First posted on May 3rd 2006, last revised on May 16th 2006






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For links on general historical dictionaries, go to Historical Dictionary main page

Printed Reference : Historical Dictionaries, the Netherlands

Arend H. Huussen, Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands, London : Scarecrow 1998, 237 pp.; KMLA Lib.Sign. R 949.2 H985h


General Expressions . Antiquity . Early Middle Ages . High Middle Ages . 1579-1787 . 1787-1815 . 1815-1848 . 1848-1914 . 1914-1940 . 1940-1945 . Since 1945


General Expressions


Antiquity ..... go to narrative history of the Netherlands

Batavians
... in Latin : Batavii, in Dutch : Bataven. a Germanic tribe, a branch of the Chatti (Hessians) which settled in Roman times in the Lower Rhine region; the Betuwe is named after them. Their capital was Noviomagus Batavodurum (Nijmegen). Subdued by the Romans, the Batavians revolted in 69 A.D.; Batavians in the service of the Roman army were garrisoned Batavia (Passau). In the 3rd century A.D. the Batavians appear to have been absorbed by the Franks and Frisians.


Early Middle Ages ..... go to narrative history of the Netherlands

Frisians
Germanic tribe, inhabiting most of the territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in late Antiquity; continuing into the Middle Ages. In the 7th century briefly a kingdom; then submitted by the Franks. Temporarily, large parts of Friesland came under Norman (Viking) control. The Frisians are credited with expelling the Vikings in the late 9th century and developing the technique to claim low-lying land for cultivation. In the corse of the High Middle Ages, the term Friesland was limited to the regions were Frisian Law was practiced - to an area which escaped feudalization.


High Middle Ages ..... go to narrative history of the Netherlands

Brabant, Duchy of
... a fragment of the Duchy of Lorraine; capital Brussels. It covered central Belgium (Leuven, Antwerp) and extended into the Netherlands (Bergen-op-Zoom, Tilburg, 's-Hertogenbosch). During the 80 Years War, split in the Duchy of Brabant and => Staats Brabant (the part occupied by Dutch forces).

Drente
... landlocked province in the Netherlands; least populated of all Dutch provinces. Until 1528 under Princebishops of Utrecht, from 1536 on under Habsburg dynasty. During the Dutch Republic denied representation in the Estates General, the province was regarded too poor. Capital Assen.

Gelre, Duchy of
... in German : Herzogtum Geldern, in English sometims : Duchy of Guelders. Counts of Gelre are recorded since 1096. They established their rule over modern Gelderland in the Netherlands, and over Obergeldern in the German Rhineland (Nordrhein-Westfalen). In the mid 14th century, the Counts of Gelre were elevated to Dukes of Gelre; thus the highest-ranking nobles in the modern Netherlands. In 1543, Emperor Charles V. of the Habsburg Dynasty acquired the Duchy, ending her history as an independent entity. The historic duchy consisted of the quarters of Arnhem, Nijmegen, Zutphen and Roermond.

Groningen, Province
... in effect established in 1536 when it submitted to the Habsburgs. Consists of the city of Groningen, the Frisian territories of Hunsingo, Fivelgo, the Oldambt and the Westerkwartier, and of Saxon Westerwolde. Joined the Union of Utrecht in 1579.

Holland, County of
... territory of the Counts of Holland. The County emerged in the early 10th century, around a nucleus in modern South Holland. Capital Haarlem; dynastic monastery at Egmond an Zee. Holland consists of a stretch of dunes in the west, and to their east lands so low they long were threatened by inundation until this danger was averted by a system of dykes, canals and sluices. In 1432 the Dukes of Burgundy acquired the County of Holland. 's-Gravenhage (Den Haag, "The Hague") ceased to be residence of the counts.
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Overijssel
... literally, land on the opposite bank of the IJssel river (as seen from Utrecht). Long under the princebishops of Utrecht, from 1536 onward under the Habsburgs. Joined the Union of Utrecht in 1579. In the estates of Overijssel, the cities of Deventer, Kampen and Zwolle had a strong position.

Utrecht, Princebishopric
... consisted of two parts, the Lower Stift (roughly the present province of Utrecht) and the Upper Stift (roughly the present provinces of Drente, Overijssel and the city of Groningen). Dissolved in 1528, when the Upper Stift became the Habsburg province of Utrecht; the Habsburgs acquired Drente and Overijssel, as separate provinces, in 1536.

Westfriesland
... the northernmost parts of Noord Holland. Acquired by the counts of Holland in the late 13th century, the region maintained a separate identity for several centuries and issued coins in the time of the Dutch Republic. Center Alkmaar.

Zeeland, County of
... territory in the estuary of Maas and Rhine. Until 1299 contested by the Counts of Flanders and of Holland; since 1299, as a separate county, in dynastic union with the County of Holland. Capital Middelburg. Consists of a number of islands and stretches of land attached to the mainland, all protected from inundation by a system of dykes, canals and sluices. Since 1432 ruled by the Dukes of Burgundy.
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Zuiderzee
... a former bay, a southern extension of the North Sea. In 1932 separated from the latter by the Closure Dyke (in Dutch : Afsluitdijk), which caused the conversion of the saltwater Zuiderzee into the sweetwater IJsselmeer.


1395-1579 ..... go to narrative history of the Netherlands

Belgic Confession
... in Latin : Confessio Belgica, in Dutch : Nederlandse Geloofsbelijdenis. Calvinist. Written by Guido de Bres in 1561; in 1571 accepted by the Dutch Reformed Church as a fundamental document.

Council of Blood
... see Council of Troubles.

Council of Troubles
... in Dutch : Raad van Beroerten, or Bloedraad (Council of Blood), 1567-1574. Established to deal with rebellious Netherlanders, it sentenced 1073 to death and banned over 11,000.

Dutch Reformed Church
... in Dutch : Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk (literally : Lower German Reformed Church; Calvinist, based on the Belgic Confession). Established by the community of exile Dutch Calvinists in Emden in 1571; in 1579 declared the state church of the Dutch Republic. In 1816 reorganized by King William I., who wanted to turn the traditionally independent-minded church into an instrument of the state; afterward, it broke up into a variety of Calvinist churches.

Estates General
... in Dutch : Staten Generaal. Parliament of the Dutch Republic, composed of the deputees of the Estates of the seven provinces (Holland, Zeeland, Friesland, Groningen, Utrecht, Overijssel, Gelderland). The first Estates General were assembled, for the Burgundian Netherlands, in 1464; since 1581 the Estates General of the Dutch Republic assembled. In 1814 reestablished as bicameral parliament of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the Second Chamber is the legislative body.

Hedge Sermons
... in Dutch : Hagepreken. As the churches were observed by agents of the Counterreformation Catholic Church and the Spanish governor, Calvinist preachers chose to preach out in the open (1560es), attracting large crowds and contributing to the spread of Calvinism; the center of such activities was in the Southern Netherlands..

Iconoclasm
... in Dutch : Beeldenstorm. During the phase of Calvinist unrest 1566-1567 outbursts of iconoclasm occurred, minly in the Southern Netherlands.

Inquisition
... in Dutch : Inquisitie. Under Charles V., persecuted Lutherans and Anabaptists. Under Philip II. in the Netherlands it came to be regarded as an instrument of arbitrary brutal state force. An instrument of the Catholic Church, in the (Calvinist) Dutch Republic there was no inquisition.

