Back to WHKMLA Main Index . WHKMLA, Students' Papers Main Page . WHKMLA, Students' Papers, 15th Wave Index Page



The Later Roman Empire, 284-395 CE : A Collage of Places

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Lee, Chunghyun
Term Paper, AP World History Class, October 2013



Table of Contents

I. Introduction
I.1 Method of Study
I.2 Scope of Study
II. Religion
II.1 Basilica of St. John Lateran
II.2 Nicaea
II.3 The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
III. Military
III.1 Hadrian's Wall
III.2 The Walls of Constantinople
III.3. Castra Regina
IV. Living Quarters
IV.1. Insula, Ostia
IV.2 The Palace of Diocletian
V. Economy
V.1 Latifundia
V.2. Macellum of Pozzuoli
VI. Culture
VI.1 Baths of Diocletian
VI.2 Circus Maximus
VI.3. Biblioteca Ulpia
VII. Conclusion
VIII. Notes
IX. Bibliography
I. Introduction
            I.1 Method of Study
            This paper, as the title infers, is about the places of the late Roman Empire between 284 CE and 395 CE. By first selecting the places of the late Roman Empire which may epitomize the prevalent atmosphere at that time, the paper will try to convey a representation of that era. The beginning of the period selected is marked by Diocletian becoming the emperor who took over the throne after incessant civil wars. The Roman Empire underwent vigorous reforms under the reign of Diocletian and Constantine, the emperor who succeeded Diocletian. Later the Roman Empire is split into two - Western and Eastern - with Theodosius as emperor in 395 CE.(1)
            The late Roman Empire enjoyed a tranquil and prosperous time after the civil wars in the mid 3rd century. Due to the seemingly stable economy- which was actually decimating due to increased expenditure from the government and the people - people grew extravagant and lavish. (2) One of the factors that marked the start of the decline of the Roman Empire is known to be due to the increased military spending, as a result of incessant civil wars. In order to settle the chaos, the emperors tried to recognize Christianity as Religio Licitia (3), and later an official religion of the Roman Empire.
            This paper will try to analyze the later Roman Empire through the places in the fields of military, culture, religion, and living quarters of people. The reason for selecting such fields is because the culture, living quarters and economy of the era that can convey the unstable atmosphere of the Later Roman Empire that led to the decline of the empire.

I.2 Scope of Study
            By selecting exemplary places of each field, this paper will try to create a form of collage which will help understand the situation of the later Roman Empire. By setting an example of each field, this paper will examine the overall history of the place, even including a brief explanation before the set time period of the paper, basic structure of the architecture or the location, features of the place, and what happened after the set time period. Also, this paper will include sites of cities which are related with an important event.
            The regions subject to study will be cities or areas that were under the reign and influence of the Roman Empire during 284 CE to 395 CE.

II. Religion
            II.1 Basilica of St. John Lateran

Image 1 : Basilica of St. John Lateran


            The most political question of the Constantine's reign was that of relations with the Christian Church. Christianity, which underwent severe persecution before, was one of the causes of the civil war. In order to settle the chaos, Constantine chose to embrace Christianity as the religion of the country. He ordered the end of the Christian persecution and proclaimed freedom of worship for all through Edict of Milan(4) He went to the extent of founding a Christian capital, Constantinople.
            Basilica of St. John Lateran was erected by Constantine in 324 C.E in the site of a palace that belonged to a noble. In ancient times, the site of San Giovanni Laterano was occupied by the place of the family of the Laternai. The mansion was dedicated as a Roman church by Constantine in 318. It was embellished with beautiful decorations given by Constantine, who was active in encouraging Christianity. From the fifth century there were seven oratories surrounding the basilica. These before long were incorporated in the church. The devotion of visiting these oratories, which held its ground all through the medieval period, gave rise to the similar devotion of the seven altars, still common in many churches of Rome and else where.(5)

