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The English Guild Economy

Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Chang, Yoonhoo
Term Paper, European History Class, July 2012

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
II. Chronology
II.1 Before the Guild System
II.2 The Guild System
II.3 The Later Development and Fall of the Guild System
III. Types
III.1 Cloth-workers
III.2 Barber-surgeons
III.3 Bakers
III.4 Blacksmiths
III.5 Apothecaries
IV. Structure and Organization
IV.1 Apprentice
IV.2 Journeyman
IV.3 Master
V. Rules and Punishment
V.1 Rules
V.2 Punishment
VI. Comparison with Guilds in other Countries
VI.1 France
VI.2 Germany
VI.3 Italy
VII. Analysis
VIII. Conclusion

I. Introduction
            The original topic of the paper was 'the guild economy'. At first the purpose of the research was to find sources about the guilds all over the world, to explain, compare, and contrast. Without narrowing the title, researching continued, and soon problem appeared. Since English is the most familiar language, and other languages were difficult to read and type in, only the facts and opinions about the British guilds appeared during the research. There was an attempt to search the information of the guild economy in the other countries, but since the translator was needed each time when the results were found, and the result was not as satisfying as the British ones, the title narrowed down to 'the guild economy focused on England'.
            The development of the economy was always the most interesting part of the history, because that is, probably, the most important kind of development of the mankind. The guild economy played a major role in enhancing the state of the medieval craftsmen, peasants, and many others. Since it is emphasized as the most important change happened in the middle ages, the topic was fascinating to decide.
            Explanation about the types, chronology, rules, punishment, structures, organization of British guilds will appear in my paper mainly. After this there will be the answers to the following question :
                What did people think about the guild economy ?
                What is the conclusion after the research ?
            Before going on any further on my paper, a definition of 'guild' will be provided. The guild is "an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards." (0)
            Moreover, according to the online dictionary website called 'the answers', the origin of the word guild is : "word appeared before 1000; Middle English gild (e) < Old Norse gildi guild, payment; replacing Old English gegyld guild; akin to German Geld money, Gothic -gild tax" (1)

II. Chronology
            The guild economy had the process of development. This section 'chronology' will explain the development and fall of the guild. The first ever industry was the 'household industry'. This form developed into the industry based on the guilds, and later when the guild economy fell because of several reasons, the form of industry changed again to reach the period of industrial revolution.

II.1 Before the guild system (Time of household industry)
            Before the guild system, there were the system called 'household industry' or 'family system'. The industrial works were done all by a single men or only with his family members. There was no specialized employment. Then, more and more needs came out from people, and skilled craftsmen who could satisfy their needs appeared. Apparently, they were serfs who were in the property of the noble landowner. No particular record is remaining to prove how they gained their freedom, but by the 12th century, hundreds of craftsmen appeared all over Europe. They sold their product in the small-scaled market or to the people of his own small town. They had a simple store, no complicated tools, and few people to help the making process. At that time, anybody with proper skills could be masters, and there were no distinction between journeymen and master. Only difference was their ability and experience.

II.2. The guild system (Time of structured guild system)
            In the 12th century, few cloth-workers gathered to form a very first craft guild, and conflicts emerged. Merchants, who have already stabilized the state in the town, didn't want any new power to dominate the town economy. It was a vital conflict all over Europe, but however, in England, because there needed to be the royal charter to start a formal guild, the conflict was not big like other countries. English guilds were quite independent from the town economy at first. But of course, the town where these guilds were in opposition of this idea. Later, because of their opinion, the claim of independence from the guilds were ignored, and the town got the guilds under their protection by 1300s. Important changes were made in town since then, such as town constitution based on the guild's law, town's citizenship which can be earned when the person was the member of the guilds, and so on. As the guild council gained more power, they watched the shops to see if they are selling good products to consumers, or to determine 'fair price' for the products. This helped both consumer and the producer, and also helped guilds to gain monopoly over the town's markets. Apprenticeship developed over time, and the masters began to have sufficient workers. As guilds stabilized themselves more and more, they focused mainly on 'stabilizing' the state that they've got, but not improving or making progress out of the situation.