Oath of Abjuration
... in Dutch : Plakkaat van Verlatinghe, July 26th 1581; by informing the King of Spain that they terminated their loyalty to him, this document marks the Dutch declaration of independence.

Pacification of Ghent
... Pacificatie van Ghent, agreement signed in 1576 by the Estates of Holland and Zeeland (in open rebellion against Spain since 1572) and William the Silent of Orange. The agreement unified the forces of resistance.

Reformation
... in Dutch : Reformatie. The Lutheran and Anabaptist reformations had limited impact on the Netherlands, as the inquisition, under Charles V., remained in control of the situation. Under Governess Margaret of Parma respectively Philip II., Calvinism spread quickly. The Spanish administration alienated Protestants, nobles and city councils alike; the rebels rallied behind the House of Orange and the Calvinist church (Dutch Reformed Church).
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Roman-Dutch Law
... Law applied in the Dutch Republic; based on Roman Law as taught in contemporary universities, and the traditional law of the land (popular law). With the introduction of the Code Civile (in the Netherlands in 1810) it was terminated; it remained valid in the Cape Colony and on Ceylon (modern Sri Lanka).

Union of Brussels
... in Dutch : Unie van Brussel, agreement of the rebellious provinces with Spanish governor Don Juan, in which the latter accepted the demands made in the Pacification of Ghent. It was signed by King Philip II., but soon after violated by Governor Don Juan, and thus a dead letter.

Union of Utrecht
... concluded in 1579 by the provinces of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelre and the Ommelanden. Later, Overijssel, Drente and Friesland, Groningen, Antwerpen, Brugge, Ieper, Breda, Venlo and Lier joined. The signatories promied to protect each others privileges and agreed on establishing a common army. The event marks the beginning of the General Rising (see under Dutch Revolt).


1579-1787 ..... go to narrative history of the Netherlands

Anglo-Dutch War, First
... In Dutch : Eerste Engelse Oorlog, 1652-1654. The real cause, on the Dutch side, was the English Navigation Act of 1651. Several naval battles were fought, with neither side gaining a decisive victory. The main Dutch goal, the cancellation of the Navigation Act, was not achieved.
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Anglo-Dutch War, Second
... In Dutch : Tweede Engelse Oorlog, 1665-1667. In 1664 an English fleet had taken New Netherlands; in 1667 the Dutch conquered Suriname from the English. During the negotiations leading to the Peace of Breda 1667, the English offered the mutual return of conquests; the Dutch declined. A Dutch victory.
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Anglo-Dutch War, Third
... In Dutch : Derde Engelse Oorlog, 1672-1674. In 1672 the Dutch Republic suddenly faced a serious threat - war against an alliance consisting of France (see Dutch War of Louis XIV.), England, Sweden, Cologne and Münster. Stadholder William III., in a coup, ended the First Era of Liberty, halted the French invasion; the Dutch fleet defeated the English and forced England (which was virtually bankrupt) to conclude peace.
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Arminianism
... In Dutch : Arminianisme or Remonstrantisme. A branch of Calvinism established by Jacobus Arminius in 1610; they rejected predestination and the existence of a state church. Dominant in the province of Holland, the movement was identified with the regents of Holland, the opponents of the House of Orange; condemned as a heresy by the Synod of Dordt 1619.

Barrier Fortresses
... in Dutch : Barrierevestigingen. A series of fortresses located in the Spanish Netherlands : Tournai, Menen, Veurne, Waasten, Ieper (Ypres), Fort Knocke, Namur, Dendermonde. During the War of Devolution 1667-1668, the inability of Spain to defend the Spanish Netherlands against French aggression became plainly obvious; this threatened the Dutch Republic. During the Dutch War of Louis XIV. (1672-1679) French troops invaded the Netherlands. The Treaties of Rijswijk 1697 and of Utrecht 1713 foresaw the stationing of Dutch troops in the Barrier Fortresses of the Spanish / Austrian Netherlands, to provide a buffer zone for the Dutch Republic.

Beemster
... a large lake located in Noord Holland, drained by windmill-powered pumps in 1612..

Blockade of Antwerp
... in Dutch : Blokkade van Antwerpen; Sluiting van de Schelde (Closure of the Schelde). The city of Antwerpen was taken and pillaged by the Spanish in 1585. About half of her inhabitants emigrated, including many of her wealthiest merchant families; many later took up residence in Amsterdam. The Dutch Republic imposed a blockade on the port of Antwerp (hitherto the leading trade center on the European Atlantic coast), which lasted until 1795. Amsterdam took over the economic position Antwerpen held until 1585.

Cape Colony
... in Dutch : Kaapkolonie. Settled by the V.O.C. in 1652, for the purpose of growing food to supply bypassing ships on their way to or from India. The Dutch brought in farmers (Boers). The colony surrendered to the British in 1795, was returned to the Batavian Republic in 1803, again surrendered to the British in 1806 and was formally ceded to the latter in 1815.
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Contraremonstrants
... in Dutch : Contra-Remonstranten; a branch of Dutch Calvinism, followers of Franciscus Gomarus, and opposed to the Arminians or Remonstrants. Gomarus and his followers were unwilling to discuss the dogm of predestination, which was questioned by Arminius. Stadholder Prince Maurice sided with the Gomarists or Contraremonstrants, who also were supported by the Flemish immigrants in the cities of Holland; in 1618/19 Oldenbarneveld, who had taken side with the Arminians, was tried, sentenced and executed; in 1619 the Synod of Dordt condemned Arminianism as heresy.

Counterreformation
... in Dutch : Contrareformatie. Implemented in the Spanish Netherlands in 1585ff., and in areas of the Dutch Republic temporarily held by the Spanish, such as Noord Brabant, Limburg, the area around Nijmegen and the Achterhoek (eastern Overijssel). When these areas were recovered by the Dutch Republic, the Dutch made no attempt in reconverting the inhabitants to Calvinism.

Doelists
... in Dutch : Doelisten. A movement among the hitherto politically excluded petit bourgeois of Amsterdam, 1747-1748. In 1747 they supported the House of Orange (against the Regents); they hoped for political reforms, most notably the abolition of tax farming, and democratic reforms, the burghermaster to be appointed by the Riflemen's Guild. The latter was rejected.

Doopsgezinde
... see under Mennonites.

Dutch Republic
... Official name : Republic of the United Seven Provinces. Established by the Union of Utrecht 1579 (originally, there were more than seven provinces; the southern provinces were retaken by the Spanish. Drente was not counted. The Dutch Republic lasted until 1795.

