture. (1)

III.1.2 Romanesque Doors & Windows

III.1.2.1 Arches
            The most remarkable style of architecture in medieval ages is the arch. Every significant construction in the medieval times has arches frequently applied in it. The shape and style of the arches also change as the architectural style changes, so each period has its representative style of arches.
            ?Romanesque arches can be characterized as ¡®round arches¡¯. For most of the Romanesque buildings display repetition of simple arched windows, the characteristics of Romanesque arches can be easily seen in the windows. Most of the doors and windows were decorated with round arch shape, except for some small doors or windows. There are only very few exceptions such as Autun Cathedral of France which display pointed arches instead of round ones, which are considered to have imitated Islamic culture. (2)
            Arches in usual Romanesque buildings are what we are quite familiar with from most of the historical movies that show medieval castles. There are simple, round-arched windows, more suitable to be called ¡®openings¡¯ rather than ¡®windows¡¯. This is the type of openings that can be seen all over the castles in the movies we watched in the class such as El Cid, or Ivanhoe. What we are also familiar with is ¡®arcading¡¯, which means a continuous array of arched openings along the walls of buildings

III.1.2.2 Archivolts
            Many of the arches were decorated with archivolts, which is an ornamental molding or band following the underside of an arch. It is composed of bands of ornamental moldings, or architectural elements such as sculptures, surrounding an arched opening. (3)
            Archivolts can be seen in many doors and windows of medieval times. Usually archivolts of the windows (or openings) are thin and delicate compared to that of the doors. Large doors of churches or castles are often decorated with thick and splendid archivolts which have many layers of moldings, and the moldings are usually decorated with complex patterns.

III.1.2.3 Stained Glass Windows
            The oldest known fragments of medieval pictorial stained glass appear to date from the 10th century. The earliesat intact figures are five prophet windows in Augsburg dating from the late 11th century. The figures, though stiff and formalized, demonstrate considerable proficiency in design, both pictorially and in the functional use of the glass, indicating that their maker was well-accustomed to the medium (4). Early Romanesque stained glasses were influenced by former Byzantine art with its linear patterning. Most church windows depicted individual monumental figures with few tiers in lozenge shaped groupings. The Romanesque windows were relatively small, and therefore images in stained glass were made with predominantly red and blue glasses and surrounded by white glasses to let in as much light as possible. (5)

III.1.2.4 Romanesque Doors
            Although Romanesque doors are not categorized in many types with a name for each, they can be roughly divided into some kinds, each having common characteristics. In the movies set on Romanesque period, the most frequently seen are bronze doors and wooden doors. Most wooden doors are the kind of the door that was in the movie El Cid, long wooden planks connected with extended, decorative hinges. Romanesque bronze doors were embossed with sculptures, which frequently happened in Romanesque architecture. Many bronze doors were rectangular and were divided in smaller rectangular sections, with each section depicting historical figures or stories by embossed images, which was a prevalent technique in metalworks. Rectangular doors were usually decorated with stone tympanums, which are semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surfaces over entrances bounded by a lintel and arch. The tympanums were also decorated with sculptures of divine figures, also embossed. In addition to tympanums, doors, both bronze and wood, were frequently accompanied by huge archivolts decorated with several columns on each side.

III.1.3 Romanesque Style in the Movies
            Most of the architecture in the movies set on Romanesque period is rather primitive. The architectural structure and patterns used are relatively simple. The windows, most of them small and empty with round arch, especially display complete simplicity. Except for the parchment - lattice window in El Cid, most of the windows are just simple arched openings in stone buildings. One distinct form is the rose window, which appears in Brother Sun, Sister Moon. Flower shaped small openings are arranged in a circle shape, forming a beautiful rose window. However, this also has relatively simple feature.
            There are some typical Romanesque style doors. In the movie El Cid, there is a rectangular bronze door with sculptures embossed in many divided sections. In Brother Sun, Sister Moon, the church portal is decorated with splendid archivolt and sculptured tympanum, right beneath a rose window. Simple wooden doors made of many planks appear throughout almost all the movies. Most of the doors inside the buildings without the need to be decorated are the wooden doors, some with arch shape and some rectangular, with conspicuous hinges and nails. Overall, doors and windows in the movies show rather primitive architecture of Romanesque period.