II.2 Nicaea

Image 2 : Location of Nicaea


            Nicaea was a Hellenic city in northwestern Anatolia, and is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea To be brief, the main accomplishments of the first and second councils of Nicaea were settlement of the Trinitarian issue of the nature of The Son and his relationship to God the Father, the construction of the first part of the Creed of Nicaea, settling the calculation of the date of Easter, and promulgation of early canon law. The year 325 is accepted without hesitation as that of the First Council of Nicaea. There is less agreement among our early authorities as to the month and day of the opening. The date may, perhaps, be taken as 20 May (6) The Council was opened by Constantine with the greatest solemnity. He was clad in gold and covered with precious stones in the fashion of an Oriental sovereign. A chair of gold had been made ready for him. After he had been addressed in a hurried allocution, the emperor made an address in Latin, expressing his will that religious peace should be re-established. He had opened the session as honorary president, and he had assisted at the subsequent sessions, but the direction of the theological discussions was abandoned, as was fitting, to the ecclesiastical leaders of the council.
            The emperor began by making the bishops understand that they had a greater and better business in hand than personal quarrels and interminable recriminations. Nevertheless, he had to submit to the infliction of hearing the last words of debates which had been going on previous to his arrival. Eusebius of Caesarea and his two abbreviators, Socrates and Sozomen, as well as Rufinus and Gelasius of Cyzicus, report no details of the theological discussions.(7)
            The symbol of the First Council of Nicaea is as following (literal translation) : "We believe in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible; and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten of the Father, that is, of the substance [ek tes ousias] of the Father, God of God, light of light, true God of true God, begotten not made, of the same substance with the Father [homoousion to patri], through whom all things were made both in heaven and on earth; who for us men and our salvation descended, was incarnate, and was made man, suffered and rose again the third day, ascended into heaven and cometh to judge the living and the dead. And in the Holy Ghost. Those who say: There was a time when He was not, and He was not before He was begotten; and that He was made out of nothing or who maintain that He is of another hypostasis or another substance [than the Father], or that the Son of God is created, or mutable, or subject to change, [them] the Catholic Church anathematizes." (8)
            The adhesion was general and enthusiastic. Almost all the bishops declared themselves ready to subscribe to this formula, convince that it contained the ancient faith of the Apostolic Church. With information derived from one source or another, a list of 232 or 237 fathers known to have been present may be constructed.(9) Other matters dealt with by this council were the controversy as to the time of celebrating Easter and the Meletian schism.(10) Such city at that time is the epitome of the religion of that time, a period which could be called the reconciliation period between Christianity and Paganism. Also the fact that the Nicaean council was held in the city adds to the significance of the city.

II.3. The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
            The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maxius, also called the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was located in the Capitoline Hill of the ancient Rome. It was first built in 509 BCE, dedicated for Jupiter, Juno and Minerva - the Triad. However it was burnt in 83 BCE during the civil wars under Sulla - the Sibylline Books, books written by classical sibyls, were burnt with the temple. Quintus Lutatius Catulus rebuilt the temple in 69 BC, and was further renovated by Augustus (27 BCE-14 CE). The temple was destroyed again in 69 CE during invasion of the army of Vespasian of the city. Vespasian rebuilt the temple in 75 CE only to be burned in the great fire of 80CE. Domitian began rebuilding the temple, and completed in 82 CE.(11)
            The original temple measured 60m x 60m. Each sculpture of the Triad had a seperate cellar, with Jupiter place in the middle, Minerva on the right, and Juno on the left. The temple was expanded as it was rebuilt in the future, and the 4th rebuilding by Domitian was the most lavish one. It is known that Domitian used more than 12,000 talents of gold in the gliding of the temple's roof, and the columns were cut form Pentelic marble (12) The temple in the capitol was perceived as the most magnificent architecture of Rome, as referred in Ammianus's description of Serapeum in Alexandria: "Serapeum is such that mere words can only do it an injustice, but its great halls of columns and its wealth of lifelike statues and other works of art make it, next to the Capitol, which is the symbol of the eternity of immemorial Rome, the most magnificent building in the whole world" (13) Also, Ammianus describes the temple as "beside which all else is like earth compared to heaven" (14) The temple was the center of the city, of annual festivals and senates.
            However, the temple was abandoned in 392 CE when emperor Theodosius closed all pagan temples. It is said that "the speldour of the Captiol was defaced" (15) During the fifth century the temple was damaged with people taking away the adorning materials and statue removed by Narses, a Roman general. The ruins were preserved until 16th century, when Giovanni Pietro Caffarelli built Palazzo Caffarelli on the site.

Image 3 : The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus

III. Military
            III.1. Hadrian's Wall

Images 4 (left) : Location of Hadrian's Wall, 5 (right) : Hadrian's Wall

Hadrian's Wall extended west from Segedunum at Wallsend on the River Tyne, via Carlisle and Kirkandrews-on-Eden, to the shore of the Although the curtain wall (16) ends near Bowness-on-Solway, this does not mark the end of the line of defensive structures.
            At 43 AD, the Emperor Claudius sent Aulus Plautius and about 24,000 soldiers to Britain, this time to establish control under a military presence Under emperor Vespian's instructions the governor of Britian, Julius Agricola, subdued the Pictish clans, who lived in modern day southern Scotland, by 81 AD. However, conquering all the tribes up in the north was almost impossible.
            By the time Hadrian became Emperor in 117 AD the Roman Empire had ceased to expand. Hadrian was concerned to consolidate his boundaries. He visited the area which is now Britain in 122 AD, and ordered a wall to be built between the Solway Firth (17) in the West and the River Tyne in the east "to separate Romans from Barbarians".
            The majority of the wall was built of stone. At first 10 Roman Feet wide, and later 8, it began in the east and reached the river Irthing near present day Carlisle, from there it continues west to the Solway Firth. Milecastles (18) were placed at regular intervals. Each pair of Milecastles had two Turrets (19) between them. Turrets could shelter some soldiers though they may have served primarily as look-out vantage points. During six years of building the wall reached its final basic form: From the south; an earth mound, then a ditch and further mound, then an open area on which a road was built to allow easy access to all parts of the wall all along its length, then the main wall itself, and just to the north of that, a deep ditch.
            During the fourth century, the Wall's function as a barrier declined as Roman power waned. Bede writes about the Wall in the seventh century as being eight feet (2.4 m) wide and twelve feet (3.6 m) high. The Wall was undoubtedly a handy source of stone for a number of new buildings, including new monasteries at Jarrow, Monkwearmouth and Lindisfarne.
            The decline of the Hadrian's wall as a fort implies the decline of the Roman powers. The Roman Empire which used to control almost up until the Northern Britain withered, thus leaving the once big and invincible Hadrian's wall out of use.