Dutch Revolt
... in Dutch called Nederlandse Opstand or Tachtigjarige Oorlog (80 Years War, 1568-1648; also referred to as the Dutch War of Independence). A complex phenomenon, consisting of a Calvinist rising 1567-1568, a feud between William the Silent of Orange-Nassau and the governor of the Spanish Netherlands, the Rebellion of Holland and Zeeland (1572-1576) and the General Rebellion (1579-1648), interrupted by the 12 Years' Truce 1609-1621. The years until 1588 were those of a desparate struggle for survival. Then, Spain, because it was engaged in too many wars simultaneously, had trouble financing her action; during this breathing space the Dutch figured out how to make profit while fighting their wars. From 1605 onward, Dutch independence was an established fact, the war a regular war.
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Dutch War of Louis XIV.
... 1672-1679. In 1672 the Dutch Republic faced an alliance of France, England, Sweden and two German princebishoprics, Cologne and Münster. The French army crossed the Princebishopric of Liege and was only stopped by the Dutch opening the dykes and flooding part of their country. The Dutch Republic succeeded in concluding alliance treaties with the Emperor and Brandenburg (both requiring subsidies) and in 1679 the Treaty of Nijmegen was concluded, without territorial loss for the Republic. However, the war was very costly and marked the end to the Golden Age.
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Eighty Years War
... see under Dutch Revolt

Enlightenment
... in Dutch : Verlichting. While Dutch writers are little known abroad, the Netherlands was a center of book printing; here, early on Masonic Lodges were established, which influenced the establishment of lodges elsewhere in Europe. The Patriot Movement was inspired by enlightenment ideas and pushed for political reforms (1787) earlier than the French Revolution (1789).
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Era of Liberty
... in Dutch : Stadhouderloze Tijdperk. In 1650 the Estates of Holland decided not to appoint a successor to the recently deceased stadholder, thus saving the expenses for his office (and for military expenses which came with it; First Era of Liberty). Military defense on land was neglected, and the French invasion of 1672 showed the vulnerability of the Republic to an attack on land. In 1672, William III. of Orange, in a coup, took the position of stadholder. Upon his death in 1702 (and after a series of costly wars) the Estates of Holland again decided not to appoint a stadholder (Second Era of Liberty, 1702-1747), which again was terminated by a French invasion.

Exercising Companies
... In Dutch : Exercitiegenootschappen; (militarily) Exercising Companies. Formed by patriotic, reform-minded Dutchmen, after the model of Riflesmen's Guilds, in 1783. These organizations pushed for political reform and did defeat the stadholder's troops in 1787; they were incapable of withstanding the Prussian invasion of 1787.

First Northern War
... in Dutch : Noordse Oorlog, 1655-1660. A war between Denmark and Sweden meant closure of the Øresund (Sound), and that meant famine for the Netherlands (which depended on grain supply from Poland). When Denmark suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Sweden, the Maritime Powers interfered in order to restore Danish control over the Sound.
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Fortresses
... In Dutch : Vesting; within the Dutch Republic, Bourtange, Groningen, Coevorden, Deventer, Naarden, Bergen-op-Zoom, Brielle, Hellevoetsluis, Geertruidenberg, Gorinchem, Grave, 's-Hertogenbosch, Heusden, Hulst, Nieuwpoort, Ravenstein, Willemstad, Maastricht. Schenkenschans, Zaltbommel, Vlissingen, Venlo, Nijmegen, Zutphen. Temporarily, Dutch troops also garrisoned the fortresses in Wesel (1629-1672) and the Barrier Fortresses in the Southern Netherlands.

Freemasonry
... in Dutch : Vrijmetselarij. The first Masonic lodge in the Netherlands was established in 1734.

Gelderland
... the historic Duchy of Gelre had consisted of 4 quarters - those of Arnhem, Nijmegen, Zutphen and of Upper Gelre (Obergeldern). In the course of the Dutch Revolt, the 3 lower quarters, under the name of Gelderland, joined the Dutch Republic; the Spanish maintained control of Upper Gelre, hence known as Geldern (Germany).
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Geusen
... see under Sea Beggars.

Golden Age
... In Dutch : Gouden Eeuw. 1609-1672 (some have it begin in 1602), the period when the Dutch Republic became the center of Europe's economy and enjoyed a positive trade balance with all her European trading partners.

Grand Pensionary of Holland
... In Dutch : Raadspensionaris van Holland; position of speaker of the Estates of Holland; established in 1619 after the execution of Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, Land's Advocate of Holland. The holder of the office of Grand Pensionary would become the political opponent of the representative of the House of Orange, and, during the two Eras of Liberty (1650-1672, 1702-1747) the most influential politician in the Dutch Republic.

G.W.I.C.
... see under W.I.C.

Holland, Estates of
... in Dutch : Staten van Holland. Dominated by the cities of Holland, most notably, Amsterdam. As Holland paid 57 % of the revenue of the Dutch Republic, Holland had a dominating position in the policy-making of the Dutch Republic. Twice the Estates of Holland opted not to appoint a stadholder (whose expenses, for the most part, they would have to pay), twice Holland enjoyed an Era of Liberty (1650-1672, 1702-1747).

House of Orange
... in Dutch : Huis van Oranje. The descendants / relatives of William the Silent, of Orange-Nassau. Claimants to the office of stadholder / stadholder until 1795; Kings of the Netherlands since 1813.

Lands of the Generality
... in Dutch : Generaliteitslanden. Territory conquered by the Dutch Republic in the later phase of the Dutch Revolt, namely State Flanders, State Brabant and tate Limburg (today Zeeuws Vlaanderen, Noord Brabant, Limburg). Because the population of these territories, due to the Counterreformation, was Catholic, the areas remained under military administration until the end of the Dutch Republic.

Maritime Powers
... In Dutch : Zeemogendheden. From 1630 to 1710 the Dutch Republic and England, both earning significant revenue from overseas trade, frequently cooperated in international diplomacy and warfare, and on such occasions, were referred to as the Maritime Powers.

Mennonites
... in Dutch : Doopsgezinde. After early Anabaptism failed (Münster 1534/1535), Menno Simons reorganized the Anabaptists in the Netherlands and northern Germany into a seclusive community rejecting the state. In a 1550 schism the Dutch Mennonites (Doopsgezinde) split from their German counterparts. The Dutch Doopsgezinde are less strict in the observation of rules than other Anabaptists.
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Mercantilism
... a set of economic policies implemented by states such as France or England, intended to reduce the trade imbalance with the Dutch Republic and to increase royal revenue. They included the establishment of protective tariffs, the encouragement of immigration of persons with know-how and an active colonial policy. Mercantilism was, in the 17th century, very successful and resulted in the growth of the French and English economies, a.o., at the expense of the Dutch.
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Navigation Act
... in Dutch : Akte van Navigatie. A law passed by England's parliament in 1651, excluding the Dutch from trade with England as long as they did not bring goods produced in the Netherlands. This law was the main cause for the First and Second Anglo-Dutch War (1652-1654, 1665-1667). Lifted in 1849.

New Netherlands
... in Dutch : Nieuw Nederland. In 1624 the colony was established by the W.I.C., on the Hudson River (Ft. Orange, modern Albany; Nieuw Amsterdam, modern New York). In 1655 New Sweden was annexed; in 1664 the colony surrendered to a fleet sailing in the name of the Duke of York. Officially ceded by the Dutch Republic in the Treaty of Breda 1665.

Orangists
... supporters of the House of Orange, as opposed to the Regents of Holland and Zeeland. The nobility of Gelderland, Utrecht, Overijssel was among the Orangists. The party was in opposition to the Regents during the two Eras of Liberty.

Personal Union
... In 1689, William III. was crowned King of England. Since 1672 he was stadholder of Holland etc.; the situation of him simultaneously representing England and the Dutch Republic (1689-1702) is referred to as Personal Union. Actually, the situation lasted on until 1710 when the common administration of foreign policy was cancelled by the Dutch Republic.