III.2 Gothic Doors & Windows

III.2.1 What is Gothic ?
            Gothic architecture is a style of architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture.
            Originating in 12th-century France and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as "the French Style" (Opus Francigenum), with the term Gothic first appearing during the latter part of the Renaissance as a stylistic insult. Its characteristic features include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress.
            Romanesque architecture, had already established the basic architectural forms and units that were to remain in slow evolution throughout the medieval period. The widespread introduction of a single feature was to bring about the stylistic change that separates Gothic from Romanesque, and broke the tradition of massive masonry and solid walls penetrated by small openings, replacing it with a style where light appears to triumph over substance. The feature that brought the change is the pointed arch. With its use came the development of many other architectural devices, such as the flying buttresses, pinnacles and traceried windows which typify Gothic ecclesiastical architecture
            Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and parish churches of Europe. It is also the architecture of many castles, palaces, town halls, guild halls, universities, and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings.(6)

III.2.2 Gothic Doors & Windows

III.2.2.1 Arches
            The shapes of arches change with more diversity when it comes to Gothic architecture. The first difference is that most of the Gothic arches are pointed, unlike the round Romanesque arches. There are mainly three types of arch that were used in Gothic doors and windows
            The first is the arch with the simplest shape, which has long opening with a pointed arch known in England as the lancet. Lancet openings are often grouped, usually as a cluster of three or five. Lancet openings may be very narrow and steeply pointed. Salisbury Cathedral is famous for the beauty and simplicity of its Lancet Gothic, known in England as the Early English Style. York Minster has a group of lancet windows each fifty feet high and still containing ancient glass, known as the Five Sisters. These simple undecorated grouped windows are found at Chartres and Laon Cathedrals and are used extensively in Italy.
            Second type is Equilateral Arch. Many Gothic openings are based upon the equilateral form. In other words, when the arch is drafted, the radius is exactly the width of the opening and the centre of each arch coincides with the point from which the opposite arch springs. This makes the arch higher in relation to its width than a semi-circular arch which is exactly half as high as it is wide. The Equilateral Arch gives a wide opening of satisfying proportion useful for doorways, decorative arcades and big windows. The structural beauty of the Gothic arch means, however, that no set proportion had to be rigidly maintained. The Equilateral Arch was employed as a useful tool, not as a principle, therefore possible to become narrower or wider.
            The Equilateral Arch lends itself to filling with tracery of simple equilateral, circular and semi-circular forms. The type of tracery that evolved to fill these spaces is known in England as Geometric Decorated Gothic and can be seen to splendid effect at many English and French Cathedrals, notably Lincoln and Notre Dame in Paris. Windows of complex design and of three or more lights or vertical sections, are often designed by overlapping two or more equilateral arches.
            The last one is the Flamboyant Arch, which is one that is drafted from four points, the upper part of each main arch turning upwards into a smaller arc and meeting at a sharp, flame-like point. These arches create a rich and lively effect when used for window tracery and surface decoration. The form is structurally weak and has very rarely been used for large openings except when contained within a larger and more stable arch. Some of the most beautiful and famous traceried windows of Europe employ this type of tracery. It can be seen at St Stephen's Vienna, Sainte Chapelle in Paris, at the Cathedrals of Limoges and Rouen in France, and at Milan Cathedral in Italy.
            Doorways surmounted by Flamboyant moldings are very common in both ecclesiastical and domestic architecture in France. They are much rarer in England. A notable example is the doorway to the Chapter Room at Rochester Cathedral. The style was much used in England for wall arcading and niches. Prime examples in are in the Lady Chapel at Ely, the Screen at Lincoln and externally on the fa?ade of Exeter Cathedral. In German and Spanish Gothic architecture it often appears as openwork screens on the exterior of buildings. The style was used to rich and sometimes extraordinary effect in both these countries, notably on the famous pulpit in Vienna Cathedral. (7)