Image 6 : Location of Hadrian's Wall on a Map of Europe


III.2 The Walls of Constantinople

Image 7, Map of Istanbul showing Wall of Constantinople

The Walls of Constantinople are a series of defensive stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople, today Istanbul, Turkey. They are largely divided into two parts: the land walls and the sea walls. With numerous additions and modifications during their history, they were the last great fortification system of antiquity, and one of the most complex and elaborate systems ever built, which protected Constantinople unlike the Western Roman Empire.
            Initially built by Constantine the Great, the walls surrounded the new city on all sides, protecting it against attack from both sea and land. As the city grew, the famous double line of the Theodosian Walls (20) was built in the 5th century. The advent of gunpowder threatened the walls, but it was not advanced enough to be decisive enough alone to capture the city, with the walls being repaired. Ultimately, the city walls proved valid until the city fell from sheer force of Ottoman forces on 1453 after a 6-week attack.
            The new wall protecting Constantinople was about 2.8km west of the Severan wall. Constantine's fortification consisted of a single wall, reinforced with towers at regular distances, which began to be constructed in 324 C.E. and was completed under his son Constantius II. Only the approximate course of the wall is known: it began at the Church of St. Anthony at the Golden Horn, ran southwest and then southwards and ended near the Church of the Theotokos of the Rhabdos on the Propontis coast.(21)
            Already by the early 5th century, Constantinople had expanded outside the Constantinian Wall. The wall survived during much of the Byzantine period, even though it was replaced by the Theodosian Walls as the city's primary defense. Only traces of the wall appear to have survived in later ages. The seaward walls enclosed the city on the sides of the Sea of Marmara (Propontis) and the gulf of the Golden Horn. Although the original city of Byzantium certainly had sea walls, traces of which survive, the exact date for the construction of the medieval walls is a matter of debate.(22) Traditionally, the seaward walls have been attributed by scholars to Constantine I, along with the construction of the main land wall. The known gates of the Golden Horn wall may be traced in order from the Blachernae eastwards to the Seraglio Point.

III.3 Castra Regina
            Castra Regina was first constructed as the legionary camp of the Roman army along the Danube river, Germany. It was founded in 179 AD by Roman emperor Marcus Aruelius. The Legio III Italica was stationed in the castra. (23) The Castra was destroyed several times during the Germanic invasions in 3rd century, and was attacked by Juthungi, a Germanic tribe in the northern region of the Danube river in 357.(24)
            Originally it was constructed out of earth and timber but later was rebuilt using stones. A vicus, where civilians stayed, was located on the main road between Castra Regina and Augsburg, a nearby fancient German city. The castra also had large baths which included facilities such as caldarium, tepidarium, and firgidarium. The stone walls and buildings still remain today. (25)
            In the beginning of the 5th century, the regular roman troops withdrew but the castra still frequently attacked by Teutonic tribes, an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin (26), until it was occupied by the Bavarians around the start of the 6th century, and once was the capital city of Bavaria.

Image 8 : Map of Castra Regina

IV. Living Quarters
            IV.1 Insula, Ostia
            The traditional structure of the Roman house underwent numerous transformations that reflected changes going on in Roman society. The Roman architecture, an Insula was a kind of apartment building that housed most of the urban citizen population of Rome. The goal of the construction was for the maximum exploitation of the area. The ground-level floor of the insula was used for shops and the businesses, with the living space up stairs. Living quarters were typically smallest in the building's uppermost floors, with the largest and most expensive apartments being located on the bottom floors. The large blocks of building in Ostia are an excellent example of the new building model. The four-or-five-story buildings had independent apartments that faced the street or internal courtyards, were directly accessible by stairs, and were connected by wide galleries of external arcades; inside the apartments, which were illuminated by large windows, the space was exploited to the maximum, with partitions and intermediate floors. The Insula formed a long, narrow structure on two parallel streets.

Image 9 : Insula of Ostia


IV.2 The Palace of Diocletian

Image 10 : Imagined View of Diocletian's Palace


            The Diocletian's Palace is a building in Split, Croatia, that was built by the Roman emperor Diocletian in the beginning of the fourth century. It measures 215m from east to west and the walls are 26m high. It was originally constructed as a palace in which retired emperor Diocletian could live, and is now used as a commercial and residential center.
            The ground plan of the palace is an irregular rectangle with towers protecting form the western, northern and eastern facades. Only the Southern facadee was unfortified. It was a mixture of a luxurious villa with a military camp. The gates each in between the facades led to an enclosed courtyard. The transverse road linking the Eastern gate and the Western gate divided the palace into two. The southern half were the more luxurious structure including the apartment of the emperor. The northern half of the palace was mainly the residential complex, housing soldiers and servants. (27)
            They symmetrical layout of the structure with its two intersecting streets is classical but most of the palace reflects the eclecticism of late antiquity