Purmer
... a large lake located in Noord Holland, drained by windmill-powered pumps in 1622..

Regents
... In Dutch : Regenten. Representatives of wealthy families who controlled the city councils of Holland and the Estates of Holland, as well as the cities of Zeeland etc. Often opposed to the House of Orange (the stadholders), they pursued a policy of keeping expenses under control. In the late seventeenth century, many regent families strove to achieve a quasi-noble status.

Religious Toleration
... In Dutch : Tolerantie. After initial acts of violence against Catholic priests during the early period of the Dutch Revolt, the Dutch Republic, while treating the Dutch Reformed Church (Calvinism) as state confession, practiced a policy of religious toleration. The Catholic church, nonetheless, was regarded as suspect. The policy of religious toleration, throughout the 17th century, was an exception in Europe; the Netherlands attracted numerous religious refugees, mostly of various Protestant denominations, or Jewish.

Remonstrants
... In Dutch : Remonstranten; see under Arminianism

Riflemen's Guild
... in Dutch : Schutterij. Militias of the Dutch cities. When the Regents of Holland found themselves in opposition to the Orangists (17th, 18th century), the militias served the regents' purpose, such as in the failed Orangist coup against Amsterdam in 1650 (in Dutch : Aanslag op Amsterdam). The Doelists in 1748 demanded the burghermasters of the Dutch cities to be chosen by the Riflemen's Guilds. The Riflemen's Guilds were, in organization and military technique, an institution of the 17th century, and no match for a standing army; in the 18th century they were ridiculed by the Orangists.

Schermer
... a large lake located in Noord Holland, drained by windmill-powered pumps in 1635..

Sea Beggars
... in Dutch : Watergeuzen. When two Dutch noble deputees requested King Philip II. of Spain to respect the privileges of the Dutch Estates, cities and nobles, he called them 'Gueux' (beggars); the Dutch resistance turned this intended offense into a name of honour. The resistance on land was referred to as Land Beggars (Landgeuzen), that on sea - the more effective one, Sea Beggars (Watergeuzen).

Stadholder
... in Dutch : stadhouder. During the Dutch Revolt, William the Silent of Orange-Nassau had been an integral figure, behind which the various factions united. The rebellious Dutch Republic needed a military commander, and for this purpose the office of stadholder was created. By tradition only members of the House of Orange qualified. Stadholders needed to be appointed (and financed) by the provincial estates; it was possible, but not necessary, that all provinces appointed the same person stadholder. Twice in the history of the Dutch Republic did the Estates of Holland refuse to appoint a stadholder (First and Second Era of Liberty, 1650-1672, 1702-1747).

State Bible
... in Dutch : Statenbijbel, published in 1637, the translation approved by the Dutch Reformed Church.

Suriname
... a Republic, former colony on the northern coast of the South American continent. English settlement, from Barbados, began in 1650; in 1667 the colony surrendered to a Dutch fleet; administrated by a consortium of stockholders until taken over by the Batavian Republic. In 1828-1845 part of the Dutch West Indies; 1845-1975 a separate colony, since 1975 independent. Sugar plantation country.
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Synod of Dordt
... In Dutch : Synode van Dordrecht, 1618-1619. A gathering of Calvinist theologians belonging to the Dutch Reformed Church, who established a canon of Calvinist creeds; it condemned Arminianism.

Tulipomania
... in Dutch : Windhandel in Tulpenbollen, 1634-1637. In these years, tulip bulbs were traded at the Amsterdam Stock Exchange; rare bulbs achieved very high prices. In 1637 the city of Amsterdam banned the bulb trade at the stock exchange; many had lost a fortune in it.

Twelve Years Truce
... In Dutch : Twaalfjarig Bestand, 1609-1621, interrupted the Dutch Revolt (Tachtigjaarige Oorlog), 1579-1648.

Utrecht, Province of
... the former Lower Stift of Utrecht. When city and province accepted Calvinism as official religion (1580) the bishopric was abolished, the Stift transformed into a province.
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V.O.C.
... in full : Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie (United East India Company; often referred to as Dutch East India Company). Established as a company with a monopoly for trade east of the Cape of Good Hope in 1602, to avoid ruinous competition among Dutch merchants. The company dominated Indian Ocean trade and China trade in the 17th and through the early decades of the 18th century; she went bankrupt in 1798. Her remaining assets were taken over by the Batavian Republic.
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War of Austrian Succession
... in Dutch : Oostenrijkse Successie-Oorlog, 1741-1748. France long promised to respect the neutrality of the Spanish Netherlands, but in 1745 violated the promise. The Dutch Republic remained neutral until 1747, when it faced a French invasion. The invasion ended the Second Era of Liberty.
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War of the Grand Alliance
... in Dutch : Negenjarige Oorlog (Nine Years War; also referred to as the War of the League of Augsburg), 1689-1697. France threatened to establish hegemony, expanded by dubious acquisitions ('reunions'). William III., King of England and stadholder of Holland etc. established the League of Augsburg or Grand Alliance including the Emperor, Brandenburg, Spain and, later, Savoy-Piemont. No decisive military victory was achieved, and the war was ended by the Peace of Rijswijk in 1697.
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War of Spanish Succession
... in Dutch : Spaanse Successie-Oorlog, 1701-1713. William III. of Orange, King of England and stadholder of Holland etc., used his position to use Dutch resources in English interest; Gibraltar as taken by mainly Dutch troops, but ceded to England. The Maritime Powers had an interest in preventing Spain from falling into the hands of the Bourbon Dynasty, and therefore supported the Austrian Habsburg contender, Charles III.; when his brother died in 1711 and Charles III. also inherited the claim to the Imperial crown and the Austrian, Bohemian and Hungarian lands, the Maritime Powers lost interest in his cause.
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W.I.C.
... West Indische Compagnie; established in 1621; gained a windfall when Piet Heyn took the Spanish Silver Fleet in 1624. This was invested in a fleet which should take Salvador de Bahia (1625; failure). Bankrupt in 1674; reestablished as G.W.I.C. (Geoctroyeerde West Indische Compagnie) bankrupt in 1799. Her assets were taken over by the Batavian Republic.
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Wijde Wormer
... a large lake in Noord Holland, drained by windmill-powered pumps in 1622.

Witch Hunt
... in Dutch : Heksenvervolging. In 1597 the last perceived witch was burnt in the Dutch Republic in Schoonhoven (Holland). In areas then not under the control of the Republic, witch burnings took place in s'Heerenberg (Gelderland) in 1605. Roermond (Limburg) experienced a large-scale witch trial in 1613. Curiosity : the Witch Scales in Oudewater was permitted to certify a person weighing over 50 kg not to be a witch.


1787-1815 ..... go to narrative history of the Netherlands

Anglo-Dutch War, Fourth
... In Dutch : Vierde Engelse Oorlog, 1780-1784. With Britain fighting the rebels in her American colonies (War of American Independence), France, Spain and the Dutch Republic saw the opportunity to get back at the British and declared war. In 1783 the Treaty of Paris ended this war, except for the Netherlands, as the British insisted on the exclusion of the Dutch from the treaty. The war eroded state finances, caused increased taxation and indirectly boosted the patriot movement.
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Batavian Legion
... In Dutch : Bataafse Legioen. Established in the French exile by Herman Willem Daendels; fought on the side of the French revolutionaries, returned to the Netherlands in 1794, was instrumental in establishing the Batavian Republic in 1795.