II.3 Later development and fall of the guild system (Time of the gradual fall of the guild system)
            During the 15th, and 16th century, the condition of the economy changed greatly. As there were expansion of commerce, markets got larger and distance between producer and consumer greatly increased. As the distance increased, there needed to be some person providing linkage, and merchant-middleman did the work. At this period of time, the distinction between rich masters and poor masters appeared, and also the distinction between journeymen and masters appeared. Not only this kind of change, but also other significant changes occurred in guilds. The spirit and system of the guild were slowly vanishing, since the works of a craftsman were being divided into parts, and the masters' state lowered. They became the part of the manufacturing process, not the maker of the complete article. In addition to this, the permanent journeymen appeared. They formed the guild and asked for short working times and larger wages. However, the conflict between them and the crafts guild only developed, and later they gave up and just asked for separate working place to masters. After this conflict, the 'domestic system' grew among the cloth-makers in England. When the power of the guild economy has declined and new form of economy began to gain its power, the members of the cloth workers' guild separated. One fraction of the cloth workers kept working on with their clothes, keeping their name of 'master'. They moved down to the rural districts and kept on working with the clothes. They needed someone to connect the scattered masters, and again, the merchant-middleman took the place, and was called 'clothier'. Clothiers began to supply cloth workers tools and raw materials. In this period, the 'masters' reputation dropped significantly. As the time passed by, the clothiers gained more and more power, and it led to another form of the economy, capitalism.

III. Types
            There were, of course, more than several hundred large guilds, all having quite similar but different rules, significantly different functions and traditions. To introduce every single guild that were present is very hard, so some guilds whose names appeared frequently in many important books were chosen. Each guild found in the book has distinct features and there is the reasons why it was chosen to be written in the paper. Explanations below about 5 guilds are listed in order of precedence of the guilds in the city of London.

III.1 Cloth-workers
            They literally work with clothes, and they produce cloth to sell on the market.
            These people are especially important, because it is the oldest guild at least in this list provided in this paper, and was the first guild to enter the domestic system.
            The clothworkers originate from the gathering of the Shearmen and the Fullers. The charter of 19 Henry VIII granted in 1527-8 changed the two Gilds of Shearmen and Fullers into the 'Gild or Fraternity of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Art or Mistery of Clothworkers in the City of London'. The charter for the clothworkers' guild was renewed several more times by different kings and queens.
            The original Hall of the Shearmen on the east side of Mincing Lane was occupied by the united Guild. This Hall was burnt down in the Great Fire, and was rebuilt in 1862.
            The Clothworkers rank 12nd in order of precedence in the City of London.
            Originally, the clothworker's working was based on home. When clothworker finished his product in home, he marketed his cloth at small town markets. As town developed, cloth-making became an urban craft, and clothworkers felt that the regulation for the trade was necessary. To do this, they made an association, a guild. It was initially merchant's guild, but developed into craftsmen's guild after a while. Apprentice of cloth worker guild master needed to work for a long time in order to be the journeymen. After the decline of the guild, the putting-off system was introduced to the clothworkers.