III.2.2.2 Stained and Painted Glass
            Gothic architecture actually began in the 12th century, when Abbot Suger tried to fill his abbey church of St. Denis with ¡°the most radiant windows¡±, by his explanation. As architectural structure was strengthened in Gothic period with the aid of the pointed arch and the flying buttress, spaces could be cut away for larger window casements. This allowed Gothic architecture to have more light.
            Gothic stained glass was actually ¡°stained and painted¡± glass, which was made by unique procedures. First, colored glass known as "metal" was made by adding various metallic oxides to the crucibles in which the glass was melted. Cobalt gave blue, copper green, iron red, gold cranberry, silver yellows and gold, copper makes greens and brick red. The molten glass was then blown and shaped into sheets. However, natural pot-metal glass colored blue or red was too dark to transmit much light, so the medieval glazier hit on the technique of applying(or "flashing") a thin layer of the colored glass on to a sheet of white glass, thus getting over the problem. After panes of glass were cut according to an overall pattern, the pieces of glass were painted with faces, folds of draperies, inscriptions, etc. using black pigment. Pieces baked in a kiln. Panes bound with grooved, leaden strips. Windows would be made in extremely heavy panels. Panels would be placed, one by one, in the window opening and held in place by iron "saddle bars" set in the masonry to which they were tied by copper wire strips soldered onto the leads. (8)

III.2.2.3 Gothic Doors
            The pointed arch enabled constructing higher buildings, or windows. This was characteristically enhanced by the architectural features and the decoration of the buildings. Doors were decorated with vertical molding which emphasizes the vertical and is often attenuated. In the arch of the door, tympanum, a Romanesque tradition, portrayed significant piece of sculpture, most frequently Christ in Majesty and Judgment Day. If there is a central door jamb or tremeu, it frequently bore a statue of Madonna and Child. Italian churches often had colorful mosaics in the lunettes over the doors. (9)

III.2.2.4 Gothic Style in the Movies
            Among the movies from the class, only two are in the middle of Gothic period - The Name of the Rose and Kristin Lavransdatter. Kristin Lavransdatter more focused on mediocre life and marriage than the life in a castle or a monastery, therefore scarcely depicting architectural elements that show the art of Gothic architecture.
            The movie The Name of the Rose is based on 14th century Italy, which means the setting of the movie is on Gothic era. Although because most of the scenes take place in a humble Franciscan abbey it is hard to find the splendor of gothic architecture, still various Gothic elements can be seen in doors and windows of the movie. In the movie, there are many arched windows with a lattice. Some windows are not in the shape of typical pointed arch, they do have Gothic aspects in long, high windows. There is also one scene with the example of pointed flamboyant arch window. Looking rather simple, the window has one circle and two arch elements. Two uniquely shaped arch windows meet at the top with a flower shaped opening. They are again held in a large pointed arch. This is what we could not see from other movies based on Romanesque period.
            Other than this, the movie also shows delicate stained glass window, which has similar shape with the pointed arch window. The stained glass with a lattice is decorated with colored windows of geometric figures, instead of historical figure or story. Other doors and windows in the movie are mostly small and square shaped, which shows the humble environment of the abbey.

IV. Doors & Windows from Different Types of Architecture

IV.1 Churches

IV.1.1 Symbolism of Cathedral Architecture expressed in Doors & Windows
            Cathedrals, not only medieval but from all times, always are full of symbolism which conveys messages. Medieval cathedrals therefore show how medieval people were, and what their belief was
            Cathedrals usually embodied the shape of the cross. They were almost always built from the east, but the most important part was usually the west end - the entrance. The west entrance symbolized the gate to heaven, so it was often decorated with the most elaborate design and artistic effort. This can be seen in some movies such as Brother Sun, Sister Moon, the single most magnificent door in the movie is the entrance to a church. Like many other church portals, it is decorated with huge archivolts and tympanum. The embossed image on tympanum was one of the effective ways to depict the message of the church. A common theme used in the entrance -not only on tympanum- was the baptism of the Christ, so that people could be reminded of entering God¡¯s world. Another common design was the changing of seasons and the labors of each season. (10)
            Another distinct symbolism of the churches was done by the stained glass windows. The stained glass contained instructive scenes from Scripture and church history. Symbols were often used in these portrayals, a lily for chastity, a lamb for Christ our Sacrifice, for example. Sometimes there were quite complex allegories, such as parallel windows of types and anti-types

IV.2 Castles
            In castles, openings for light were mostly either loops or windows. Loops were too small to provide good views, but windows offered little protection. There were no windows and very few loops in the basement and first floor areas for protection reason. Usually loops were without any closure except for thick curtains. The second and third floor often had windows fitted with seats. Large windows were closed with wooden shutters or parchment.
            In the 11th century, windows above the first floor were about 4 feet high and 12 to 18 inches wide. The windows were either rectangular or round-arched, and were splayed at the end of a tall, wide recess. By ¡®splayed¡¯, it means that the opening widens as it progresses inwards. Although these early windows did not let much light in, they provided good protection from incoming missiles.(11) These windows are well portrayed in movies such as Ivanhoe or El Cid.