V. Economy
            V.1 Latifundia
            Latifundium is a large piece of contiguous land that belongs to a single individual or family, Latifundia is the plural form of the word. (28) It first started as the collection of the spoils of the successful warfare in Italy and Sicily in the 2nd century BC. Latifundia could focus on producing livestock or olive oil, and wine - Roman Latifundia didn't produce grain. There is no specific record of how the Latifundium's looked like, but the conjectures are that the Latifundium was consisted of many small unit farms which operated separately.(29) According to the inscriptions found in Veleia, the properties were "extremely fragmented, and was commonly one substantial property that overshadowed the rest" (30) The biggest properties mentioned located in magna Graecia, Itlay, and Sicily, Italy.
            Later by the mid 2nd century, Latifundia was perceived as the degradation of rich Romans because Latifundia was deeply related with slave labor, often including those with criminal records, and because free citizens were at higher risk of downgrading into a dependent labor force.(31) However, Latifundia still continued to exist even after the Western Roman Empire collapsed, and grew to become a economically significant basis of the later divided Europe.

Image 11 : Roman Mosaic featuring Latifundium

V.2 Macellum of Pozzuoli
            The city of Dicearchia which was founded originally by the Greek refugees was integrated in to the Roman empire in 194 BC. The macellum was built between the late first and early second century AD.(32) Macellum was market buildings which sheltered shops in taberna, or shop stalls. The Forum was known to have had similar functions with the macellum, a center for economic hub. However, Macelllums are only found in cities which specialized economically in certain objects: for example, Macellum at Pompeii specialized in fish commerce. (33)
            The Macellum was a square area which was surrounded by 36 shops with entrances both facing outside and inside, and a fountain was in the center. Later, the fountain was decorated with 16 African marbles. (34) The great entrance to the Macellum was on the southern part of the structure, and in the opposite of the entrance was an apse with latrines in each corner. The Macellum was surrounded by a one-story building of shops. The whole structure was domed, with Corinthia Columns supporting the roof. (35)
            The geography of the city of Pozzuoli was subject to several slow earthquakes, which led to continuous submergence and uplift of the area: the land was submerged during the late Roman period but rose around 700CE to 800 CE, submerged again and rose around 1500s.

Image 12 : Macellum of Pozzuoli

VI. Culture
            VI.1 Baths of Diocletian
            Beginning in the second century B.C, when the baths were small and were only reserved for men only. Public baths grew tremendously in the Empire. The great majority of Romans later enjoyed public bath, the holy Thermae, both men and women by paying one quadrans (36) Usually, the nobles or the country supported such bath that no entrance fee was charged to people. In the middle of the 4th century, the baths were no longer simply building for hygiene; rather they were enormous recreation centers, fully equipped with gymnasia, gardens, libraries, and reading rooms in addition to the baths themselves. The Baths of Diocletian was the largest among the public baths. Although many baths of the Roman Empire had similar elements, the Baths of Diocletian were unique by their size. The Baths of Diocletian, completed in 306 C.E occupy the high-ground on the northeast summit of the Viminal, the smallest of the Seven hills of Rome (37) The water supply was provided by the Aqua Marcia (38)
            The baths take up 120,000 square meter of the district. The capacity of the Baths of Diocletian was much larger in comparison, due to the fact that the entrance and rooms were made larger than other baths in block size. The picture is the floor plan of the Baths of Diocletian. Number 1 refers to the Caldarium, 2 to Tepidarium, 3 to Frigidarium, 4 to Natatio, 5 to Palaestra, 6 to main entrance and 7 to exedra. Many of the rooms have been preserved because various parts later were converted to Basilicas or churches. (39)
            The word Frigidarium originates from Latin and means 'cold tubs'. The Frigidarium consisted of a pool and a host of smaller baths connected to the main room. The prominence of the room and its conjoining rooms showed the increase in poluarity cold baths had during the early 4th century compared to the hot baths. This may have been due to the lack of fuels resulting from the depletion of local forests. The frigidarium was used mainly as a swimming pool or a cold-water bath, depending on the time. People would use the Frigidarium after the Caldarium or after exercising in Palaestra. It is belived that Frigidarium was used as a social room (40)
            The Caldarium means 'hot tubs' The Caldarium was the principle bath chamber within the baths. The room was used as a hot-water bath or saunas or steam rooms. Dressing rooms, also known as Apodyteria, were located on either side of the Calderium. Along the sides of the Caldarium were private rooms that are believed to have had multiple functions, including private baths, poetry readings, rhetoricians, etc.
            The Tepidarium refers to the lukewarm baths which means a bath merely hot but not cold. Natatio referred to an open- air bathing pool, usually swimming pool, Palaestra to an gymnasium or exercise ground, and Exedra to the rooms off the Palaestra used for relaxation (41)
            As the structure of the bath shows, the baths of the late Roman Empire, especially the Baths of Diocletian were the center for the leisure, debates, politics, and social interactions. Slave supported the Baths; they were the ones who maintained the Baths and kept the place running. People would hire or bring slaves to bathe them. Such big and extravagant public bath epitomizes the culture of the Late Roman Empire