III.2 Barber-surgeons
            People who dealt with the shaving of noblemen and later became the first surgeons.
            They had quite a bad reputation at first, but they developed jobs that we are so familiar with now, so the paper includes them.
            The Barber-surgeons were officially noticed as a job in 1376. The surgeons were officially consolidated with the barbers in 1540, and they formally gained the right to cast a surgery upon any freemen who think they needed the surgery, and shave the men. Also, they were able to do toothdrawing, which is pulling out the dead teeth. The charter for their rights were renewed two times, and in 1745, the Act of George II eventually separated two distinct groups. Later, barbers paid a large sum to the surgeons and gained the right to be the guild. Therefore, even though barbers were socially lower than the surgeons, they owned more properties then them because they had official charter for the guild.
            The original Hall no longer exists, so it is hard to distinguish the site and the name of the past 'Barber-surgeons' Hall.
            The Barber-Surgeons rank 17th in order of precedence in the City of London
            Barber-surgeons were specialized people who could perform the surgery, which was very rare opportunity. They often performed surgery on the people wounded in the war. However, despite its importance, the education of barber-surgeons was not very formal. Usually, they learned small amount of information from their masters, or not at all. More often, they were illiterate. The usual surgery that barber-surgeons did was called 'bloodletting surgery'. Literally, it is letting out the patients' blood to keep the balance of the body, and thought to be very effective in middle ages.
            Originally, barbers and surgeons were united, but after King George II established the London college of surgeons for further and precise education, surgeons were separated completely from barbers. After that, the only surgery that barber could do was 'bloodletting'. No complicated surgery than that.

III.3 White and Brown Bakers
            Bakers who bake white bread and brown bread.
            Town needed this type of guild significantly. So it was one of the largest, most popular guilds at the time.
            In 1307, the bakers accumulated and formed the official guild by letters patent of Edward II. At first, white and brown bakers were separated and formed independent guilds of their own, but in 1509 Henry VIII integrated two guilds by charter. However, after more than hundred years, in 1622, James I granted the request of the brown bakers and again separated two guilds. They remained separated and met at different guild halls until they re-united in 1654. The guild hall of the bakers when they were integrated was in the Parish of St.Dunstan. It was destroyed and restored twice.
            The bakers' guild rank 19th in order of precedence in London
            Bakers made bread. Hence, they were one of the most important people in the village in medieval Europe. However, even though they were the most important people, they cheated many times so that there even needed to be a regulation. Bakers let a bit off the bread to be pinched off, and then later sell off as his own. In medieval times, despite the cheating and somewhat negative image about the bakers, many young boys, either forced by parents or on their own, wanted to be a baker, even though it took more than 7 years to complete the stage of apprenticeship.

III.4 Blacksmiths
            People who deal with metal-works.
            They are important because in the history of guilds in England, these people had gone through many changes, and were divided or unified into various forms. The explanation below will briefly introduce about their changes.
            The blacksmiths were, by the law, required to sell the products on Gracechurch Street, or St. Nicholas Shambles, or at a place near the Tun on Cornhill. A charter of Elizabeth I in 1571 made spurriers unify with the guild of Blacksmiths. (The spurriers are the masters who make spur, and spur is, by the dictionary definition: a metal tool designed to be worn in pairs on the heels of riding boots for the purpose of directing a horse to move forward or laterally while riding.) (2)
            This charter was renewed and extended by Charles I in 1639-40, and by James II in 1685-6. In addition, clock workers and blacksmiths were closely related and had many conflicts and negotiation over time, and their relationship was not settled until 1648-1649.
            The Blacksmiths originally had a Hall on Lambert Hill or Lambeth Hill, near the Church of St. Mary Mounthaut. And, the Blacksmiths rank 40th in order of precedence in the City of London.
            Bending an iron and making product out of it is, as one may think, difficult and hard. In the middle ages, there were many occasions when blacksmiths, who could make iron products, were desperately needed. These occasions made blacksmith a very valuable person in town, or even in the city of London. The blacksmiths formed a guild to protect their products and protect their secret of ironworking. A master smith would work with many apprentices and several journeymen when producing the ironwork. Becoming a blacksmith is thought to be the hardest thing in the medieval era. Standing in front of hot fire, holding heavy iron, and working with dangerous melting iron made many apprentice work for a long, long time in order to proceed to the stage of journeymen and eventually get his own shop.