IV.3 Houses
            Two medieval houses -not castles- appear in the movie Ivanhoe. One is Cedric¡¯s house, and the other is Isaac¡¯s house. The only medieval houses that survive these days are the houses of the wealthy, for they are made from strong materials. Cedric and Isaac¡¯s houses both represent the wealthy houses of middle ages, but in different style.
            In late medieval period, houses of the rich were often made out of brick. However, brick was way too expensive, so many chose half-timbered houses, or ¡®Tudor houses¡¯, as an alternative.(12) Cedric¡¯s house is one of them, but a rather primitive and simple one. The windows of Cedric¡¯s house are similar to windows in castles, arched openings with stone frames, without any glass. The entrance is also arched with stone archivolt, with a wooden door. Tudor houses usually often had glassed windows. With defending walls and a moat, Cedric¡¯s house rather has castle aspects.
            Isaac, the wealthy Jew, owns a brick house. This brick house has a wooden rectangular gate with a simple tympanum and archivolt. There is one more door inside the house, an arched wooden door with extended hinges. In the movie, a square window with a small wooden closing also appears. This is similar with some windows in the movie Becket, which have two sided wooden closings.
            Brother Sun Sister Moon also shows several medieval houses, mostly made out of stone brick. Most of the windows are empty openings, either arched or rectangular. Some windows are covered with cloth connected a branch. This cloth protected the houses from rain or strong sunlight. Occasionally, there is a hole in the middle of the cloth close to the branch, so that people stick a Y-shaped branch inside it and uncover the window. Some windows have simple balconies with wooden handrails.

V. Materials

V.1 Windows

V.1.1 Lead
            In El Cid, many windows have net shaped beautiful frames which are made out of lead. These lead networks, called ¡®cames¡¯ or ¡®calms¡¯, are used to connect fragments of glass. The oldest written source on the production and use of lead cames for windows still in existence is the manuscript of the monk Theophilus, written around 1120. In medieval times, lead was cast into two-piece wooden or iron molds to form the typical H-profile cames.(13) The form changed as time passed.

V.1.2 Glass
            Unlike today, only few windows were covered with glass in the middle ages. Made out of sand with high silica content, only limited amounts of glass with crude shape and quality of metal were produced.(14) In the 11th century, German craftsmen brought a change in the technique for the production of glass sheets used in windows, which was later utilized by Venetian glassmakers in the 13th century. These middle age windows were made by blowing a hollow glass sphere and swinging it vertically, where gravity would pull the glass into a cylindrical pod. While the glass was still molten, the cylinder would be cut into shape and laid flat.(15) It is hard to find glass windows in the movies, except for some in The Name of the Rose. Because of the scarcity of glass, medieval people used alternative materials, such as parchment.

V.2 Doors

V.2.1 Bronze
            In the movies, bronze door appears at least once in every significant building. Bronze expands and then contracts when solidifying, making it ideal for casting. Cast bronze can be decorated by such techniques as engraving, inlaying, enamelling, demascening, niello work and gilding. When used for doors, individual bronze panels or groups of panels can be secured to a wooden frame, or doors can be cast as a single unit. (16) The panels were often decorated with historical figures or stories, many with divine purpose. These doors can be found in castles and churches of the movies such as El Cid, Becket, or Brother Sun Sister Moon.

VI. Conclusion
            The architecture in past, especially doors and windows, mostly had similar architectural structure, usually in limited number of forms. They might all look the same, but when observed in detail there were distinct differences, according to the period or the purpose of architecture.
            Medieval architecture can be divided into mainly two periods: Romanesque and Gothic. Each had distinct characteristics which appeared all over Europe. Romanesque period can be characterized by primitive and symmetric style, whereas splendid and less regular style flourished in Gothic period.
            Even within one period, architectural rules were not always applied the same everywhere. Rather, the type of architecture affected the style of doors and windows greatly. Especially the private houses were scarcely influenced by the dominant style of the period. In churches, doors and windows existed for symbolism, while they had defensive and esthetical purpose in castles.
            Medieval doors and windows were made out of quite limited kinds of materials compared to nowadays. Still, people in middle ages developed various techniques for various materials. Although some are missed out, typical materials and construction skills can be seen in the movies.