Batavian Republic
... In Dutch : Bataafse Republiek. Established in 1795, transformed into the Kingdom of Holland in 1806. A French satellite state. A continuation of patriot reform policy (1787); introduced a National Assembly, the Dutch Guilder; took over colonial possessions into state administration. French ally during the Wars of the Coalition.
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Catholic Emancipation
... In Dutch : Emancipatie der Katholieken. The Catholics in the Netherlands traditionally had been regarded as suspect, and were discriminated against. The Separation of Church and State implemented in 1798 marks the beginning of Catholic Emancipation.

Conscription
... In Dutch : conscriptie, dienstplicht. Introduced upon annexation into France in 1810

Continental System
... In Dutch : Continentaal Stelsel; introduced by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1806; the Kingdom of Holland joined. Intended to deprive England of her European markets (Continental Blockade); lasted until 1814. It deprived the Kingdom of Holland of imports from overseas; a massive smuggle trade circumvented it.

Departments
... In Dutch : departementen. In 1798 the Batavian Republic was reorganized in departments, with the intention to break up the traditional provinces. In 1801 the departments were rearranged in order to recreate the former provinces. In 1810 renamed and modified, in 1813 terminated.

East Frisia
... In Dutch : Oostfriesland, in German : Ostfriesland. A county in the Holy Roman Empire, in 1744 inherited by Prussia, in 1807 annexed into the Kingdom of Holland, in 1810 annexed into France. The Vienna Congress of 1815 allocated it to the Kingdom of Hannover.
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Guilder, Dutch
... In Dutch : Gulden. Currency introduced by the Batavian Republic in 1795; decimalized in 1854, abolished in 1999/2002 when it was replaced by the Euro. Abbreviated Hfl (Holland Florin).

Holland, Kingdom of
... In Dutch : Koninkrijk Holland. Established in 1806 for Napoleon's brother Louis (Lodewijk), terminated in 1810 when it was annexed into France. Despite the name, it covered the entire former Batavian Republic (Northern Netherlands). French satellite state; French style reforms were introduced.
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Dutch East Indies
... In Dutch : Nederlands Indie. The V.O.C. went bankrupt in 1798/99 and the Batavian Republic took over the administration of her possessions, foremost in the Malay Archipelago. With the interruption of British occupation (Java 1811-1816) and Japanese occupation (1942-1945), the Dutch held on to the Dutch East Indies until 1949, respectively 1963 (Netherlands New Guinea).
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Patriots
... In Dutch : Patriotten, persons inspired by Enlightenment and the American Revolution. The first to demand political reforms was Joan van der Capellen tot den Poll (1778); they began to organize in 1783; in 1786 the movement was so powerful that it could coerce king and Estates General to implement reforms. Terminated by the invasion of Prussian troops in 1787; many Dutch patriots then fled to Paris, to return with French forces in 1795 and establish the Batavian Republic.
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Separation of Church and State
... In Dutch : Scheiding van Kerk en Staat. Implemented by the Constitution of 1798 (Batavian Republic).


1815-1848 ..... go to narrative history of the Netherlands

Belgian Revolution
... In Dutch : Belgische Opstand, Scheuring. In 1830, revolution in Brussels with the aim to establish Belgian independence. Defeated by the Dutch in the 10 Days Campaign 1831, Belgian independence was secured by the Great Powers in negotiations in 1832/1839.

Civil Law Code
... in 1810 the Code Civile replaced traditional Roman-Dutch Law. In 1838 a Dutch Civil Law Code, Burgerlijk Wetboek, was introduced.

Constitution
... In Dutch : grondwet. A first constitution was adopted in 1798, altered in 1814 and 1815, revised in 1840 and 1848, altered in 1917 (universal adult manhood suffrage) and 1919 (universal adult womanhood suffrage), 1983 (abolition of the death penalty) and 2002.

Corn Laws
... abolished in consequence of the great famine caused by the potato misharvest of 1845 and following.

Dutch West Indies
... In Dutch : Nederlands Westindie. Created in 1828 by the merger of Curaçao, Aruba, Bonaire, Saba, St. Eustasius, St. Maarten and Suriname into one colony; dissolved in 1845 into Suriname and Curaçao.

Kingdom of the Netherlands
... In 1813/1814 the Kingdom of the Netherlands (the former Dutch / Batavian Republic) was created; almost immediately, Belgium was integrated. Belgium seceded in 1830/1839; Parliamentary Rule was introduced in 1848. The dynasty is the House of Orange.

Limburg
... from 1632 to 1794 the areas within Limburg held by Dutch forces (Maastricht, later Venlo, Roermond) were administrated as part of the Lands of the Generality. In 1815 a large province of Limburg was established; it was split into a Belgian and a Dutch province by that name in 1839, despite sentiment in Dutch Limburg tending toward Belgium, in 1848 toward Germany.
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Metric System
... in Dutch : Metriek Stelsel. In 1816 introduced by law in the Kingdom of the United Netherlands.

Neo-Absolutism
... In 1813/1815 the Kingdom of the United Netherlands was established; now hereditary king (instead of being elected stadholder), William I. (1813-1840) ruled in a style referred to by his critics as Neo-Absolutism.

Personal Union with Luxemburg
... the treaty establishing Belgian independence of 1839 established a Personal Union of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the (Catholic) Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, which lasted from 1839 to 1890. It was dissolved, because Luxemburg law insisted on a male heir.

Railroad
... In Dutch : spoorweg. The first railroad line in the Netherlands was opened in 1839, connecting Amsterdam and Den Haag.

State Bankrupcy
... In Dutch : sttatsbankroet; 1841; caused a drastic increase in emigration figures.

Ten Days Campaign
... In Dutch : Tiendaagse Oorlog (Ten Days War); fought August 2nd to August 12th 1831, a Dutch invasion of Belgium to press Dutch demands in the matter of the border to be drawn separating the Netherlands and Belgium. A Dutch victory; in the final treaty, the Dutch position was largely followed.
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United Netherlands, Kingdom of
... in Dutch : Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, Verenigde Nederlanden. In the negotiations on the post-Napoleonic order in Europe, Britain was concerned about Belgium, attempting to bring about a solution in which the country could defend itself against potential French aggression. The country the Southern Netherlands) was merged with the Kingdom of the Netherlands, thus creating the Kingdom of the United Netherlands; it had two capitals, Amsterdam and Brussels. The north was predominantly Calvinist and pro Free Trade, the south predominantly Catholic and for Protectionism. The country fell apart in the Belgian Revolution of 1830; it was formally split in 1839.


1848-1914 ..... go to narrative history of the Netherlands

ARP
... In full : Anti-Revolutionaire Partij (Anti-Revolutionary Party). Established by Abraham Kuyper in 1879; attracted Calvinists; was pro universal suffrage, for equal treatment of public and special schools. In the 1930es, ARP politician Hendrik Colijn was the Netherlands' leading figure. During the German occupation, the ARP operated in the underground. In 1973/1980 the ARP, CHU and KVP merged to form the CDA.