III.5 Apothecaries
            The people who have sold, and often prepared medicine.
            In the middle ages, they were the ones who appeared frequently on the literature or plays, providing poison.
            In 1617 James I permitted Apothecaries' guild to be official, and protected apothecaries shops from other competitive shops in 7miles radius. The guild hall of the apothecaries was originally Cobham house, then the property of Lady Howard of Effingham, and then extended to the Thames on the eastern side of Water Lane.
            The apothecaries rank 58th in order of precedence in London.
            Apothecaries in medieval Europe usually sold wines, spices, herbs, and medicine. They offered medical advice to the patients, and sold medicine directly or indirectly to the sick. They were originally part of the grocery business, but in 1200s, they began to form guilds, sometimes with physicians. Some began to have university education, and some studied things same as physicians. After the apothecaries were granted as the formal guild, they gained more freedom. They then freely sold the medicines and cured lightly injured ones. As the time went by, they became common in the towns, much more than physicians were. The reasons was, when one becomes apothecary, he doesn't need to work hard compared to the ones who are included in other guilds.

IV. Structure and organization
            Three stages of guild membership appeared by the 13th century in England. Apprentice, journeyman, and master. This structure still influence many labor unions. When a person becomes an apprentice with his parent's support, then the apprentice work for a certain period to ascend to the stage of journeyman. When the journeyman makes his masterpiece and get accepted by the original guild members, then he can become a master. Master is the final stage that a person can get.

IV.1 Apprentice
            An apprentice is usually a male teenager whose parents paid for him to live with master and master's family. Usually the house of a master was 3 story home which included attic.
            On the ground floor, there was the shop in which the apprentice will learn his skills. Second floor was where the master and his family lived. Third floor was occupied with the journeymen whose stage was apparently higher than an apprentice.
            An apprentice learned for 2 to 7 years according to what skill he would learn. He would learn trading skills also, and then after his education, he will proceed to the next stage.

IV.2 Journeyman
            The stage of Journeyman was thought to be the hardest to get over. The journeyman worked in the shop of master from day to night to produce masterpiece which would satisfy the members of the guild. However, there were many obstacles that he had to overcome.
            First, there was not enough time for the journeyman to make his own piece. He worked for many hours from Monday to Saturday, and the only day he could work on was Sunday.
            Second, the tools and raw materials were expensive, and journeyman's wage was not enough to buy those. Masters didn't pay for the raw materials and tools, since it is journeyman's business, not his. Also, it was considered obvious for a journeyman to make his masterpiece independently.
            Third and most important one is that masters did not want another master when they were busy earning their money. They were afraid there would be possible competition and decrease of customers. As stated above in the 'chronology' part, guild members avoided changes. Instead, they preferred to maintain the state as long as possible.

IV.3 Master
            Once the journeyman's masterpiece is accepted, he can become a formal guild member, which is 'master'. Master can accept the apprentices and journeymen, and can have a control over their wages and lives.

V. Rules and Punishment
            Guilds were organizations in which the importance of rules and punishment were well developed.

V.1 Rules
            Their rules protected their members, protected their monopoly, and forbade other production. The rules listed below were the most important rules in the centuries of the guilds, and were almost the same throughout Europe.
                Many craft rules prevented poor workmanship. Each product had to be examined by the heads of the guild and stamped in order to be approved.
                The guild forbade advertising.
                All prices were regulated, and price-cutting was strictly forbidden
                Guild forbade the sale of foreign artisans' work in a city
                The most important processes used in manufacturing were guarded. In many places, worker who possessed any important trade secrets and for some reason fled to a foreign territory must be tracked down and killed because he might give out the secrets to others.
                The number of masters were regulated.
            There were many more specific, and strange rules. This particularly odd rule was found during this research on the medieval guild rules.
                In one place it was forbidden to see pigs fattened by a barber-surgeon because the pig may have been fattened on rich peoples' blood. (2a)