Image 13 : Baths of Diocletian, Plan


VI.2 Circus Maximus
            Chariot races were immensely popular and although very dangerous: they lacked the intentional brutality of the man-and-beast fights. They took places in one of the five or six circuses in Imperial Rome of which the biggest and the oldest was the Circus Maximus. The Circus Maximus remained in use throughout the alte antiquity, the last races being organized in 549 by the last king of the Ostrogoths, Totila.
            The performance space of the Roman Circus was normally an oblong rectangle of two linear sections of race track. The race tracks were separated by a median strip running along the length of about two thirds the track, joined at on e end with a semi circular section and at the other end with an undivided section of track by starting gate known as Carceres. The Circus of Maximus epitomizes the designs or circuses of the late Roman Empire.
            The performance surface of the circus was normally surrounded by ascending seating along the length of both straight sides and around the curved end - The Circus Maximus is known to have had possessed the capacity to hold 250,000 spectators.(42) The charioteers were usually slave or men of low class, and none of them were specialized enough to survive.
            The Circus Maximus, the epitome of the chariot racing grounds shows the culture of the Late Roman Empire.

Image 14 : Circus Maximus, Plan


VI.3. Biblioteca Ulpia
            The first Roman libraries were private, collections seized by glorious battles from Greece and Asia Minor. There were no public libraries in Rome before the first century BC, and Caesar was the first one to attempt the establishment of the library. However, it was Augustus who established the first imperial library: Biblioteca Apollinis Palatini in Palastine. The imperial libraries built after followed a uniform style with all the libraries facing East in order to let in light and prevent damp, and books were separated into two sections, Greeks and Latin. (43)
            Biblioteca Ulpia was established by Trajan in 114AD in the Forum of Trajan, in today's Rome. Basilica Ulpia, where books of Latin collections were kept, stood at the opposite of the forum's entrance, and across the courtyard from the Basilica stood Biblioteca Ulpia, where Greek book collections were kept. Bubkuiteca Ulpia was one of the largest imperial libraries, and the only Roman library to survive until mid- 5th century. (44) Biblioteca Ulpia consisted of two floors. The walls were separated by Corinthian columns that outlined the niches, which outlined the cabinets were the scrolls were stored. There is known to have been seven niches in one side of the room, and four in the back, making 36 niches present in total. There were estimated to be 10,000 scrolls in total. At the end of the hall stood giant statues, probably those of Trajan or Minerva. (45) There were archival materials in the library such as praetorian edicts and senatorial decrees, Caesar's autobiography and Trajan's commentaries of the Dacian wars. (46)
            However, by 354 AD, as Marcellinus explains, "Men put themselves to school to the singer instead of the philosopher, to the theatrical producer rather than the teacher of oratory. The libraries are like tombs, permanently shut"(47), many of the libraries were abandoned. The Trajan Forum and the bibliotheca were destroyed during the sixth century. The decorative materials of the site were used to build churches and palaces. (48)

VII. Conclusion
            This paper tried to provide the brief collage of the late Roman empire, period set from 284 C.E.to 395 C.E. As mentioned in the introduction, the paper focused on the fields of religion, military, culture, living quarters, and economy. I believe this paper have achieved its original goal in each parts.
            First with the religion part, the paper selected three places - Basilica of John Lutheran, Nicaea, and The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, which is believed to have significant meanings on the religion at that time. Basilica of John Lutheran is significant because it was built under the instruction of the government, which infers the official recognition of Christianity at Rome, in other words an end to the persecution of Christianity and incessant wars throughout the country. Nicaea, a place where the first council of Nicaea took place is another sign of the recognition of Christianity and the reconciliation of the different religions. The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus was one of the most lavish building of the Roman empire, but was abandoned after all pagan temples were closed by Theodosius. Abandonment of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, construction of Basilica of John Lutheran and councils held in Nicaea reflect the change from Paganism to Christianity in the later Roman Empire.
            In the military part, the Hadrian's wall and the walls of Constantinople convey two different aspects of the military situation of that era. The Hadrian's wall indirectly suggest the decline of the empire, since it was abandoned in the late 5th century because the Roman empire was no longer strong enough to control the broad territory once it used to maintain. The walls of Constantinople, which remained unconquered until 1453 suggest how the Eastern Roman Empire was able to survive unlike its Western partner. The military sites convey the decline and the division of the empire. Also, the Castra Regina shows the decline of the territory as well as the influence of the Roman Empire; the now-day-German-area was once occupied by the Romans but was later ceded to the Bavarians.
            The living quarters succeeded in proving the discrepancies of the life styles of the common people and the nobles at that time, also indirectly proving the prosperous Roman Empire which eventually diminished. The common people's living quarters developed in a way to increase the efficiency and work ability, while the living quarters developed in a more luxurious and showy way, leading to more maintenance cost and workforce.
            The places representing the Roman economy - Latifundia and Macellum of Pozzuoli - showed the prosperous economy of the later Roman Empire. The fact that there were many Latifundium present during the Later Roman Empire, and that a big building for marketplace existed show how much the economy of the Empire was activated. However, as the places listed under 'culture' shows, the prosperous economy ironically attributed to the fall of the Roman Empire.
            The cultural places of the era, the Bath of Diocletian, the Circus Maximus(Roman version of Hippodrome), and Biblioteca Ulpia convey the extravagant public culture of that time. Considering the fact that the Bath was predominant in most of the Roman cities is a proof that the Roman economy prospered, but such luxurious culture soon led to the decline of the empire. Also, the fact Circus Maximus was widely used by the common people there were many other public theaters used in similar ways also prove the extravagant Roman culture. The abandonment of the library, Biblioteca Ulpia, and lack of the governmental effort to secure the libraries and scrolls in side seems to show the focus of the society of the late Roman Empire; more interested in pleasures and entertainment than learning and academic challenge. Biblioteca Ulpia indirectly shows the lavish culture of the Romans during the 3rd to 4th century CE.
            The places covered by the paper conveyed the overall atmosphere of the Later Roman Empire - religious conversion to Christianity from Paganism, decline of the territory and influence, and extravagant economy. The intended collage of the given time period was relatively successful. However, the paper does possess some limitations because of the fact that the paper had to choose places that could represent the period. In other words, not all the places of the Later Roman Empire were represented, thus leaving room for slight deviations depending on regions.