VII. Notes
           
(1)      Wikipedia article: Romanesque Architecture
(2)      Ibid.
(3)      Wikipedia article: Archivolt
(4)      Wikipedia article: Romanesque Architecture
(5)      Stained Glass Windows - History/Glossary/Online Examples
(6)      Wikipedia article: Gothic Architecture
(7)      Ibid.
(8)      Stained Glass Windows - History/Glossary/Online Examples
(9)      Wikipedia article: Gothic Architecture
(10)      HubPages - article ¡°Medieval Cathedrals of Europe¡±
(11)      Castles-of-britain.com ? Castle learning center : Castle Windows
(12)      Historyonthenet.com : Medieval Life ? Housing
(13)      Medieval lead window from Pedralbes and Altenberg ? A comparative study
(14)      Castles-of-britain.com ? Castle learning center : Castle Windows
(15)      Glass Blowing During the Middle Ages
(16)      Medieval Bronze Doors in Italian Churches 1060-1200


Bibliography Note : websites quoted below were visited in June 2009.
1.      Sacred Destination ? ¡°Romanesque Architecture¡± http://www.sacred-destinations.com/reference/romanesque-architecture.htm
2.      Article : Romanesque Architecture, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanesque_architecture
3.      Article : Archivolt, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archivolt
4.      List of Romanesque Architecture, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Romanesque_architecture
5.      Stained Glass Windows ? History, Glossary, Online Examples, from Buffalo as an Architectural Museum http://www.buffaloah.com/a/DCTNRY/mat/stained/stained.html
6.      Article: Romanesque Art, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanesque_art
7.      Article : Gothic Architecture, from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gothic_architecture
8.      Middle Ages ? Medieval Resources, from themiddleages.net http://www.themiddleages.net/
9.      Medieval Architecture : The Rose Window, by Eldred Aelfwald http://dragon_azure.tripod.com/UoA/Med-Arch-Rose-Window.html
10.      Catholic Encyclopedia 1907 ed. : Rose Window http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15653a.htm
11.      Medieval Bronze Doors in Italian Churches 1060-1200, from Paradox Place http://www.paradoxplace.com/Church_Stuff/Bronze_Doors/Bronze_Doors.htm
12.      Medieval Church Architecture, from History Learning Site http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/medieval_church_architecture.htm
13.      HubPages - article ¡°Medieval Cathedrals of Europe¡±http://hubpages.com/hub/Cathedral
14.      Medieval Cathedrals, by Claymore Slinger http://www.claymoreslinger.com/medieval_cathedral.asp
15.      Castles-of-britain.com - Castle learning center : Castle Windows http://www.castles-of-britain.com/castlezd.htm
16.      Historyonthenet.com : Medieval Life ? Housing http://www.historyonthenet.com/Medieval_Life/houses.htm
17.      Medieval lead window from Pedralbes and Altenberg ? A comparative study, by Fernando Cortez Pizano, 1999 http://www.fcpcrv.com/images/pdf/article_friburg_1999.pdf
18.      THE CONSERVATION GLOSSARY ? ¡°Cames¡± http://www.trp.dundee.ac.uk/research/glossary/cames.html
19.      Corrosion Doctors - ¡°Lead in History¡± http://corrosion-doctors.org/Elements-Toxic/Lead-history.htm
20.      History of Glass Making, from Kinsale Crystal http://www.kinsalecrystal.ie/history.htm
21.      Glass Blowing During the Middle Ages, by Martin Bressi http://www.helium.com/items/1451090-glass-blowing-during-the-middle-ages
22.      El Cid (1961), directed by Anthony Mann, 182 min.
23.      Becket (1964), directed by Peter Grenville, 148 min.
24.      Ivanhoe (1952), directed by Rochard Thorpe, 106 min.
25.      Brother Sun, Sister Moon (1972), directed by Franco Zeffirelli, 135 min.
26.      The Name of the Rose (1986), directed by Jean-Jacques Annaud, 130 min.


Back to WHKMLA Main Index . WHKMLA, Students' Papers Main Page . WHKMLA, Students' Papers, 14th Wave Index Page