V.2 Punishment
            Since there were rules, there was also punishment. Punishment varied across regions, guild types, times, and so on, but there was a pattern. First time when the member committed crime, they were punished rather lightly. For example, they gave reasonable amount of fines, or suffered public scolding. When they repeated the crimes, they were punished rather harshly. The ultimate punishment that the guild could give was expulsion, which is removing the member who committed crimes several times from the guild. Guilds could go no more harsher, because there were laws that regulated any physical abuse from an organization. However, since the law admitted that the guild was voluntary for people, so the heads of the guilds would throw person out of the guild. Actually, there were many written documents found as the evidence of the guilds' expulsion.
VI. Comparison of the English Guilds with the guilds of other countries
            Guilds played major roles all over the Europe. The earliest guilds appeared because of religious, or social reasons, and later became the association to protect the peace, right, and liberty of the members. Also, the guild was the association which cared about the sick, buried the dead, arranged funeral for the dead, and provided education. They normally provided annual feast also.
            The research was almost only about the guild economy in England, because of the reasons stated in the introduction. But, the overall comparison between the guild over Europe was needed in order to make more precise analysis of the English guilds. There were many countries in medieval Europe, as the readers may see in the maps which recorded that period, so the paper will only state the selected three countries: France, Germany, and Italy.

VI.1 France
            The word gilde, or ghilde, were mainly used to represent an association among men of the same community or profession, which is the guild we know of. Gilde, metier, metier jure, confrerie, nation, maitrises et jurandes, were also used.
            The fundamental elements of the guilds were the same in all European countries, such as structures, rules, or some others. Just like in England, young artisan became a Compagnon (journeymen) after passing the stage of apprentice. In the France, there were two or more deans (doyens, syndics) as the heads of the guilds assisted by a secretary, a treasurer, and six or more jurymen (jures, assesseurs, trouveurs, prud'hommes).
            In 1776, the prime minster of France named Turgot planned on abolishing the guilds and 1791 finally made the guilds disappear in France. In the 19th century, uniquely, there was an attempt of people to restore the guilds, but was not successful.

VI.2 Germany
            Germen guild, Watermen of Worms is the first well-known guild in Germany, and its Zunftbrief (charter) was granted in 1106. But it was not until the thirteenth century that the German guilds became numerous and important. Zunft, Innung, Genossenschaft, Brüderschaft, Gesellschaft, are the terms used in Germany to designate the association we now call guilds.
            In Germany, linen and wool production was the major production of the country, as it were in many other parts of Europe. Masters of working wool or linen were abundant and popular at that time in Germany. In the end of 15th century, these productions had 743 masters in Augsburg alone. Besides these two production, tanners and furriers were also famous in Germany. Furriers included producers of gloves, stockings, shoes, and etc.
            Guilds in Germany, played a major role in society as most guilds in other European countries did. They helped the abandoned, educated the youngsters, prepared for funeral, cared for sick and dead, and so on. In Hamburg, there was 'St. Job's Hospital' made by the guilds, and other areas had facilities that guilds provided also.
            German guilds declined rather lately. Even though they were accused of abuses, they vanished rather lately in the late 19th century.

VI.3 Italy
            Italy was influenced greatly by the Roman form of the guild-like association, the collegia. Later when it fell, the corporations appeared quickly in Italy. Siena, Pisa, and Venice led the business and trade of corporation. These are the cities which were famous for trade, in other words. Also, the guild played a big role in religion and art in Italy. The association later built the first ever academy of fine arts in Europe, and the academy served both artistic and religious roles for students.
            Other structures, organization, rules, and fundamental elements of the guilds were almost the same in Italy as other countries in Europe.
            As for the decline of these associations in Italy, it was abolished in 1807 by Pius VII in Rome. Later, when almost half of the 19th century has passed, Italians thought of these associations as the things of the past.

VII. Analysis (pros and cons of the guild economy)
            In the end of 18th century to 19th century, there were many people going against the guild. They had their reasons why they thought this way. Also, there were people who thought guild played a significant role and positively influenced the world's economic development.