Aceh Wars
... In Dutch : Atjeh Oorlogen. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 foresaw Aceh as a buffer state, neither in the Dutch nor British sphere of interest. A new Anglo- Dutch Agreement of 1872 allocated Aceh to the Dutch; in wars 1873-1908 the Dutch conquered the Sultanate, annexing it into the Dutch East Indies. Aceh put up stern resistance; this was the bloodiest conflict the Netherlands fought between 1815 and 1940.
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Constitutional Monarchy
... In Dutch : Constitutionele Monarchie; introduced in 1848 (J. Thorbecke).

CPN
... In full : Communistische Partij van Nederland (Communist Party of the Netherlands), established in 1909. From 1918 to 1933 called Commnistische Partij Holland. It never won a significant number of votes; in 1991 it merged with GroenLinks.

Haarlemmermeer
... a former lake located in South Holland. Drained in 1845-1852, with steam engine-powered pumps. On the reclaimed land, the world's largest tulip gardens (Keukenhof) and Amsterdam's airfield (Schiphol) are located.

Industrialisation
... due to the fact that the Netherlands has little coal (coal mining in Limburg began only in 1901), the Netherlands was a late developer in the Industrial Revolution (Belgium, with her advanced industries, broke away in 1830). Railway construction began in 1839; the Haarlemmermeer was drained using steam power in 1852. Yet, there were few factories in the Netherlands with more than 100 workers on their payroll until 1870. Industrialisation only took off in the final decades of the 19th century (electric, chemical industries - Philip, Royal Dutch, Unilever).

LU
... In ful : Liberale Unie (Liberal Union). Established in 1885, unifying the various liberal groups; in 1894 the Old Liberals split off, in 1901 the left wing which, together with the RB, formed the VDB. in 1921 the LU merged into the VB.

Neutrality
... In Dutch : Neutraliteit. The Dutch government, aware of the geostrategical position of her country and the comparative weakness of her armed forces, adopted and pursued a policy of neutrality, applied in the Franco-German War of 1870-1871, in the First World War (1914-1918) and early in World War II (1939-1940). The German invasion of May 10th 1940 showed that the policy did not work; after WW II the Netherlands joined NATO (1949).

RB
... In full : Radicale Bond (Radical League); progressive liberal, for universal suffrage, for social welfare. Split from the Liberal Union in 1892, merged into the VDB in 1901.

School Issue
... In Dutch : Schoolstrijd, Onderwijskwestie. It emerged out of a conflict between liberal policies (separation of church and state; state control of education) and the Catholic church, which, in the Netherlands traditionally a tolerated minority confession (long suffering from discrimination) made school policy a priority issue. The constitution of 1848 established the principle of free education; after it was about the equal treatment of public and confessional schools. It was hotly debated until a solution was found in 1889.

SDAP
... In full : Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij, established in 1894. The party was first represented in the Second Chamber in 1897; the introduction of universal adult manhood suffrage resulted in the party gaining seats in the Second Chamber. During the Interbellum in the opposition; in 1940 forbidden by the German military administration.

Second Chamber
... the Dutch parliament (Staten Generaal, Estates General) is bicameral, with the Second Chamber (Tweede Kamer), her 150 members directly elected (proportional representation) being the more powerful institution. Since 1888 directly elected.

Slavery
... In Dutch : Slavernij. Abolished in the Dutch colonies in 1863.

VDB
... In full : Vrijzinnig-Demokratische Bond (Freethinking Democratic League), established in 1901 as a successor to the RB (est. 1892); progressive liberal. In 1941 banned by the German Military Administration.


1914-1940 ..... go to narrative history of the Netherlands

Armed Neutrality
... In Dutch : Gewapende Neutraliteit. During World War I the army was mobilized in order to deter any foreign invasion.

Black Market
... In Dutch : Zwarte Handel. Occurred during World War I and again during World War II, when prices were controlled and most items were scarce.

CHU
... In full : Christelijk-Historische Unie (Christian Historic Union), a Protestant political party established in 1917 by ARP politicians who broke with their party because of the latter's support for the introduction of universal adult manhood suffrage. In 1973/1980 the CHU merged with the ARP and the KVP to form the CDA.

Food Rationing
... In Dutch : Bonnensysteem voor de Voedseldistributie. Implemented during World War I, when the British Blockade of Germany's coast, the lack of fertilizer and increased international demand for food caused a deficiency of food.

Gold Standard
... In Dutch : Goudstandaard. Introduced by the Netherlands in 1875. The Netherlands held on to the Gold Standard until 1936.

Great Depression
... In Dutch : Grote Economische Wereldcrisis. Caused by the Wall Street Crash (Beurskrach) of 1929, it caused the closure of factories in the Netherlands, a drastic rise in unemployment (Werkloosheid). The Dutch government long held on to the Gold Standard and pursued a policy of austerity. In 1935, state-financed employment projects (such as the ongoing IJsselmeer Project) were intensified.
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HGSP
... In full : Hervormd-Gereformeerde Staatspartij (Calvinist Reformed State Party). Established in 1921, conservative Calvinist and anti-Catholic. During the Interbellum in the opposition; not reorganized after World War II.

IJsselmeer Project
... planned by water engineer Cornelis Lely (1880es); in 1932 the Zuiderzee (until then a bay of the North Sea) was separated from the latter by the Afsluitdijk (Barrier Dyke); the saltwater Zuiderzee turned into the sweetwater IJsselmeer. In 1929 the Wieringermeerpolder was drained, followed by the Noordoostpolder in 1942, Oostelijk Flevoland in 1957, Zuidelijk Flevoland in 1968.

Internment Camps
... In Dutch : Interneringskampen. The German invasion of Belgium in 1914 caused a large number of Belgians to flee onto Dutch territory, where they were interned in camps. The camps were closed in 1919.

Jordaan Riots
... In Dutch : Jordaanoproer. The Jordaan is a part of Amsterdam where mainly workers resided. During the Great Depression, in 1934 it was the site of riots.

League of Nations
... In Dutch : Volkenbond; the Netherlands joined in 1920.
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NSB
... In Dutch : Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging (National Socialist Movement). A fascist organization, established by Anton Mussert in 1931, in imitation of Germany's NSDAP. The party resented parliamentary democracy. Following the German occupation, the partycollaborated with the Germans and saw a rise in membership figures. Toward the end of WW II treated as collaborators; banned, her leaders sentenced.

Orangist Movement
... movement of the Dutch masses in support of monarchy and parliamentary democracy, and opposed to revolution, in November 1918.

Pillarization
... In Dutch : Verzuiling. A phenomenon characteristic for the Netherlands and Belgium - the organization of society in four pillars, a Catholic, a Protestant, a Liberal and a Social Democratic pillar (NL). The pillars have their own church, political party, newspaper, radio, labour union, school etc. It emerged during the Interbellum.

Potato Riot
... In Dutch : Aardappeloproer. In Amsterdam in 1917 a mistake in food distribution resulted in desparate citizens plundering a food supply destined for the army.

Radio
... In Dutch : Radio. Radio Hilversum began broadcasting in 1924.

RKSP
... In full : Rooms-Katholieke Staatspartij (Roman Catholic State Party), established in 1926, banned by the German military administration. In 1945 reestablished as the KVP.

SGP
... in full : Staatskundig Gereformeerde Partij (Political Reformed Party), established in 1918, represented in the second chamber since 1922, orthodox Calvinist, aiming for the establishment of a theocracy.

