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Imperialism | Colonial Policy


Atlas German Colonies, with Yearbook, edited by the German Colonial Society, 1906, Retrospect on the Development of the Kiautschou Protectorate in 1905
Retrospect on the Development of the Kiautschou Protectorate in 1905

(p.23) In 1905 Kiautschou shows satisfactory progress in all areas, which, in the first place, has been caused by the new port and the Schantung Railroad, both of which strongly promote trade and change. So the protectorate's revenues between October 1904 and end September 1905 (this is the report year of the protectorate administrated by the Reichs-Marine-Amt) have doubled. Navigation rose by 76 ships to 413 ships with 420,000 
register-tons. In the same period the Schantung Railroad has transported more than three quarters of a million persons, compared to 496,000 last year, and freight transportation has rwached 280,000 tons. During the same period of 12 months, the revenue of the Chinese sea customs office rose considerably, as did the value of transit trade. In order to facilitate trade and especially the industrial development, on Dec. 1st 1905 a customs agreement has been concluded with the Chinese government, which took force on January 1st 1906. The Chinmese government annually compensates the German government for the additional revenue by the payment of 20 % of its customs dues revenues. The positive development took place despite the negative influence of the Russo-Japanese War. Japanese ships, which used to frequent the port of Tsingtau in large numbers, did not show up at all, and ships under other flags avoided the northern Chinese and Japanese waters, fearing confiscation as well as drifting sea mines and other hazards of war. Regarding the insecurity of the military situation, Chinese merchants were rather cautious and refused to engage in larger transactions of longer duration.
The constantly good relations between the government and the Chinese local authorities and the provinzial government of Schantung contributed to the rise of the trade with the hinterland.
Quay wall works, land filling and port excavation works in the large port aforementioned have been continued, the landing-places for ships on both piers have been extended. In the report year a large swimming dock with a capacity of 16,000 tons has been launched, and has hitherto provided excellent services. Tsingtau experiences lively construction, also from private side. 25 workshops and other business facilities , 22 houses and 5 business premises of Europeans were built, as were 15 Chinese houses and business premises and a large Chinese theater.
In 1905, for the first time the Schantung Mining Corporation exported Weihsien coal in larger quantities. Fourteen steamers shipped more than 11,000 tons to Chefoo, Tientsin, Shanghai and Hongkong. The production of the Fangtse coal mine in 1905 exceeded 130,000 tons. To the south of Fangtse a new pit (Minna pit) has been drilled, which can be taken into operation at the beginning of 1905. A (p.24) great problem for the development of the mining sector is the lack of workforce, becoming more and more obvious. As the population living in the vicinity had been accustomed to the work due to previous Chinese mining activities, at first the recruitment of a work force had not been a problem. But the Chinese regard mining as a part time activity and leaves the mine as soon as urgent agricultural activities are to be taken care of. Strikes among the Chinese have also occurred.
The Tsingtau merchants hitherto have been represented by two bodies which often have taken opposing positions. As this discord often had a negative impact on matters important to the development of trade, interested persons formed a Chamber of Commerce.
As generally known, Tsingtau is a frequented seaside spa. In the summer of 1905 it was visited by 479 guests and 152 transit visitors. According to nationality they were 210 Germans, 120 Englishmen, 60 Americans, 45 Scandinavians, 20 Frenchmen, 15 Italians and 9 Russians. The magnificent beach and the beautiful straight, comfortable paths softly inclining up hills overgrown in green, life free of stress, air free of dust, the cool, 
fresh seabreeze and the cool climate attract ever more visitors.
The Russian navy vessels, which took refuge in our port in August 1904, have departed after the conclusion of the peace treaty, which caused a loss of business for some merchants. Already at the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese war the German side has offered the services of the government hospital in Tsingtau to both belligerents. Only the Russians have made use of it, as of the disarmed russian navy vessels in the report year 8 officers and 95 men had been admitted to the hospital ship. Furthermore a number of men evacuated from Port Arthur had been transferred to the hospital.
Finally a few words on schooling : the government school, at the beginning of the new school year, has introduced the Reformgymnasium curriculum. Foreign language instruction is arranged as follows : in the Sexta (fifth grade), instruction in English is begun, in the Quarta (seventh grade) in French, in the Unter-Tertia (8th grade) in Latin. As the old schoolhouse does no more suffice to accomodate the number of students, the construction of a new one has begun, which has 4 classrooms for 40 students each and 8 classrooms for 15 students each, as well as an assembly hall, a physics laboratory, a drawing room etc.
In the report year, no census of the German population has been conducted.

Colonial Literature of 1905. (main titles)

Adressbuch des deutschen Kiautschou-Gebietes für 1905. (Directory of the German Kiautschou Area) M. K. O. Rose, Tsingtau. 5 M.

Behme, Dr. Fr., und Dr. M. Krieger. Führer durch Tsingtau u. Umgebung. (Guide for Tsingtau and its surrounding area) 3. edition. Hecknersche Druckerei, Wolfenbuttel 1905.

Denkschrift, betr. die Entwicklung des Kiautschou-Gebiets i. d. Zeit v. Okt. 1903 b. Okt. 1904. (Memorandum concerning the development of the Kiautschou Area from October 1903 to October 1904) Drucks. d. Reichstags No. 561. 11. Leg.-Per, I. Sess. 1903/05. (Reichstag publication No.561, 11th period of legislation, 1st session 1903/05) (Dietrich Reimer-Berlin.).


Source: Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas mit Jahrbuch (Atlas German Colonies with Yearbook), edited by the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (German Colonial Society). Berlin 1906, p.23f

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Dokument in deutscher Sprache