VIII. Notes
(7)      Dudley 1960 Chapter 7 : Decline and Fall (193-476 A.D) pp.213-221
(2)      Rome.info, Fall nof the Roman Empire
(3)      Religio Licitia means permitted religion, or approved religion. (Wikipedia)
(4)      Dudley 1960 213
(5)      Sacred Destinations : San Giovanni in Laterano
(6)      In order to reconcile the indications furnished by Socrates and by the Acts of the Council of Chalcedon,
(7)      Rufinus tells us only that daily sessions were held and that Arius was often summoned before the assembly; his opinions were seriously discussed and the opposing arguments attentively considered.
(8)      Catholic Encyclopedia [1907-1914] : First Council of Nicaea
(9)      The opponents were soon reduced to two, Theonas of Marmarica and Secundus of Ptolemais, who were exiled and anathematized. Arius and his writings were also branded with anathema, his books were cast into the fire, and he was exiled to Illyria. The lists of the signers have reached us in a mutilated condition, disfigured by faults of the copyists. Nevertheless, these lists may be regarded as authentic. Their study is a problem which has been repeatedly dealt with in modern times, in Germany and England, in the critical editions of H. Gelzer, H. Hilgenfeld, and O. Contz on the one hand, and C.H. Turner on the other. The lists thus constructed give respectively 220 and 218 names. Catholic Encyclopedia : First Council of Nicaea
(10)      Platner et al., 1929, Aedes Iovis Optimi Maximi Capitolini
(11)      Plutarch, Publicola, 15.1-4
(12)      Marcellinus [1986] 22.16.12
(13)      Marcellinus [1986] 16.10.9
(14)      Gibbon 1770 vol.3 p.145
(15)      Idea in accordance with that of Meletius of Antioch
(16)      A curtain wall is the defensive wall surrounding the bailey of a medieval castle. It can also b e a defensive wall between two bastions of a castle or a fortress.
(17)      The Solway Firth is a firth that forms part of the border between England and Scotland
(18)      The milecastle is similar to a small watch tower. (19)      Turrets are similar to milecastles.
(20)      The walls of Constantinople built under the order of Theodosius.
(21)      HistoryNet.com, The Walls of Constantinople
(22)      Brownworth, The City Walls of Constantinople
(23)      The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites : Castra Regina

(24)      UNESCO World Heritage Center : Old Town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof
(25)      Regensburg Travel
(26)      Wikipedia : Germanic Peoples
(27)      Wikipedia : Diocletian's Palace
(28)      International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008 : Latifundia
(29)      Veleia is an ancient town of Aemilia, Italy
(30)      Garnsey 1987 p.69
(31)      ibid. p.67
(32)      Pausanias Digital Heritage Project : Macellum
(33)      H2O : Macellum
(34)      The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites : Puteoli
(35)      Troise 2006 p.42
(36)      One quadrans was the smallest Roman coin then.
(37)      The Seven Hills of Rome are located in the east of the river Tiber and formed the geographical heart of Rome . The Seven Hills are Aventine Hill, Caelian Hill, Capitoline Hill, Esquiline Hill, Palatine Hill, Viminal Hill, and Quirinal Hill.
(38)      Aqua Marcia was the longest of the 11 aqueducts that supplied the city of Rome
(39)      Wikipedia : Baths of Diocletian
(40)      Watkin 1986 p.81
(41)      Roman Colosseum.info : Ancient Roman Baths
(42)      Gabucci 2007 p.295
(43)      Roman Empire.net : A Brief History of Roman Libraries
(44)      Encyclopaedia Romana : Bibliotheca
(45)      http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/imperialfora/trajan/bibliotheca.html
(46)      Packer 2002 p.79
(47)      Marcellinus [1986] p.48
(48)      Platner et al., 1929, Forum Traiani