Troelstra's Miistake
... In Dutch : Troelstras Vergissing. With revolutions going on in Russia and Germany, and the Dutch working class impoverished because of World War I, SDAP leader Pieter Jelles Troelstra on September 11th 1918 called for the revolution. Yet the masses on the streets, instead of supporting the revolution, expressed their suport of monarchy and parliamentary democracy; Troelstra resigned as chairman of the SDAP.

Universal Suffrage
... In Dutch : Algemeen Stemrecht. For men introduced in 1917, for women in 1919.

VB
... In full : Vrijheidsbond (Freedom League), also Liberale Staatspartij (Liberal State Party). Established in 1921, merging the LU, the Old Liberals (since 1906 Bond van Vrije Liberalen / League of Free Liberals) and the Economische Bond. In 1937 renamed Liberale Staatspartij.

Wieringermeerpolder
... a stretch of former sea floor, drained in 1929 as part of the => IJsselmeerproject. In 1945 flooded by the Germans, who blew up the dyke on two locations. Drained again in December 1945. Part of the Province of Noord Holland.

Womens Suffrage
... In Dutch : Vrouwenkiesrecht, Vrouwenstemrecht. In 1894, Aletta Jacobs end Wilhelmina Drucker established the Union for Womens Suffrage; in 1919 universal adult womanhood suffrage was introduced.


1940-1945 ..... go to narrative history of the Netherlands

Atlantic Wall
... In Dutch : Atlantik Wall, constructed by Organisation Todt in 1940-1945 from the Franco-Spanish border to the northern tip of Denmark. While bunkers were constructed all along the Dutch coast, and for this purpose some houses were torn down in Scheveningen and Den Haag, the invasion was not expected to take place in the Netherlands; it could have been easily stopped by blowing up the dykes.

Collaborators
... In Dutch : Collaborateuren. Dutch Fascists, and social misfits seeing a chance to make an easy career, cooperated with the German Military Administration. Treated by the Dutch as outcasts, they were humiliated, the leaders sentenced, after the war.

February Strike
... In Dutch : Februaristaking. On Feb. 25th 1941, caused by the arrest and deportation of c. 400 Jews, the CPN organized a strike in Amsterdam, Utrecht and several towns in Holland; the administration responded with harsh measures; several of the leaders were executed.

Georgian Rebellion
... In Dutch : Opstand van de Georgiers. A batallion formed of Georgian P.O.W.s stationed, as occupation troops, on the island of Texel (Noord Holland) rebelled on April 6th 1945. The Germans suppressed the rebellion in weeks of fighting; a number of Georgians managed to survive by hiding on the island. The USSR regarded them as renegades; the 228 survivors were extradited to the USSR. During the rebellion, the population of Texel had sided with the Georgians; 10 Texelians were executed by the Germans.

German Military Administration
... In Dutch : Duitse Militairregeering, 1940-1945.

Government-in-Exile
... In Dutch : Exilregeering, established in London in 1940. The Queen also resided in London.

Holocaust
... the German Military Administration of the Netherlands had the country's Jewish population (as far as they managed to get a hold of) deported, mainly to Auschwitz, where most of them were murdered (gassed); the number of Dutch Jewish victims is estimated at 101,800.
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Hunger Winter
... In Dutch : Hongerwinter. Following the Allied Invasion in Normandy, the German authorities, facing extreme food shortage, banned food import into Holland, thus causing the Hunger Winter of 1944-1945.

Operation Market Garden
... a scheme by the Allied military command, in a surprise operation involving parachute units and a quick-moving tank force, to take the bridges over Maas and Rhine and, from liberated Belgium, to pierce through German-held territory and establish a bridgehead on the northern bank of the Rhine, September 1944. While most parts of the plan were implemented, the bridgehead at Arnhem had to be evacuated, and the entire enterprise became a footnote in the history books.

Resistance
... In Dutch : Verzet. The Dutch resistance was organized; because of the vulnerability of country and population, the resistance concentrated on supplying the Allies with information, hiding and aiding persons sought by the Germans, targetting collaborators and on acts of sabotage.

Rotterdam
... the Netherland's, and Europe's main port. On May 14th 1940 the city was subjected to massive air bombardment by the German air force, causing the Netherlands to surrender the following day. The impact was especially destructive, as, due to the low-lying terrain, the houses in Rotterdam have no basements (bomb-shelters).

War Criminals
... In Dutch : Oorlogsmisdadigers. Germans : most prominently Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Austrian Nazi, Imperial Stadholder in the Netherlands (head of the German Military Administration); in total 10 Germans and 8 Dutchmen are listed as responsible for war crimes conducted during the German occupation in the Netherlands. Seyss-Inquart was tried in the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunals (in Dutch : Processen van Neurenberg).

Westerbork
... Concentration Camp (in Dutch : concentratiekamp) (Transit Camp) located in Drente, NL.


Since 1945 ..... go to narrative history of the Netherlands

BeNeLux
... customs union of the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxemburg, established in 1947. Benelux functioned as the testing ground of the European Community.
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CDA
... in full : Christen-Democratisch Appel (Christian-Democratic Appeal). Established in 1980 by the merger of CHP, KVP and ARP; since, it became one of the leading parties in Dutch politics.

Coal Mining
... in Dutch : Koolmijnen. Coal mining, in the province of Limburg, was begun, as a state enterprise (Staatsmijnen), in 1901. When coal mining became unprofitable in the late 1960es, the Netherlands decided not to support the industry by subsidies; the last mine was closed in 1973.

CU
... in full : Christen Unie (Christian Union), christian-socialn political party, established in 1989/2001 by the merger of earlier smaller fractions.

Currency Snake
... with West Germany being the Netherlands' most important trade partner, the Dutch since 1967 regarded it the wisest policy to follow the example of the German Bundesbank regarding the fixture of interest rates. The number of countries who did the same (Austria etc.) was referred to as the Currency Snake. The policy had the effect that the exchange rate between German Mark and DutchGuilder remained unchanged. The introduction of the Euro in 1999/2002 was merely the logical consequence of this policy..

D66
... Democraten 66, a progressive liberal political party established in 1966.

Delta Project
... in 1953 the Netherlands experienced one of the worst inundations in her history. High tide coincided with a storm toward the Dutch coast, pushing sea water into the estuary of Waal and Maas; the river dykes were overflown and partially destroyed on several locations. To prevent a repetition of this situation, the Dutch government began the Delta Project. The estuary of Waal and Maas, consisting of several branches, was protected from potentially intruding seawater by a series of dams, the construction of which began in 1957; the last was constructed in 1997. A law regulating the Delta Project (Deltawet) was passed in 1959, which established the Delta Works (Deltawerken), the authority operating the dams.

Dutch Disease
... Dutch corresponding term : Hollandse Ziekte. A term describing the crisis of the Dutch economy in the 1970es. While the welfare state recently had been expanded and required considerable revenue, the manufacturing sector declined, and the raw material deposits, on which the state depended for its revenue, was exhaustible. The strength of the Dutch economy in the 1960es had resulted in a strong Guilder, which made it difficult for Dutch enterprises to compete on the international market. The Polder Model was an attempt to address the situation while avoiding major social problems.