            1. Supporting opinions about the guild economy
            Guild economy was certainly the improvement from the period before it. It also helped stabilizing the town by giving certain regulations, provided education, buried the dead, and cared for the sick. Certainly it played important role in the town society. Guilds created "social capital" of shared norms, common information, mutual sanctions, and collective political action. This social capital benefited guild members, even as they hurt outsiders. Also, very importantly, the guild economy made the concept of modern corporation and trade union. Though, it is true that the trade union concept in guild economy was based on very small area or few craftsmen.

            2. Opposing opinions about the guild economy
            However, there are many people who are saying the guild had monopolized the town's economy, so therefore, they slowed down the growth of overall economy in the middle ages. Especially people like Adam Smith criticized heavily on the guild. Others said that it was no good for the market, people, or anything. The people who were against the guild economy asserted that the guild blocked the free trade. Hence, it disturbed the technical development, business development, development of transporting systems. Because the guilds always wanted to keep their state, not develop or innovate the situation they were in, these assertions were made. And shortly after these thoughts began to spread across the nations, the guild economy quickly retreated and turned to some other forms. Some guild members got involved in the putting-out system which made the masters' state significantly lowered, and some guild members simply lost their guilds, since they could no longer maintain them.

VIII. Conclusion
            The guild economy certainly played a big role in the economic development. When the entire Europe was in the state of household industry, the guilds appeared and greatly extended the size of the market, organized the rules and formed an arranged structure to be the producer, or masters, in medieval Europe.
            Guilds appeared after the period of household industry when people produced nearly all of the product by themselves. However as it gained stability over time, several big conflicts broke out and threatened the guild economy. Somewhat gradually, it turned and guild masters faced the era of mass production and factories. Only way they could maintain their craftsmanship was to work under the 'putting-out system', or 'domestic system'.
            Though there were many critics who criticized heavily on the system of the guilds, the influence of the guild cannot be ignored. Over several hundred types of guild were present, and each had similar rules and structures which could be influential in various cities.
            The modern economic state is made with certain important stages. And one of stages is 'the guild economy'. It was very interesting to research about the guild since there were plenty of, or too many, sources to work on.
            The books provided precise, but somewhat biased information. Often, there were incidents that the title of the book was not related to this paper, but the content was. Internet sources gave enormous amount of information only if one could type in the proper keywords, but the internet provided false information also. For example, there was one website and it told that there never was any kinds of guilds in England (2b). Also, video sources gave valid image to help get an idea of certain concepts, such as structure of the guild economy.
            Finishing the paper, one more paragraph is added about the 'still-surviving guilds in England'. People know well that the guilds vanished nowadays, and true, they don't function as the ancient guilds did right now. However, they were inherited from the ancient guilds, keep the title of the guild, and helped society in a way that their ancestors did-largely in the area of education-so the information is added.
            In the City of London, the medieval guilds which existed long times ago still survive as 'livery companies'. The membership still exists today, and they have build college in England. In the imperial college London, there is the school called 'city and guilds college', which was called 'city and guilds of London institute' when they were first established by the livery companies. The college teaches engineering, and producing graduate who are educated from entry level craft and trade skills to post doctoral achievements. Although they now does not play the role which they used to in the old ages, but they meant much since they are the descendants of ancient guilds which really existed, and they still keep the name 'guild'.