Images
Image 1      This is the remains of the Basilica of St. John Lateran today, Wikipedia : Archbasilica of St. John Lateran http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archbasilica_of_St._John_Lateran
Image 2      Map of Nicaea, Wikipedia : Nicaea http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicaea
Image 3      The imaginary sketch of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Campbell, Elizabeth and Denton, Zachary, GJCL Classical Art History : Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus http://gjclarthistory.blogspot.kr/2012/10/since-this-is-our-first-informational.html
Image 4      Hadrian's wall on the map, Wikimedia Commons : Hadrian's Wall http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hadrian's_Wall_map.svg
Image 5      The remains of the Hadrian's wall today, Wikipedia : Hadrian's wallhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadrian's_Wall
Image 6      The map of the roman empire at the time of emperor Hadrian (117 AD), Boyd-Brent, John, About Scotland : History : Hadrian's wall http://www.aboutscotland.com/hadrian/
Image 7      The map of the walls of Constantinople, Wikipedia : Walls of Constantinople http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walls_of_Constantinople
Image 8      The drawing of Castra Regina, Louise-Schroeder-Gymnasium, Die Römer in Deutschland : Regensburg http://www.lsg.musin.de/geschichte/Material/Bilder/r%C3%B6mer-in-dtl.htm
Image 9      The imaginary model or restored insula, Wikipedia : Insula (building) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insula_(building)
Image 10      The imaginary sketch of the Palace of Diocletian. Wikipedia : Diocletian's palace http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diocletian's_Palace
Image 11      the mosaic of the Latifundia of Dominus Julius from the 4th century. Ancient Worlds LLC The Roman World http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Places/District/1059933
Image 12      The remains of macellum Pozzuoli today, Anatriello, Raffaella, 'Macellum' or 'Temple of Serapis' in Pozzuoli, http://www.neac2.eu/water/english/arts/temple_serapis.htm
Image 13      The structure of the Bath of Diocletian, Wikipedia : Baths of Diocletian http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baths_of_Diocletian
Image 14      The blueprint of Circus Maximus, Wikipedia : Circus Maximus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circus_Maximus

IX. Bibliography
JRH      Jay's Roman History : A New Empire : The World of Late antiquity from Diocletian Onward, http://jaysromanhistory.com/romeweb/laterome/art8.htm
NavD      Naver Dictionary : Religious suppression ( ), http://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?docId=1386926&mobile&categoryId=1128#
OCLA      Oxford Centre for Late Antiquity, The late roman empire : http://www.ocla.ox.ac.uk/sect_lre.shtml
RAL      Rome Art Lover : Apamea : part one : the colonnade, http://romeartlover.tripod.com/Apamea1.html
Farber      A.S. Farber, The Romanizaiton of Christianity and the chirstianization of rome : Early christian basilica http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/arth212/early_christian_basilica.html
JIG      Jerusalem Insiders Guide : Golgotha and the holy sepulcher, http://www.jerusalem-insiders-guide.com/golgotha.html
WSG      World Site Guides, Basilica of St. John Lateran : http://www.worldsiteguides.com/europe/italy/rome/basilica-of-st-john-lateran/
CrG      Rough Guides, Croatia Guide : Diocletian's Palace : http://www.roughguides.com/travel/europe/croatia/dalmatia/split/diocletians-palace.aspx
RM ToW      RomanMilitary.net : Tools of war : http://romanmilitary.net/tools/
HL102      History Link 102, A roman fort : http://www.historylink102.com/Rome/roman-army-forts.htm
AVoC      A view on cities baths of Diocletian : http://www.aviewoncities.com/rome/bathsofdiocletian.htm
AScot      About Scotland History : About Hadrian's Wall : http://www.aboutscotland.co.uk/hadrian/index.html
HWG      BBC : Hadrian's wall gallery http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/hadrian_gallery_12.shtml
IVis      Istanbul Visions, Walls of Constantinople : http://www.istanbulvisions.com/walls_of_constantinapole.htm
Barrow      Barrow, Mandy, The Romans : Hadrian' Wall, http://web.archive.org/web/20120922010242/http://www.chiddingstone.kent.sch.uk/homework/romans/hadrianswall.htm
IASH      Institute for Advanced Studies of the Humanities, Rome Reborn : Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus http://archive1.village.virginia.edu/spw4s/RomanForum/GoogleEarth/AK_GE/AK_HTML/TS-037.html
AW      Ancient Worlds, The Roman World : Mosaic of Latifundium http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Places/District/1059933
MoFiG      C. Schlenck, Manofireingermany : Regensburg the Hub of History http://manonfireingermany.wordpress.com/2012/09/18/regensburg-the-hub-of-history
VGU      Virtuelles Geschichtsheft für den Unterricht am städtischen Louise-Schroeder-Gymnasium in München : Die Römer in Deutschland : Regensburg http://www.lsg.musin.de/geschichte/Material/Bilder/r%C3%B6mer-in-dtl.htm
WGGR      Universität Regensburg, Workshop on Geometry and General Relativity, The History of Regensburg http://www.uni-regensburg.de/Fakultaeten/nat_Fak_I/Mat1/dfg/workshop/history.html
RTrav      Regensburg Travel : Regensburg History http://www.regensburgtravel.com/history.html
NCSE      National Center for Science Education (US) : The Temple of Serapis http://ncse.com/rncse/29/2/temple-serapis
IESS 2008      International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008. Encyclopedia.com : Latifundia http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Latifundia.aspx
SD      Hayes, Holley. Sacred-destinations : San Giovanni in Laterano (St. John Lateran), Rome, http://www.sacred-destinations.com/italy/rome-san-giovanni-laterano
RI FRE      Rome.info, Fall of the Roman Empire, http://www.rome.info/history/empire/fall/
HN WoC      Historynet.com : Live The History : Ancient History : Walls of Constantinople : http://www.historynet.com/ancient-history-walls-of-constantinople.
Brownworth      TedEd : Lars Brownworth, The city of walls : Constantinople http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-city-of-walls-constantinople-lars-brownworth
UNESCO WHC      UNESCO World Heritage Center, Old Town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1155
Regensburg Travel      Regensburg Travel : Regensburg History http://www.regensburgtravel.com/history.html
RC ARB      Roman.Colosseum.info : Ancient Roman Baths : http://www.roman-colosseum.info/roman-architecture/ancient-roman-baths-glossary.htm
RE RA      RomanEmpire.net, The roman army : http://www.roman-empire.net/army/army.html
RE BHRL      RomanEmpire.net : A Brief History of Roman Libraries : http://www.roman-empire.net/articles/article-005.html
H2O      H2O : Macellum or Temple of Serapis in Pozzuoli, http://www.neac2.eu/water/english/arts/temple_serapis.htm
PDHP      Pausanias Digital Heritage Project : Macellum http://social.rollins.edu/wpsites/pausanias/enc/macellum/
ER DPT      Encyclopaedia Romana : The Destruction of the Pagan temples : http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/greece/paganism/temple.html
ER B      Encyclopaedia Romana : Biblotheca, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/bibliotheca/bibliotheca.html
PECS Put      Perseus Hopper : The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, 1976 : Puteoli, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0006:entry=puteoli&highlight=macellum%2Cpozzuoli
PECS CR      Perseus Hopper : The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, 1976 : Castra Regina, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0006:entry=castra-regina
Platner      Perseus Hopper : Platner, S.B. and T. Ashby 1929, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, Forum Traiani, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0054:entry=forum-traiani&highlightauth=356#match1
Platner      Perseus Hopper : Platner, S.B. and T. Ashby 1929, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, Aedes Iovis Optimi Maximi Capitolini, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/Lazio/Roma/Rome/_Texts/PLATOP*/Aedes_Jovis_Capitolini.html
CE FCN      The Catholic Encyclopedia [1907-1914] : The first council of Nicaea http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11044a.html
EB ELRE      Encyclopaedia Britanicca : Education in the later roman empire : http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/179408/education/47482/Education-in-the-later-Roman-Empire
EB Lat      Encyclopaedia Britannica : Latifundium http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/331650/latifundium/
WikAJ      Wikipedia : archbasilica of st. John lateran http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archbasilica_of_St._John_Lateran
WikHW      Wikipedia : Hadrian's Wall http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadrian's_Wall#Route
WikMP      Wikipedia : Macellum of Pozzuoli http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macellum_of_Pozzuoli
WikGP      Wikipedia : Germanic Peoples http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanic_peoples
WikRL      Wikipedia : Religio Licita, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religio_licita