EC
... European Community, in Dutch : Europese Gemeenschap. Successor of the EEC; established in 1993 with the Netherlands founding member.
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EEC
... European Economic Community in Dutch : Europese Economische Gemeenschap, established 1957; founding members France, Italy, West Germany, Belgium, Luxemburg and the Netherlands. Seat of administration : Brussels. Joined by the UK, Ireland and Denmark in 1973, by Greece in 1981, by Spain and Portugal in 1986. Renamed European Community (Europese Gemeenschap) in 1993. The EEC pursued a policy of promoting (and protecting) European agriculture, of which the Netherlands (Garden of Europe) was a major beneficiary.
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EU
... in full : European Union, in Dutch : Europese Unie. Established by the treaty of Maastricht 1992, with the Netherlands founding member. Successor of the EEC.
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Euro
... common EU currency, introduced in 1999/2002, in the Netherlands replacing the Guilder.

Garden of Europe
... the Dutch loved gardening since centuries ago, perhaps it took them so much effort to claim their soil from the sea. Following World War II, the Dutch became the prime exporters of vegetables, fruits and flowers to the other members of the Common Market, and beyond. This may partially be credited to the country's fertile soil and mild climate, to modern agricultural technology (Agrarian High School at Wageningen), in part to EU agricultural subsidies and to subsidized gas (Slochteren Gas Field) Dutch farmers depend on for underglass cultivation.

GroenLinks
... translates to Green Left, a political party formed in 1990 by the merger of a number of smaller parties, among them the Communists (CPN).

Guest Workers
... in Dutch : Gastarbeiders; a more proper term would be Migrant (or Immigrant) Labour. In the 1960es the Dutch economy expanded, and the unemployment figures were so low that workers were brought in from abroad, at first from Italy and Spain, later from Morocco and Turkey. The policy was discontinued in the mid-1970es, when unemployment figures in the Netherlands began to rise.

Krakers
... a term describing mostly young persons (Hippie Generation), who criticized the owners of uninhabited, decaying houses of neglecting their duty to properly maintain their property suspecting greed (the desire to tear down the house in order to erect modern luxury housing) as motive, and who took action by breaking into such housing, occupying it and making the repairs they regarded necessary. Moderate Krakers paid a rent they regarded reasonable on a bank account which they opened in the name of the owner. There were both moderate Krakers and troublemakers; the phenomenon was of such a scale that authorities attempted to negotiate between the moderates and the owners, while taking action against the troublemakers. The movement began in, and spread beyond the Netherlands (Belgium, West Germany, Denmark).

LPF
... in full : List Pim Fortuyn. A populist party, established in 2002; founder Pim Fortuyn was murdered in June 2002. Joined several cabinets.

Marshall Plan
... in Dutch : Marshallhulp (Marshall Aid). In 1948-1952 the Marshall Plan (the U.S.) provided interest-free credit which kickstarted the economy of many European states and initiated the 'economic miracle' of the 1950es. The official name was ERP (European Recovery Program).

Moluccans
... in Dutch : Molukkers. When the Republic of Indonesia was released into independence in 1949, a considerable number of Moluccans (inhabitants of the Southern Molucca Islands, namely Ambon), many of whom were christians, because they had sided with the Dutch during the police actions and/or because they feared Javanese domination of their culture, departed with the Dutch forces and moved to the Netherlands. Here a South Moluccan exile government was established; many Moluccans long lived in the expectation of one day returning to a free South Moluccan state. In 1977 South Moluccan youngsters undertook terrorist action in the Netherlands to attract attention on their cause.

NATO
... in Dutch : NAVO. The Netherlands, in 1949, was founding member. 1971-1985 Dutchman Joseph Luns was secretary general; since 2004 Dutchman Jaap de Hoop Scheffer holds on to the post. Headquarter Paris (1949-1967), then Brussels (since 1967).
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Netherlands Antilles
... In Dutch : Nederlandse Antillen; a group of five and a half islands (Curaçao, Aruba, Bonaire, Saba, St. Eustatius, St. Maarten) under Dutch (W.I.C.) rule since the early 17th century; under Dutch (state) administration since the early 19th century. 1828-1845 the islands, together with Suriname, were administratively joined to the Dutch West Indies; in 1845 these were separated into Suriname and Curaçao (the six islands). In 1945 the colony of Curaçao was renamed into Netherlands Antilles. Aruba seceded in 1977; the Netherlands Antilles decided to remain part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
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Netherlands New Guinea
... In Dutch : Nederlands Nieuw Guinea. When Indonesia was released into independence in 1949, the Dutch held on to western New Guinea; it was annexed by Indonesia in 1963.
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Polder Model
... in Dutch : Poldermodel. A term describing the consensus in Dutch society (among government, political parties and labour unions) concerning the curbing of the welfare state, which had become too costly. This consensus was established by the Wassenaar Accord of 1982.

Police Actions
... in Dutch : Politionele Acties. The Netherlands did not recognize the Republic of Indonesia proclaimed after Japan's surrender. In 1947 and 1948, the Netherlands despatched troops to what it regarded the Dutch East Indies; while the Dutch managed to reestablish control of most areas, the undertaking proved costly and unpopular. In 1949 the Netherlands terminated the undertaking and recognized the independence of Indonesia; the Netherlands held on to Netherlands' New Guinea until 1963.

PVDA
... in full : Partij van de Arbeid (Labour Party). Established in 1946 as successor to the SDAP; one of the most influential plitical parties in Dutch post-war history.

Schengen Accords
... in Dutch : Schengenakkoorden. Signed in 1985, the signatories, among them the Netherlands, agreed on the abolition of border controls between signatory countries. Previously, at border checkpoints only occasionally border crossers were stopped and checked. The only neighbor of the Netherlands which did not sign up is the UK.

Slochteren Gas Field
... in 1959, Europe's largest natural gas deposit was found near Slochteren, Province of Groningen.

SP
... in full : Socialistische Partij. Established in 1971 as Kommunistische Partij Nederland / Marxisties-Leninisties, in 1972 renamed Socialistische Partij, since 1994 represented in the Second Chamber.

Statute of the Kingdom
... In Dutch : Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, 1954, regulated the relations between the Kingdom and her overseas territories (Overzeese Rijksdelen), the Netherlands Antilles, Suriname and Netherlands New Guinea.

VVD
... in full : Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie (People's Party for Freedom and Democracy), liberal, established in 1948. In 1966, D66 split off.

Wassenaar Accord
... in Dutch : Akkoord van Wassenaar. In 1982, under PM Ruud Lubbers, th Dutch government, political parties and labour unions agreed on keeping wage increases in moderation.

Welfare State
... in Dutch : Welvaartsstaat. The foundations to the Dutch welfare state were laid in the early decades of the 20th century and extended upon in the 1930es. During the economic boom of the 1950es, it was greatly expanded : Old Age Pension Law 1957, General Children's Benefit Act 1962, Health Insurance Act 1964, National Assistance Act 1965, General Act on Exceptional Medical Cost; Sickness Benefits Act, Disability Benefits Act 1967. Schooling is free (since 1848). The costs for maintaining the Welfare State increased dramatically; when the economic boom ended in connection with the Oil Crisis of 1973, it became apparent that the excessive Welfare State could no longer be maintained. The Wassenaar Accord of 1982 marks the beginning of the process of curbing the excesses of the Welfare State (Polder Model).








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