(2)      Wikipedia : Spur

Bibliography The following websites were visited in March to June 2012

1.      Hoffman, Tom, Guilds and Related Organisations in Great Britain and Ireland - The Bibliography, 2011
includes short history of guilds, guild history book list, the books which explains certain types of guild.
2.      Birnie, Arthur, An Economic History of the British Isles, London : Methuen 1935
had the full history of the growth of the industry, birth of guild economy, and development of guild economy
3.      Hibbert, Aiden, The Influence and Development of English Guilds. Cambridge UP, 1891
stated about the influence and development of English guilds, but mentioned little about craft guilds. They were more focused on merchant guilds.
4.      Lindemann, Mary, Medicine and Society in Early Modern Europe, Cambridge UP, 2010.
It was very helpful, because it gave information about one specific guild
5.      Jacob H.E, Six Thousand Years of Bread, Sterling Public Co. 1977
book helped me know about the history of bakers, which included the history of baker's guilds in England mainly. pg. 114-115 talks about the baker's guild. How to become a journeymen, what was their difficulties, and so on.
6.      Wadd, William. Mems., Maxims, and Memoirs, London 1827.
the book provided information about the importance of incorporation of barber-surgeons. It told mostly about their origins, development, and influences.
7.      Hidden, Thomas. The Sons of Vulcan : The History of Metals, J.B. Lippincott, 1940.
The history of blacksmiths. Found it because the title was interesting. The book wass not used for this paper, because it was not available on google, but I hope to find it in some online library.
8.      Company of the clothworkers. The Ordinances of the Clothworkers' Company, together with those of the Ancient Guilds of the Fullers and Shearmen of London. Bibliobazaar 2010.
this book is the exact copy of the book published in 1923. I did not have the opportunity to thoroughly read the sections of the book, but I could know that this book contained reasonable amount of 'punishment and rules' information that I was looking for. It gave good explanation.
9.      Braun, Emil. The Baker's Book : A Practical Hand Book of the Baking Industry in all Countries, Volume 1. New York Library, 1901.
give an idea of 'what is a baker' and 'what did bakers do over the history'
10.      Blacksmiths Company : The worshipful company of blacksmiths,
provided information about the directory, history of the blacksmiths. It was a very helpful source. Whole homepage was about blacksmiths.
11.      Cesky Krumlov Encyclopedia : The history of guilds and crafts in Cesky Krumlov,
provided a simple history of the guilds in Cesky Krumlov
12. : London history of guilds,
privided a simple history of the guilds in London. Though this website provided more specific information 13.      The guild hall,
had plenty of links explaining the craft guilds, early guild regulation, the great weakness of the guild. The homepage provided information like the reader was the member of the guild.
14.      Catholic Encyclopedia (1907-1914) : Guilds all over the world,
provided information about the guilds in other countries. It was helpful because the information was quite detailed, and there were many different countries' guilds that I could contrast with the guilds in England.
15.      BBC : Services of the guild.
what the guild do for their members: funerals, and more
16.      EH Net Encyclopedia : Structure of the guild
though the keyword was 'structure', there were much more information about the rules and punishment. (Short chronology of the guild economy)
17.      Encyclopaedia Britannica Online : The structure and social role of guilds
18.      Wikipedia : journeyman,
19.      Wikipedia : Apprenticeship (development),
20.      Wikipedia : master craftsman,
21.      Wikipedia : European history of the guild economy,
gives a little information about the guilds in different countries. Basically it gives information about the German guild, French guild, English guild, and the countries without the strong influence of the guilds. It was very helpful in the comparison section I wrote, and gave further opportunities to search by giving few new keywords.
22. : guild: or gild,
23.      Clothworkers Company : clothworkers company
24.      Wikipedia : Spur
25.      Youtube : Medieval guilds
explanation mainly about the structure of the guild. The video clip showed the chart which divided 'the process of being a guild member' in ten stages, while I divided into three. Though, the stages are not very detailed. It shows image about the medieval markets
26.      Youtube : Medieval life,
show how the house was like in the middle ages when the guild existed. Show the overall picture of the normal town in middle ages. I mentioned three-stories house while writing about the structure and organization-apprentice in my paper. This gave me an image of what it is really like.
27.      Youtube : A Medieval cities,
it is close to an image, but it was made into video just because it could explain the route through the cities by drawing the simple line. Not helped much, but easy to have an idea of the overall city map.
28.      Youtube : Filthy cities-medieval London,
Could have more realistic look of the guild masters in the cities. (Especially barber surgeons.) It was shocking to see the 'filthy' lives of the people, but was very helpful because it helped me settle the images which were so vague at first.

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