Books
Gibbon 1770      Gibbon Edward, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 1770
Leithart 2010      Peter J. Leithart, Defending Constantine : The twilight of an empire and the dawn of Christendom, 2010
Dudley 1960      Dudley, Donald. R, The Civilization of Rome, 1960, New York
Cameron 1993      Cameron, Averil, The Later Roman Empire : AD 284-430, 1993.
Garnsey 1987      Garnsey, Peter, The Roman Empire : Economy, Society, and Culture , 1987, Los Angeles
Gabucci 2007      Gabucci, Aba. Rome, 2007, California
Watkin 1986      Watkin, David. A History of Western Architecture, 1986, Britain, Google Books, http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=39T1zElEBrQC&pg=PA81
Dennis 2004      Dennis, Peter. The Walls of Constantinople AD 324`1453, Oxford, 2004
Davidson 2002      Davidson, Lina K. Pilgrimage : From the Ganges to Graceland : An Encyclopedia, volume 1. California, 2002. Google Books, http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=YVYkrNhPMQkC&pg=PA536
Marcellinus [1986]      Marcellinus, Ammianus. The Later Roman Empire (A.D.354-378). New Jersey, 1986.
Potter 2004      Potter, David. The Roman Empire at Bay : AD 180-395. London, 2004.
Cowell 1980      Cowell, F.R. Life In Ancient Rome. New York, 1980.
Packer 2002      Packer, James. The forum of Trajan in Rome: A study of the Monuments in brief. Berkeley, 2002.
Books, LLC. Bavarian circle: Regensburg, History of Bavaria, Memphis, 2010.
Troise 2006      Troise, Mechanisms of Activity and Unrest at Large Calderas. London, 2006.
Stamper 2008      Stamper, John. W. The architecture of Roman Temples: The Republic to the Middle Empire. London, 2008

Maps
DI.EDIT.s.r.l. Roma Constantini Aetate, Roma



Back to WHKMLA Main Index . WHKMLA, Students' Papers Main Page . WHKMLA, Students' Papers, 15th Wave Index Page